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Full text of "The story of the hymns and tunes"

The Story of the 
[yiDDS aMTanes 



Theron Brow 



and 



e^ekiah Butterworth 



FROM THE LIBRARY OF 



REV. LOUIS FITZGERALD BENSON. D. D 



BEQUEATHED BY HIM TO 



THE LIBRARY OF 



PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 



Division ^^CL 
Section 39/^ 



THE STORY OF 




THE 



Hymns and Tunes 



THERON BROWN 

T 

HEZEKIAH BUTTERWORTH 



Multae terricolis linguae, coeleslihus una. 



Ten thousand, thousand are their tongues, 
"But all their joys are one. 



AMERICAN TRACT SOCIETY 

150 NASSAU STREET 

NEW YORK 



Copyright, 1906 
By AMERICAN TRACT SOCIETY 



Issued in January^ igoy 



LIST OF PORTRAITS. 



THOMAS KEN, FroDtispiece 

OLIVER HOLDEN, OpP' P^g^ ^ 4 

JOSEPH HAYDN, ** 30 

CHARLES WESLEY, ** 46 

MARTIN LUTHER, ** 62 

LADY HUNTINGDON, *' 94 

AUGUSTUS MONTAGUE TOPLADY, ** I26 

THOMAS HASTINGS, ** 1 42 

FRANCES RIDLEY HAVERGAL, ** I 58 

REGINALD HEBER, ** 1 74 

GEORGE JAMES WEBB, ** 1 9O 

JOHN WESLEY, '* 206 

JOHN B. DYKES, ** 222 

ELLEN M. H. GATES, *' 254 

JAMES MONTGOMERY, *' 286 

FANNY J. CROSBY, ** 302 

SAMUEL F. SMITH, ** 334 

WILLIAM B. BRADBURY, ** 366 

ISAAC WATTS, ** 398 

GEORGE FREDERICK HANDEL, ** 4I4 

PHILIP DODDRIDGE, ** 446 

LOWELL MASON, ** 478 

CARL VON WEBER, ** 494 

HORATIUS BONAR, ** 526 



CONTENTS, 



PREFACE, T 

INTRODUCTION, ix 

I. HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP, I 

2. SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES, 53 

3. HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION AND EXPERIENCE, ICO 

4. MISSIONARY HYMNS, 165 

5. hymns of suffering and trust, i9o 

6. christian ballads, 237 

7. old revival hymns, 262 

8. sunday school hymns, 293 

9. patriotic hymns, 32 i 

10. sailor's hymns, 353 

11. hymns of wales, 378 

12. FIELD HYMNS, 409 

13. HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL, 458 

14. HYMNS OF HOPE AND CONSOLATION, 509 

INDEXES OF NAMES, TUNES, AND HYMNS, 543 



PREFACE 



When the lapse of time and accumulation of 
fresh material suggested the need of a new and 
revised edition of Mr. Hezekiah Butterworth's 
Story of the Hymns, which had been a popular 
text book on that subject for nearly a generation, 
the publishers requested him to prepare such a 
work, reviewing the whole field of hymnology and 
its literature down to date. He undertook the task, 
but left it unfinished at his lamented death, com- 
mitting the manuscript to me in his last hours to 
arrange and complete. 

To do this proved a labor of considerable magni- 
tude, since what had been done showed evidence 
of the late author's failing strength, and when, in 
a conference with the publishers, it was proposed 
to combine the two books of Mr. Butterworth, 
the Story of the Hymns and the Story of the 
Tunes, in one volume, the task was doubled. 

The charming popular style and story-telling 
gift of the well-known compiler of these books had 
kept them in demand, the one for thirty and the 
other for fifteen years, but later information had 
discounted some of their historic and biographical 



VI STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

matter, and, while many of the monographs were 
too meagre, others were unduly long. Besides, 
the Story of the TuneSy so far from being the 
counterpart of the Story of the Hymns, bore no 
special relationship to it, only a small portion of its 
selections answering to any in the hymn-list of the 
latter book. For a personal friend and practically 
unknown writer, to follow Mr. Butterworth, and 
"improve" his earlier work to the more modern 
conditions, was a venture of no little difficulty and 
delicacy. The result is submitted as simply a con- 
scientious effort to give the best of the old with the 
new. 

So far as was possible, matter from the two 
previous books, and from the crude manuscript, 
has been used, and passages here and there tran- 
scribed, but so much of independent plan and 
original research has been necessary in arranging 
and verifying the substance of the chapters that 
the Story of the Hymns and Tunes is in fact a 
new volume rather than a continuation. The 
chapter containing the account of the Gospel 
Hymns is recent work with scarcely an exception, 
and the one on the Hymns of Wales is entirely new. 

Without increasing the size of this volume be- 
yond easy purchase and convenient use, it was im- 
possible to discuss the great oratorios and dramatic 
set-pieces, festival and occasional, and only pass- 
ing references are made to them or their authors. 

Among those who have helped me in my work 
special acknowledgements are due to Mr. Hubert 



STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. Vll 

P. Main of Newark, N. J.; Messrs. Hughes & Son 
of Wrexham, Wales; the American Tract Society, 
New York; Mr. William T. Meek, Mrs. A. J. 
Gordon, Mr. Paul Foster, Mr. George Douglas, 
and Revs. John R. Hague and Edmund F. Mer- 
riam of Boston; Professor William L. Phelps of 
New Haven, Conn.; Mrs. Ellen M. H. Gates of 
New York; Rev. Franklin G. McKeever of New 
London, Conn.; and Rev. Arthur S. Phelps of 
Greeley, Colorado. Further obligations are grate- 
fully remembered to Oliver Ditson & Co. for 
answers to queries and access to publications, to 
the Historic-and-Geneological Society and the 
custodians and attendants of the Boston Public 
Library (notably in the Music Department) for 
their uniform courtesy and pains in placing every 
resource within my reach. 

THERON BROWN. 
Boston, May 15th, 1906. 



INTRODUCTION 



Augustine defines a hymn as *'praise to God 
with song," and another writer calls hymn-sing- 
ing "a devotional approach to God in our emo- 
tions," — which of course applies to both the 
words and the music. This religious emotion, 
reverently acknowledging the Divine Being in 
song, is a constant element, and wherever felt it 
makes the song a worship, irrespective of sect or 
creed. An eminent Episcopal divine, (says the 
Christian Register,) one Trinity Sunday, at the 
close of his sermon, read three hymns by Unita- 
rian authors: one to God the Father, by Samuel 
Longfellow, one to Jesus, by Theodore Parker, 
and one to the Holy Spirit, by N. L. Frothing- 
ham. "There," he said, "you have the Trinity 
— Father, Son, and Holy Ghost." 

It is natural to speak of hymns as "poems," 
indiscriminately, for they have the same structure. 
But a hymn is not necessarily a poem, while a 
poem that can be sung as a hymn is something 
more than a poem. Imagination makes poems; 
devotion makes hymns. There can be poetry 
without emotion, but a hymn never. A poem may 



X STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

argue; a hymn must not. In short to be a hymn, 
what is written must express spiritual feelings and 
desires. The music of faith, hope and charity will 
be somewhere in its strain. 

Philosophy composes poems, but not hymns. 
"It is no love-symphony we hear when the lion 
thinkers roar," some blunt writer has said. "The 
moles of Science have never found the heavenly 
dove's nest, and the Sea of Reason touches no shore 
where balm for sorrow grows." 

On the contrary there are thousands of true 
hymns that have no standing at the court of the 
muses. Even Cowper's Olney hymns, as Goldwin 
Smith has said, "have not any serious value as 
poetry. Hymns rarely have," he continues. 
"There is nothing in them on which the creative 
imagination can be exercised. Hymns can be little 
more than the incense of a worshipping soul." 

A fellow-student of Phillips Brooks tells us that 
"most of his verse he wrote rapidly without re- 
vising, not putting much thought into it but using 
it as the vehicle and outlet of his feelings. It was the 
sign of responding love or gratitude and joy." 

To produce a hymn one needs something more 
exalting than poetic fancy; an influence 

" — subtler than the sun-light in the leaf-bud 
That thrills thro* all the forest, making May." 

It is the Divine Spirit wakening the human heart 
to lyric language." 

Religion sings; that is true, though all "relig- 
ions" do not sing. There is no voice of sacred 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

song in Islamism. The muezzin call from the 
minarets is not music. One listens in vain for 
melody among the worshippers of the " Light of 
Asia." The hum of pagoda litanies, and the 
shouts and gongs of idol processions are not 
psalms. But many historic faiths have lost their 
melody, and v^e must go far back in the annals 
of ethnic life to find the songs they sung. 

Worship appears to have been a primitive human 
instinct; and even when many gods took the place 
of One in the bHnder faith of men it was nature 
worship making deities of the elements and ad- 
dressing them with supplication and praise. 
Ancient hymns have been found on the monu- 
mental tablets of the cities of NImrod; fragments 
of the Orphic and Homeric hymns are preserved 
in Greek anthology; many of the Vedic hymns are 
extant in India; and the exhumed stones of Egypt 
have revealed segments of psalm-prayers and 
liturgies that antedate history. Dr. Wallls Budge, 
the English Orientalist, notes the discovery of a 
priestly hymn two thousand years older than the 
time of Moses, which Invokes One Supreme Being 
who "cannot be figured In stone." 

So far as we have any real evidence, however, 
the Hebrew people surpassed all others in both 
the custom and the spirit of devout song. We get 
snatches of their inspired lyrics in the song of Moses 
and Miriam, the song of Deborah and Barak, and 
the song of Hannah (sometimes called *'the Old 
Testament Magnificat"), in the hymns of David 



Xll STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

and Solomon and all the Temple Psalms, and 
later where the New Testament gives us the 
"Gloria'* of the Christmas angels, the thanks- 
giving of Elizabeth (benedictus minor), Mary's 
Magnificat, the song of Zacharias (benedictus 
major), the "nunc dimittis'* of Simeon, and the 
celestial ascriptions and hallelujahs heard by St. 
John in his Patmos dream. For what we know of 
the first formulated human prayer and praise we 
are mostly indebted to the Hebrew race. They 
seem to have been at least the only ancient nation 
that had a complete psalter — and their collection is 
the mother hymn-book of the world. 

Probably the first form of hymn-worship was 
the plain-song — a declamatory unison of assem- 
bled singers, every voice on the same pitch, and 
within the compass of five notes — and so con- 
tinued, from whatever may have stood for plain- 
song in Tabernacle and Temple days down to the 
earliest centuries of the Christian church. It was 
mere melodic progression and volume of tone, and 
there were no instruments — after the captivity. 
Possibly it was the memory of the harps hung 
silent by the rivers of Babylon that banished the 
timbrel from the sacred march and the ancient lyre 
from the post-exilic synagogues. Only the Feast 
trumpet was left. But the Jews sang. Jesus and 
his disciples sang. Paul and Silas sang; and so 
did the post-apostolic Christians; but until to- 
wards the close of the 1 6th century there were no 
instruments allowed in religious worship. 



INTRODUCTION. XIU 

St. Hilary, Bishop of Poitiers has been called 
"the father of Christian hymnology.*' About the 
middle of the 4th century he regulated the ecclesias- 
tical song-service, wrote chant music (to Scripture 
words or his own) and prescribed its place and use 
in his choirs. He died A. D. 368. In the Church 
calendars, Jan. 13th (following " Twelfth Night"), 
is still kept as "St. Hilary's Day" in the Church of 
England, and Jan. 14th in the Church of Rome. 

St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, a few years later, 
improved the work of his predecessor, adding 
words and music of his own. The *'Ambrosian 
Chant" was the antiphonal plain- song arranged 
and systematized to statelier effect in choral 
symphony. Ambrose died A. D. 397. 

Toward the end of the 6th century Christian 
music showed a decline in consequence of im- 
patient meddhng with the slow canonical psalm- 
ody, and "reformers" had impaired its solemnity 
by introducing fanciful embellishments. Gregory 
the Great (Pope of Rome, 590-604) banished these 
from the song service, founded a school of sacred 
melody, composed new chants and estabhshed the 
distinctive character of ecclesiastical hymn worship. 
The Gregorian chant — on the diatonic eight sounds 
and seven syllables of equal length — continued, 
with its majestic choral step, to be the basis of 
cathedral music for a thousand years. In the 
meantime (930) Hucbald, the Flanders monk, 
invented sight music, or written notes — happily 
called the art of "hearing with the eyes and seeing 



XIV STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

with the ears"; and Guldo Arentino (1024) con^ 
trived the present scale, or the "hexachord" on 
which the present scale was perfected. 

In this long interval, however, the "established" 
system of hymn service did not escape the intrusion 
of inevitable novelties that crept in with the change 
of popular taste. Unrhythmical singing could not 
always hold its own; and when polyphonic music 
came into public favor, secular airs gradually found 
their way into the choirs. Legatos, with their pleas- 
ing turn and glide, caught the ear of the multitude. 
Tripping allegrettos sounded sweeter to the vulgar 
sense than the old largos of Pope Gregory the Great. 

The guardians of the ancient order took alarm. 
One can imagine the pained amazement of con- 
servative souls today on hearing "Ring the Bells 
of Heaven" substituted in church for "Mear" or 
the long-metre Doxology, and can understand the 
extreme distaste of the ecclesiastical reactionaries 
for the worldly frivolities of an A. D. 1550 choir. 
Presumably that modern abomination, the vibrato, 
with its shake of artificial fright, had not been 
invented then, and sanctuary form was saved one 
indignity. But the innovations became an abuse 
so general that the Council of Trent commissioned 
a select board of cardinals and musicians to arrest 
the degeneration of church song-worship. 

One of the experts consulted in this movement 
was an eminent Italian composer born twenty 
miles from Rome. His full name was Giovanni 
Pietro Aloysio da Palestrina, and at that time he 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

was in the prime of his powers. He was master of 
polyphonic music as well as plain-song, and he 
proposed applying it to grace the older mode, pre- 
serving the solemn beauty of the chant but adding 
the charming chords of counterpoint. He wrote 
three "masses," one of them being his famous 
"Requiem." These were sung under his direction 
before the Commission. Their magnificence and 
purity revealed to the censors the possibilities of 
contrapuntal music in sanctuary devotion and 
praise. The sanction of the cardinals was given — 
and part-song harmony became permanently one 
of the angel voices of the Christian church. 

Palestrina died in 1594, but hymn-tunes adapted 
from his motets and masses are sung today. He 
was the father of the choral tune. He lived to 
see musical instruments and congregational sing- 
ing introduced* in public worship, and to know 
(possibly with secret pleasure, though he was a 
Romanist) how richly in popular assemblies, dur- 
ing the Protestant Reformation, the new freedom 
of his helpful art had multiplied the creation of 
spiritual hymns. 

Contemporary in England with Palestrina in 
Italy was Thomas Tallis who developed the 
Anglican school of church music, which differed 
less from the Italian (or Catholic) psalmody than 
that of the Continental churches, where the revolt 
of the Reformation extended to the tune-worship 
as notably as to the sacraments and sermons. This 

♦But not fully established in use till about 1625. 



XVI STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

difference created a division of method and prac- 
tice even in England, and extreme Protestants who 
repudiated everything artistic or ornate formed 
the Puritan or Genevan School. Their stvle is 
represented among our hymn-tunes by ''Old Hun- 
dred," while the representative of the Anglican 
is "Tallis' Evening Hymn." The division was only 
temporary. The two schools were gradually recon- 
ciled, and together made the model after which 
the best sacred tunes are built. It is Tallis who is 
called "The father of English Cathedral music." 

In Germany, after the invention of harmony, 
church music was still felt to be too formal for a 
working force, and there was a reaction against the 
motets and masses of Palestrina as being too stately 
and difficult. Lighter airs of the popular sort, 
such as were sung between the acts of the "mystery 
plays," were subsidized by Luther, who wrote com- 
positions and translations to their measure. Part- 
song was simplified, and Johan Walther compiled 
a hymnal of religious songs in the vernacular for 
from four to six voices. The reign of rhythmic 
hymn music soon extended through Europe. 

Necessarily — except in ultra-conservative locali- 
ties like Scotland — the exclusive use of the Psalms 
(metrical or unmetrical) gave way to religious lyrics 
inspired by occasion. Clement Marot and Theo- 
dore Beza wrote hymns to the music of Bach and 
others, and Caesar Malan composed both hymns 
and their melodies. By the beginning of the i8th 
century the triumph of the hymn-tune and the 



INTRODUCTION. XVll 

hymnal for lay voices was established for all time. 

;)s H« H« * H* >K 

In the following pages no pretence is made of 
selecting all the best and most-used hymns, but the 
purpose has been to notice as many as possible of 
the standard pieces — and a few others which seem 
to add or re-shape a useful thought or introduce a 
new strain. 

To present each hymn with its tune appeared 
the natural and most satisfactory way, as in most 
cases it is impossible to dissociate the two. The 
melody is the psychological coefficient of the met- 
rical text. Without it the verse of a seraph 
would be smothered praise. Like a flower and 
its fragrance, hymn and tune are one creature, and 
stand for a whole value and a full effect. With 
this normal combination a complete descriptive 
list of the hymns and tunes would be a historic 
dictionary. Such a book may one day be made, 
but the present volume is an attempt to the same 
end within easier limits. 



CHAPTER I 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND 
WORSHIP. 



TX 



" TE DEUM LAUDAMUS. " 

This famous church confession in song was com- . -U- 

posed A. D. 387 by Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, pro- ^^I^Vm 

bably both words and music. 

Te Deum laudamus, Te Dominum confitemur^^ 

Te aeternum Patrem omnis terra veneratur Q 

Tibi omnes angeli, tibi coeli et universae potestates, 

Tibi cherubim et seraphim inV^cessibiH voce proclamant _^ 

Sanctus, sanctus Dominus Deus Sabaoth. , (^ K^ C 

In the whole hymn there are thirty lines. The 
saying that the early Roman hymns were echoes 
of Christian Greece, as the Greek hymns were 
echoes of Jerusalem, is probably true, but they were 
only echoes. In A. D. 252, St. Cyprian, writing his 
consolatory epistle* during the plague in Car- 
thage, when hundreds were dying every day, says, 
"Ah, perfect and perpetual bliss! [in heaven.] 
There is the glorious company of the apostles; 

*nepc Tou OvrjTOU, "On the Mortality." l 



2 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

there is the fellowship of the prophets rejoicing; 
there is the innumerable multitude of martyrs 
crowned." Which would suggest that lines or 
fragments of what afterwards crystalized into the 
formula of the *'Te Deum" were already familiar in 
the Christian church. But^t-is^-gerTeralty falitrv ' c d 

—that the tongue of Ambrose gave the amhen^-4ts 
final form. ^ 

Ambrose was born in Gaul about the middle of 
the fourth century and raised to his bishopric in 
A. D. 374. Very early he saw and appreciated the 
popular effect of musical sounds, and what an 
evangelical instrument a chorus of chanting voices 
could be in preaching the Christian faith; and he 
introduced the responsive singing of psalms and 
sacred cantos in the worship of the church. "A 
grand thing is that singing, and nothing can stand 
before it," he said, when the critics of his time 
complained that his innovation was sensational. 
That such a charge could be made against the 
Ambrosian mode of music, with its slow move- 
ment and unmetrical Hnes, seems strange to us, 

/but it w^as new — and conservatism is the same^n 
all ages. 

The great bishop carried all before him. His 
school of song-worship prevailed in Christian 
Europe more than two hundred years. Most of 
his hymns are lost, (the Benedictine writers credit 
him with twelve), but, judging by their effect on 
the powerful mind of Augustine, their influence 
among the common people must have been pro- 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 3 

found, and far more lasting than the author's life. 
"Their voices sank into mine ears, and their truths 
distilled into my heart," wrote Augustine, long 
afterwards, of these hymns; "tears ran down, and 
I rejoiced in them." 

Poetic tradition has dramatized the story of the 
birth of the "Te Deum," dating it on an Easter 
Sunday, and dividing the honor of its composition 
between Ambrose and his most eminent convert. 
It was the day when the bishop baptized Augus- 
tine, in the presence of a vast throng that crowded 
the Basilica of Milan. As if foreseeing with a 
prophet's eye that his brilliant candidate would 
become one of the ruling stars of Christendom, 
Ambrose lifted his hands to heaven and chanted 
in a holy rapture, — y 

We praise Thee, O God! We acknowledge Thee to be the 

Lord; 
All the Earth doth worship Thee, the Father Everlasting. 

He paused, and from the lips of the baptized dis- 
ciple came the response, — 

To Thee all the angels cry aloud: the heavens and all the 

powers therein. 
To Thee cherubim and seraphim continually do cry, 
"Holy, holy, holy Lord God of Sabaoth; 
Heaven and Earth are full of the majesty of Thy glory!" 

and so, stave by stave, in alternating strams, sprang 
that day from the inspired lips of Ambrose and 
Augustine the "Te Deum Laudamus," which has 
ever since been the standard anthem of Christian 
praise. \ 



^^^' 



4 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Whatever the foundation of the story, we may 
at least suppose the first pubHc singing* of the 
great chant to have been associated with that 
eventful baptism. 

The various anthems, sentences and motets in 
all Christian languages bearing the titles "Tris- 
agion" or "Tersanctus," and "Te Deum" are 
taken from portions of this royal hymn. The sub- 
lime and beautiful "Holy, Holy, Holy" of Bishop 
T*"'' Heber was suggested by it. 

THE TUNE. 

No echo remains, so far as is known, of the 
responsive chant actually sung by Ambrose, but 
one of the best modern choral renderings of the 
"Te Deum" is the one by Henry Smart in his 
Morning and Evening Service. In an ordinary 
church hymnal it occupies seven pages. The staff- 
directions with the music indicate the part or cue of 
the antiphonal singers by the words Decani (Dec.) 
and Cantor (Can.), meaning first the division of the 
choir on the Dean's side, and second the division 
/ y it .; on the Cantor's or Precentor's side. 

/ . ^ 4^ Henry Smart was one of the five great English 

' ^composers that followed our American Mason. 

He was born in London, C^t^.-^y^%T2, and chose 
music for a profession in preference to an oflPered 
commission in the East Indian army. His talent 

♦The "Te Deum" was first sung in English by the martyr, Bishop Ridley, 
at Heame Church, where he was at one time vicar. 



/A' J 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 5 

as a composer, especially of sacred music, was 
marvelous, and, though he became blind, his loss 
of sight was no more hindrance to his genius than 
loss of hearing to Beethoven. 

No composer of his time equalled Henry Smart 
as a writer of music for female voices. His can- 
tatas have been greatly admired, and his hymn 
tunes are unsurpassed for their purity and sweet- 
ness, while his anthems, his oratorio of "Jacob," 
and indeed all that he wrote, show the hand and the 
inventive gift of a great musical artist. 

He died July 10, 1879, universally mourned for 
his inspired work, and his amiable character. 

" ALL GLORY, LAUD AND HONOR. ^' 

Gloria, Laus et Honor. 

This stately Latin hymn of the early part of the 
9th century was composed in A. D. 820, by Theo- 
dulph, Bishop of Orleans, while a captive in the 
cloister of Anjou. King Louis (le Debonnaire) 
son of Charlemagne, had trouble with his royal 
relatives, and suspecting Theodulph to be in 
sympathy with them, shut him up in prison. A 
pretty story told by Clichtovius, an old church 
writer of A. D. 1518, relates how on Palm Sunday 
the king, celebrating the feast with his people, 
passed in procession before the cloister, where the 
face of the venerable prisoner at his cell window 
caused an involuntary halt, and, in the moment of 
silence, the bishop raised his voice and sang this 



STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

hymn; and how the dehghted king released the 
singer, and restored him to his bishopric. This 
tale, told after seven hundred years, is not the only 
legend that grew around the hymn and its author, 
but the fact that he composed it in the cloister of 
Anjou while confined there is not seriously disputed. 

Gloria, laus et honor Tibi sit, Rex Christe Redemptor, 
Cui puerile decus prompsit Hosanna pium. 
Israel Tu Rex, Davidis et inclyta proles, 
Nomine qui in Domini Rex benedicte venis 

Gloria, laus et honor. 

Theodulph was born in Spain, but of Gothic ped- 
igree, a child of the race of conquerors who, in the 
5th century, overran Southern Europe. He died 
in 821, but whether a free man or still a prisoner 
at the time of his death is uncertain. Some 
accounts allege that he was poisoned in the cloister. 
The Roman church canonized him, and his hymn 
is still sung as a processional in Protestant as well 
as Catholic churches. The above Latin lines are 
the first four of the original seventy-eight. The 
following is J. M. Neale's translation of the portion 
now in use: 

All glory, laud, and honor. 

To Thee, Redeemer, Kingt 
To whom the lips of children 

Made sweet Hosannas ring. 

Thou are the King of Israel, 

Thou David's royal Son, 
Who in the Lord's name comest, 

The King and Blessed One. All gloiy, etc 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 7 

The company of angels 

Are praising Thee on high; 
And mortal men, and all things 

Created, make reply. All glory, etc 

The people of the Hebrews 

With palms before Thee wenf, 
Our praise and prayer and anthems 

Before Thee we present. All glory, etc. 

To Thee before Thy Passion 

They sang their hymns of praise; 

To Thee, now high exalted 
Our melody we raise. All glory, etc. 

Thou didst accept their praises; 

Accept the prayers we bring, 
Who in all good delightest. 

Thou good and gracious King. All glory, etc. 

The translator, Rev. John Mason Neale, D.D., 
was born in London, Jan. 24, 18 18, and graduated 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1840. He was a 
prolific writer, and after taking holy orders he 
held the office of Warden of Sackville College, 
East Grimstead, Sussex. Best known among his 
published works are Medioeval Hymns and Se- 
quences, Hymns for Children, Hymns of the East- 
ern Church, and The Rhythms of Morlaix. He 
died Aug. 6, 1866. 

THE TUNE. 

There is no certainty as to the original tune of 
Theodulph's Hymn, or how long it survived, but 
various modern composers have given it music 



,r 



8 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

in more or less keeping with its character, notably 
Melchior Teschner, whose harmony, " St. Theo- 
dulph," appears in the new Methodist Hymnal. 
It well represents the march of the bishop's Latin. 
Melchior Teschner, a Prussian musician, was 
Precentor at Frauenstadt, Silesia, about 1613. 

" ALL PRAISE TO THEE, ETERNAL LORD." 

Gelohet Seist du 'Jesu Christ. 

This int roduetory hymn Qf .. woff » h »p, a favorite 
Christmas hymn in Germany, is ancient, and 
appears to be a versification of a Latin prose 
"Sequence'* variously ascribed to a 9th century 
author, and to Gregory the Great in the 6th 
century. Its German form is still credited to 
Luther in most hymnals. Julian gives an earlier 
German form (1370) of the "Gelobet," but attri- 
butes all but the first stanza to Luther, as the hymn 
now stands. The following translation, printed 
first in the Sabbath Hymn Book, Andover, 
1858, is the one adopted by SchanFin his Christian 
in Song: ^ 

All praise to Thee, eternal Lord, 
Clothed in the garb of flesh and blood; 
Choosing a manger for Thy throne, 
While worlds on worlds are Thine alone! 

Once did the skies before Thee bow; 
A virgin's arms contain Thee now; 
Angels, who did in Thee rejoice. 
Now listen for Thine infant voice. 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 9 

A little child, Thou art our guest, 
That weary ones in Thee may rest; 
Forlorn and lowly in Thy birth. 
That we may rise to heaven from earth. 

Thou comest in the darksome night. 
To make us children of the light; 
To make us, in the realms divine. 
Like Thine own angels round Thee shine. 

All this for us Thy love hath done: 
By this to Thee our love is won; 
For this we tune our cheerful lays, 
And shout our thanks in endless praise. 

THE TUNE. 

The 1 8th century tune of ** Weimar" (Evan^ 
gelical Hymnal), by Emanuel Bach, suits the 
spiritual tone of the hymn, and suggests the Gre- 
gorian dignity of its origin. 

Karl Philip Emanuel Bach, called "the Berlin 
Bach" to distinguish him from his father, the 
great Sebastian Bach of Saxe Weimar, was born 
in Weimar, March 14, 1714. He early devoted him- 
self to music, and coming to Berlin when twenty- 
four years old was appointed Chamber musician 
(Kammer Musicus) in the Royal Chapel, where he 
often accompanied Frederick the Great (who was 
an accomplished flutist) on the harpsichord. His 
most numerous compositions were piano music but 
he wrote a celebrated "Sanctus,"and two oratorios, 
besides a number of chorals, of which "Weimar" 
is one. He died in Hamburg, Dec. 14, 1788. 



10 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

THE MAGNIFICAT. 



McyoAwct 17 ^XV h^'^ "^^^ Kvptov. 

Magnificat anima mea Dominum, 

Et exultavit Spiritus meus in Deo salutari meo. 

Luke 1 : 46-55. 

We can date with some certainty the hymn itself 
composed by the Virgin Mary, but when it first 
became a song of the Christian Church no one 
can tell. Its thanksgiving may have found tone 
among the earliest martyrs, who, as Pliny tells 
us, sang hymns in their secret worship. We can 
only trace it back to the oldest chant music, when 
it was doubtless sung by both the Eastern and 
Western Churches. In the rude liturgies of the 
4th and 5th centuries it must have begun to assume 
ritual form; but it remained for the more modem 
school of composers hundreds of years later to 
illustrate the "Magnificat" with the melody of art 
and genius. Superseding the primitive unisonous 
plain-song, the old parallel concords, and the 
simple faburden (faux bourdon) counterpoint 
that succeeded Gregory, they taught how musical 
tones can better assist worship with the beauty 
of harmony and the precision of scientific taste. 
Musicians in Italy, France, Germany and England 
have contributed their scores to this inspired 
hymn. Some of them still have place in the 
hymnals, a noble one especially by the blind Eng- 
lish tone-master, Henry Smart, author of the ora- 
torio of * 'Jacob." None, however, have equaled 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. II 

the work of Handel. His "Magnificat" was one 
of his favorite productions, and he borrowed strains 
from it in several of his later and lesser productions. 

George Frederic Handel, author of the immor- 
tal "Messiah," was born at Halle, Saxony, in 
1685, and died in London in 1759. The musical 
bent of his genius was apparent almost from his 
infancy. At the age of eighteen he was earning 
his living with his violin, and writing his first 
opera. After a sojourn in Italy, he settled in 
Hanover as Chapel Master to the Elector, who 
afterwards became the English king, George I. 
The friendship of the king and several of his 
noblemen drew him to England, where he spent 
forty-seven years and composed his greatest works. 

He wrote three hymn-tunes (it is said at the 
request of a converted actress), "Canons," "Fitz- 
william," and "Gopsall," the first an invitation, 
"Sinners, Obey the Gospel Word," the second a 
meditation," O Love Divine, How Sweet Thou Art," 
and the third a resurrection song to Welsey's 
words "Rejoice, the Lord is King." This last still 
survives in some hymnals. 

THE DOXOLOGIES. 

Be Thou, O God, exalted high. 
And as Thy glory fills the sky 
So let it be on earth displayed 
Till Thou art here as there obeyed. 



12 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

This sublime quatrain, attributed to Nahum 
Tate, like the Lord's Prayer, is suited to all occasions, 
to all Christian denominations, and to all places 
and conditions of men. It has been translated 
into all civilized languages, and has been rising 
to heaven for many generations from congregations 
round the globe wherever the faith of Christendom 
has built its altars. This doxology is the first 
stanza of a sixteen line hymn (possibly longer 
originally), the rest of which is forgotten. 

Nahum Tate was born in Dublin, in 1652, and 
educated there at Trinity College. He was ap- 
pointed poet-laureate by King William III. in 
1690, and it was in conjunction with Dr. Nicholas 
Brady that he executed his "New" metrical version 
of the Psalms. The entire Psalter, with an appen- 
dix of Hymns, was licensed by William and Mary 
and published In 1703. The hymns in the volume 
are all by Tate. He died in London, Aug. 12, 171 7. 

Rev. Nicholas Brady, D. D., was an Irishman, 
son of an officer in the royal army, and was born 
at Bandon, County of Cork, Oct. 28, 1659. He 
studied In the Westminister School at Oxford, 
but afterwards entered Trinity College, Dublin, 
where he graduated in 1685. William made him 
Queen Mary's Chaplain. He died May 20, 1726. 

The other nearly contemporary form of doxol- 
ogy Is in common use, but though elevated and 
devotional in spirit. It cannot be universal, owing 
to Its credal line being objectionable to non-Trini- 
tarian Protestants: 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. I3 

Praise God from whom all blessings flow. 
Praise Him all creatures here below, 
Praise Him above, ye heavenly host. 
Praise Father, Son and Holy Ghost. 

The author, the Rev. Thomas Ken, was born in 
Berkhampstead, Hertfordshire, Eng., July, 1637, 
and was educated at Winchester School, Hertford 
College, and New College, Oxford. In 1662 he 
took holy orders, and seventeen years later the king 
(Charles H.) appointed him chaplain to his sister 
Mary, Princess of Orange. Later the king, just 
before his death, made him Bishop of Bath and 
Wells. 

Like John the Baptist, and Bourdaloue, and 
Knox, he was a faithful spiritual monitor and 
adviser during all his days at court. **I must go in 
and hear Ken tell me my faults," the king used to 
say at chapel time. The "good little man" (as 
he called the bishop) never lost the favor of the 
dissipated monarch. As Macaulay says, "Of all 
the prelates, he liked Ken the best." 

Under James, the Papist, Ken was a loyal 
subject, though once arrested as one of the "seven 
bishops" for his opposition to the king's religion, 
and he kept his oath of allegiance so firmly that it 
cost him his place. William HL deprived him of his 
bishopic, and he retired in poverty to a home 
kindly offered him by Lord Viscount Weymouth 
in Longleat,near Frome,in Somersetshire, where he 
spent a serene and beloved old age. He died aet. 
seventy-four, March 17, 1711 (N. S.), and was 



14 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

carried to his grave, according to his request, by 
" six of the poorest men in the parish." 

His great doxology is the refrain or final stanza 
of each of his three long hymns, "Morning," 
"Evening" and "Midnight," printed in a Prayer 
Manual for the use of the students of Winchester 
College. The "Evening Hymn" drew scenic in- 
spiration, it is told, from the lovely view in 
Horningsham Park at "Heaven's Gate Hill," 
while walking to and from church. 

Another four-line doxology, adopted probably 
from Dr. Hatfield (i 807-1 883), is almost entirely 
superseded by Ken's stanza, being of even more 
pronounced credal character. 

To God the Father, God the Son, 
And God the Spirit, Three in One. 
Be honor, praise and glory given 
By all on earth and all in heaven. 

The Methodist Hymnal prints a collection of 
ten doxologies, two by Watts, one by Charles 
Wesley, one by John Wesley, one by William 
Goode, one by Edwin F. Hatfield, one attributed 
to "Tate and Brady," one by Robert Hawkes, 
and the one by Ken above noted. These are all 
technically and intentionally doxologies. To give 
a history of doxologies in the general sense of the 
word would carry one through every Christian age 
and language and end with a concordance of the 
Book of Psalms. 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. I5 

THE TUNE. 

Few would think of any music more appropriate 
to a standard doxology than *'01d Hundred." 
This grand Gregorian harmony has been claimed 
to be Luther's production, while some have 
believed that Louis Bourgeois, editor of the French 
Genevan Psalter, who perished in the Massacre of 
St. Bartholomew, composed the tune, but the 
weight of evidence seems to indicate that it was 
the work of Guillaume le Franc, (William Franck 
or WiUiam the Frenchman,) of Rouen, in France, 
who founded a music school in Geneva, 1541. 
He was Chapel Master there, but removed to 
Lausanne, where he played in the Catholic choir 
and wrote the tunes for an Edition of Ma- 
rot's and Beza's Psalms. Died in Lausanne, 
1570. 

^THE LORD DESCENDED FROM ABOVE." 

A flash of genuine inspiration was vouchsafed 
to Thomas Sternhold when engaged with Rev. 
Jehn Hopkins in versifying the Eighteenth Psalm. 
The ridicule heaped upon Sternhold and Hopkins's 
psalmbook has always stopped, and sobered into 
admiration and even reverence at the two stanzas 
beginning with this leading line — 

The Lord descended from above 
And bowed the heavens most high, 

And underneath His feet He cast 
The darkness of the sky. 



/ 




l6 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

On cherub and on cherubim 

Full royally He rode, 
And on the wings of mighty winds 

Came flying all abroad. 

Thomas Sternhold was born in Gloucester- 
shire, Eng. He was Groom of the Robes to Henry 
Vni, and Edward VI., but is only remembered for 
his P^U i ^p MMlinef^ in 1562, thirteen years after 
his death in 1549. 

THE TUNE. 

"Nottingham" (now sometimes entitled "St. 
Magnus") is a fairly good echo of the grand verses, 
a dignified but spirited choral in A flat. Jeremiah 
Clark, the composer, was born in London, 1670. 
Educated at the Chapel Royal, he became organ- 
ist of Winchester College and finally to St. Paul's 
Cathedral where he was appointed Gentleman of 
the Chapel. He died July, 1707. 

The tune of "Majesty" by William Billings will 
be noticed in a later chapter. 

TALLIS* EVENING HYMN. 

Glory to Thee, my God, this night 
For all the blessings of the light. 
Keep me, O keep me, King of kings, 
Under Thine own Almighty wings. 

This stanza begins the second of Bp. Ken's three 
beautiful hymn-prayers in his Manual mentioned 
on a previous page, 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. \J 

THE TUNE. 

For more than three hundred and fifty years 
devout people have enjoyed that melody of 
mingled dignity and sweetness known as "Tallis' 
Evening Hymn." 

Thomas Tallis was an Englishman, born about 
1520, and at an early age was a boy chorister at 
St. Paul's. After his voice changed, he played the 
organ at Waltham Abbey, and some time later 
was chosen organist royal to Queen Elizabeth. 
His pecuniary returns for his talent did not make 
him rich, though he bore the title after 1542 of 
Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, for his stipend was 
sevenpence a day. Some gain may possibly have 
come to him, however, from his publication, late 
in life, under the queen's special patent, of a col- 
lection of hymns and tunes. 

He wrote much and was the real founder of the 
English Church school of composers, but though 
St. Paul's was at one time well supplied with his 
motets and anthems, it is impossible now to give a 
list of Tallis' compositions for the Church. His 
music was written originally to Latin words, but 
v/hen, after the Reformation, the use of vernacular 
hymns, was introduced he probably adapted his 
scores to either language. 

It is inferred that he was in attendance on Queen 
Elizabeth at her palace in Greenwich when he 
died, for he was buried in the old parish church 
there in November, 1585. The rustic rhymer who 



l8 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

indited his epitaph evidently did the best he could 
to embalm the virtues of the great musician as a 
man, a citizen, and a husband: 

Enterred here doth \y a worthy wyght, 
Who for long time in musick bore the bell: 

His name to shew was Thomas Tallis hyght; 
In honest vertuous lyfF he dyd excell. 

He served long tyme in chappel with grete prayse, 
Power sovereygnes reignes, (a thing not often seene); 

I mean King Henry and Prince Edward's dayes, 
Quene Marie, and Elizabeth our quene. 

He maryed was, though children he had none, 
And lyv'd in love full three and thirty yeres 

With loyal spowse, whose name yclept was Jone, 
Who, here entombed, him company now bears. 

As he dyd lyve, so also dyd he dy. 

In myld and quyet sort, O happy man! 
To God ful oft for mercy did he cry; 

Wherefore he lyves, let Deth do what he can. 

" THE GOD OP ABRAHAM PRAISE. " 

This is one of the thanksgivings of the ages. 

The God of Abraham praise. 

Who reigns enthroned above; 
Ancient of everlasting days, 

And God of love. 
Jehovah, Great I AM! 

By earth and heaven confessed, 
I bow and bless the sacred Name, 

Porever blest. 

The hymn, of twelve eight-line stanzas, is too long 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. IQ 

to quote entire, but is found in both the Plymouth 
and Methodist Hymnals. 

Thomas Olivers, born in Tregynon, near New- 
town, Montgomeryshire, Wales, 1725, was, ac- 
cording to local testimony, "the worst boy known 
in all that country, for thirty years.'' It is more 
charitable to say that he was a poor fellow who 
had no friends. Left an orphan at five years of 
age, he was passed from one relative to another 
until all were tired of him, and he was "bound 
out" to a shoemaker. Almost inevitably the 
neglected lad grew up wicked, for no one appeared 
to care for his habits and morals, and as he sank 
lower in the various vices encouraged by bad 
company, there were more kicks for him than 
helping hands. At the age of eighteen his repu- 
tation in the town had become so unsavory that he 
was forced to shift for himself elsewhere. 

Providence led him, when shabby and penniless, 
to the old seaport town of Bristol, where Whitefield 
was at that time preaching,* and there the young 
sinner heard the divine message that lifted him to 
his feet. 

" When that sermon began, " he said, " I was one 
of the most abandoned and profligate young men 
living; before it ended I was a new creature. The 
world was all changed for Tom Olivers." 

His new life, thus begun, lasted on earth more 
than sixty useful years. He left a shining record 

♦Whitefield 's text was, "Is not this a brand plucked out of the fire ?" Zach. 
3:2. 



20 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

as a preacher of righteousness, and died in the 
triumphs of faith, November, 1799. Before he 
passed away he saw at least thirty editions of his 
hymn published, but the soul-music it has awakened 
among the spiritual children of Abraham can only 
reach him in heaven. Some of its words have been 
the last earthly song of many, as they were of the 
eminent Methodist theologian, Richard Watson — 

I shall behold His face, 
I shall His power adore, 
And sing the wonders of His grace 
Forevermore. 

THE TUNE. 

The precise date of the tune "Leoni" is un- 
known, as also the precise date of the hymn. The 
story is that Olivers visited the great "Duke's 
Place" Synagogue, Aldgate, London, and heard 
Meyer Lyon (Leoni) sing the Yigdal or long 
doxology to an air so noble and impressive that 
it haunted him till he learned it and fitted to it the 
sublime stanzas of his song. Lyon, a noted Jewish 
musician and vocalist, was chorister of this 
London Synagogue during the latter part of the 
1 8th century and the Yigdal was a portion ol 
the Hebrew Liturgy composed in medieval times, 
it is said, by Daniel Ben Judah. The fact that 
the Methodist leaders took Olivers from his 
bench to be one of their preachers answers any 
suggestion that the converted shoemaker copied 
the Jewish hymn and put Christian phrases in it. 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 21 

He knew nothing of Hebrew, and had he known 
it, a Hteral translation of the Yigdal will show 
hardly a similarity to his evangelical lines. Only 
the music as Leoni sang it prompted his own song, 
and he gratefully put the singer's name to it. 
Montgomery, who admired the majestic style of 
the hymn, and its glorious imagery, said of its 
author, "The man who wrote that hymn must 
have had the finest ear imaginable, for on account 
of the peculiar measure, none but a person of equal 
musical and poetic taste could have produced the 
harmony perceptible in the verse." 

Whether the hymnist or some one else fitted the 
hymn to the tune, the "fine ear" and "poetic 
taste" that Montgomery applauded are evident 
enough in the union. 

"O WORSHIP THE KING ALL GLORIOUS ABOVE." 

This hymn of Sir Robert Grant has become 
almost universally known, and is often used as 
a morning or opening service song by choirs and 
congregations of all creeds. The favorite stanzas 
are the first four — 

O worship the King all-glorious above, 
And gratefully sing His wonderful love — 
Our Shield and Defender, the Ancient of Days, 
Pavilioned in splendor, and girded with praise. 

O tell of His might, and sing of His grace, 
Whose robe is the light, whose canopy, space; 
His chariots of wrath the deep thunder-clouds form. 
And dark is His path on the wings of the storm. 



22 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Thy bountiful care what tongue can recite ? 

It breathes in the air, it shines in the light, 

It streams from the hills, it descends to the plain, 

And sweetly distils in the dew and the rain. 

Frail children of dust, and feeble as frail. 
In Thee do we trust, nor find Thee to fail. 
Thy mercies how tender! how firm to the end! 
Our Maker, Defender, Redeemer, and Friend! 

This is a model hymn of worship. Like the 
previous one by Thomas Olivers, it is strongly 
Hebrew in its tone and diction, and drew its in- 
spiration from the Old Testament Psalter, the 
text-book of all true praise-song. 

Sir Robert Grant was born in the county of In- 
verness, Scotland, in 1785, and educated at Cam- 
bridge. He was many years member of Parliament 
for Inverness and a director in the East India 
Company, and 1834 was appointed Governor of 
Bombay. He died at Dapoorie, Western India, 
July 9, 1838. 

Sir Robert was a man of deep Christian feeling 
and a poetic mind. His writings were not numer- 
ous, but their thoughtful beauty endeared him to 
a wide circle of readers. In 1839 his brother. 
Lord Glenelg, published twelve of his poetical 
pieces, and a new edition in 1868. The volume 
contains the more or less well-known hymns — 

The starry firmament on high, 

Saviour, when in dust to Thee, 

and — 

When gathering clouds around I view. 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 23 

Sir Robert's death, when scarcely past his prime, 
would indicate a decHne by reason of illness, and 
perhaps other serious affliction, that justified the 
poeticlicense in the submissive verses beginning — 

Thy mercy heard my infant prayer. 
****** 

And now in age and grief Thy name 
Does still my languid heart inflame, 

And bow my faltering knee. 
Oh, yet this bosom feels the fire, 
This trembling hand and drooping lyre 

Have yet a strain for Thee. 

THE TUNE. 

Several musical pieces written to the hymn, 
"O, Worship the King," have appeared in church 
psalm-books, and others have been borrowed for 
it, but the one oftenest sung to its words is Haydn's 
"Lyons." Its vigor and spirit best fit it for 
Grant's noble lyric. 

" MAJESTIC SWEETNESS SITS ENTHRONED. " 

Rev. Samuel Stennett D.D.,the author of this 
hymn, was the son of Rev. Joseph Stennett, and 
grandson of Rev. Joseph Stennett D. D., who 
wrote — 

Another six days' work is done. 

Another Sabbath is begun. 

All were Baptist ministers. Samuel was born in 
1727, at Exeter, Eng., and at the age of twenty- 



24 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

one became his father's assistant, and subse- 
quently his successor over the church in Little 
Wild Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London. 

Majestic sweetness sits enthroned 

Upon the Saviour's brow; 
His head with radiant glories crowned, 

His lips with grace o'erflow. 

To Him I owe my life and breath 

And all the joys I have; 
He makes me triumph over death, 

He saves me from the grave. 

Since from His bounty I receive 

Such proofs of love divine, 
Had I a thousand hearts to give, 

Lord, they should all be Thine. 

Samuel Stennett was one of the most respected 
and influential ministers of the Dissenting per- 
suasion, and a confidant of many of the most dis- 
tinguished statesmen of his time. The celebrated 
John Howard was his parishoner and intimate 
friend. His degree of Doctor of Divinity was be- 
stowed upon him by Aberdeen University. Besides 
his theological writings he composed and published 
thirty-eight hymns, among them — 

On Jordan's stormy banks I stand. 
When two or three with sweet accord. 

Here at Thy table. Lord, we meet, 
and — 

" 'Tis finished," so the Saviour cried. 



A 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 25 

"Majestic Sweetness" began the third stanza of 
his longer hymn — 

To Christ the Lord let every tongue. 
Dr. Stennett died in London, Aug. 24, 1795. 

THE TUNE. 

For fifty or sixty years "Ortonville" has been 
Hnked with this devout hymn, and still main- 
tains its fitting fellowship. The tune, composed 
in 1830, was the work of Thomas Hastings, and 
is almost as well-known and as often sung 
as his immortal **Toplady." (See chap. 3, "Rock 
of Ages." 

" ALL HAIL THE POWER OF JESUS' NAME. " 

This inspiring lyric of praise appears to have 
been written about the middle of the eighteenth 
century. Its author, the Rev. Edward Perronet, 
son of Rev. Vincent Perronet, Vicar of Shoreham, 
Eng., was a man of great faith and humility but 
zealous in his convictions, sometimes to his serious 
expense. He was born in 1721, and, though 
eighteen years younger than Charles Wesley, the 
two became bosom friends, and it was under the 
direction of the Wesleys that Perronet became a 
preacher in the evangelical movement. Lady 
Huntingdon later became his patroness, but some 
needless and imprudent expressions in a satirical 
poem, "The Mitre," revealing his hostility to the 
union of church and state, cost him her favor, 



26 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

and his contention against John Wesley's law that 
none but the regular parish ministers had the right 
to administer the sacraments, led to his complete 
separation from both the Wesleys. He subse- 
quently became the pastor of a small church of 
Dissenters in Canterbury, where he died, in Jan- 
uary, 1792. His piety uttered itself when near his 
happy death, and his last words were a Gloria. 

All hail the power of Jesus' name! 

Let angels prostrate fall; 
Bring forth the royal diadem, 

To crown Him Lord of all. 

Ye seed of Israel's chosen race, 

Ye ransomed of the fall. 
Hail Him Who saves you by His grace, 

And crown Him Lord of all. 

Sinners, whose love can ne'er forget 

The wormwood and the gall, 
Go, spread your trophies at His feet. 

And crown Him Lord of all. 

Let every tribe and every tongue 

That bound creation's call. 
Now shout the universal song. 

The crowned Lord of all. 



Withrfwo disused stanzas omitted, the hymn as it 
stands differs from the original chiefly in the last 
stanza, though in the second the initial line is now 
transposed to read — 

Ye chosen seed of Israel's race. 
The fourth stanza now reads — 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 27 

Let every kindred, every tribe 

On this terrestrial ball 
To Him all majesty ascribe, 

And crown Him Lord of all. 

And what is now the favorite last stanza is the one 
added by Dr. Rippon — 

O that with yonder sacred throng 

We at His feet may fall, 
And join the everlasting song. 

And crown Him Lord of all. 

THE TUNE. 

Everyone now calls it "Old Coronation," and it 
is entitled to the adjective by this time, being con- 
sidererably more than a hundred years of age. 
It was composed in the very year of Perronet's 
death and one wonders just how long the hymn 
and tune waited before they came together; for 
Heaven evidently meant them to be wedded for all 
time. This is an American opinion, and no 
reflection on the earlier English melody of " Miles 
Lane," composed during Perronet's lifetime by 
William Shrubsole and published with the words 
in 1780 in the Gospel Magazine. There is also a 
fine processional tune sung in the English Church 
to Perronet's hymn. 

The author of " Coronation " was Oliver Holden, 
a self-taught musician, born in Shirley, Mass., 
1765, and bred to the carpenter's trade. The little 
pipe organ on which tradition says he struck the 
first notes of the famous tune is now in the Histor- 



28 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

ical rooms of the Old State House, Boston, placed 
there by its late owner, Mrs. Fanny Tyler, the old 
musician's granddaughter. Its tones are as mel- 
low as ever, and the times that "Coronation*' has 
been played upon it by admiring visitors would far 
outnumber the notes of its score. 

Holden wrote a number of other hymn-tunes, 
among which "Cowper," "Confidence," and 
"Concord" are remembered, but none of them 
had the wings of "Coronation," his American 
"Te Deum." His first published collection was 
entitled The American Harmony^ and this was 
followed by the Union Harmony, and the Wor- 
cester Collection. He also wrote and published 
"Mt. Vernon," and several other patriotic anthems, 
mainly for special occasions, to some of which he 
supplied the words. He was no hymnist, though 
he did now and then venture into sacred metre. 
The new Methodist Hymnal preserves a simple 
four-stanza specimen of his experiments in verse: 

They who seek the throne of grace 
Find that throne in every place: 
If we lead a life of prayer 
God is present everywhere. 

Sacred music, however, was the good man's pas- 
sion to the last. He died in 1844. 

"Such beautiful themes!" he whispered on his 
death bed, "Such beautiful themes! But I can 
write no more." 

The enthusiasm always and everywhere aroused 
by the singing of "Coronation," dates from the 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 



29 



time it first went abroad in America in its new 
wedlock of music and words. "This tune," says 
an accompanying note over the score in the old 
Carmina Sacra, "was a great favorite with the late 
Dr. Dwight of Yale College (1798). It was often 
sung by the college choir, while he, catching, as it 
were, the music of the heavenly world, would join 
them, and lead with the most ardent devotion." 

"AWAKE AND SING THE SONG." 



This hymn of six stanzas is abridged from a 
longer one indited by the Rev. William Hammond, 
and published in Lady Huntingdon s Hymn-book. 
It was much in use in early Methodist revivals. 
It appears now as it was slightly altered by Rev. 
Martin Madan — 

Awake and sing the song 

Of Moses and the Lamb; 
Join every heart and every tongue 

To praise the Savior's name. 

****** 

The sixth verse is a variation of one of Watts* 
hymns, and was added in the Brethren s Hymn- 
hooky 1801 — 

There shall each heart and tongue 

His endless praise proclaim, 
And sweeter voices join the song 

Of Moses and the Lamb. 

The Rev. William Hammond was born Jan. 6, 
1 719, at Battle, Sussex, Eng., and educated at St. 



30 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

John's College, Cambridge. Early in his minis- 
terial life he was a Calvinistic Methodist, but 
ultimately joined the Moravians. Died in London, 
Aug. 19, 1793. ^^^ collection of Psalms and 
Hymns and Spiritual Songs was published in 1745. 
The Rev. Martin Madan, son of Col. Madan, 
was born 1726. He founded Lock Hospital, Hyde 
Park, and long officiated as its chaplain. As a 
preacher he was popular, and his reputation as a 
composer of music was considerable. There is 
no proof that he wrote any original hymns, but 
he amended, pieced and expanded the work of 
others. Died in 1770. 

THE TUNE. 

The hymn has had a variety of musical inter- 
pretations. The more modern piece is " St. Philip, " 
by Edward John Hopkins, Doctor of Music, born 
at Westminster, London, June 30, 18 18. From a 
member of the Chapel Royal boy choir he became 
organist of the Michtam Church, Surrey, and 
afterwards of the Temple Church, London. Re- 
ceived his Doctor's degree from the Archbishop 
of Canterbury in 1882. 

"CROWN HIS HEAD WITH ENDLESS BLESSING. " 

The writer of this hymn was William Goode, 
who helped to found the English Church Missionary 
Society, and was for twenty years the Secretary of 
the "Society for the Relief of Poor Pious Clergy- 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 3 1 

men." For celebrating the praise of the Saviour, he 
seems to have been of Hke spirit and genius v^ath 
Perronet. He was born in Buckingham, Eng., 
April 2, 1762; studied for the ministry and became 
a curate, successor of WilHam Romaine. His 
spiritual maturity was early, and his habits of 
thouo;ht were formed amid associations such as 
the young Wesleys and Whitefield sought. Like 
them, even in his student days he proved his aspi- 
ration for purer religious life by an evangelical zeal 
that cost him the ridicule of many of his school- 
fellows, but the meetings for conference and prayer 
Vv^hich he organized among them were not unat- 
tended, and were lasting and salutary in their effect. 
Jesus was the theme of his life and song, and 
was his last word. He died in 1816. 

Crown His head with endless blessing 

Who in God the Father's name 
With compassion never ceasing 

Comes salvation to proclaim. 
Hail, ye saints w^ho know His favor, 

Who within His gates are found, 
Hail, ye saints, th' exalted Saviour, 

Let His courts with praise resound. 

THE TUNE. 

"Haydn," bearing the name of its great com- 
poser, is in several important hymnals the chosen 
music for WiUiam Goode's devout words. Its 
strain and spirit are lofty and melodious and in 
entire accord with the pious poet's praise. 



32 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Joseph Haydn, son of a poor wheelwright, was 
born 1732, in Rohron, a village on the borders of 
Hungary and Austria. His precocity of musical 
talent was such that he began composing at the 
age of ten years. Prince Esterhazy discovered his 
genius when he was poor and friendless, and his 
fortune was made. While Music Master for the 
Prince's Private Chapel (twenty years) he wrote 
many of his beautiful symphonies which placed him 
among the foremost in that class of music. In- 
vited to England, he received the Doctor's degree 
at Oxford, and composed his great oratorio of 
"The Creation," besides his "Twelve Grand 
Symphonies," and a long list of minor musical 
works secular and sacred. His invention was in- 
exhaustible. 

Haydn seems to have been a sincerely pious 
man. When writing his great oratorio of "The 
Creation" at sixty-seven years of age, "I knelt 
down every day," he says, " and prayed God to 
strengthen me for my work." This daily spirit- 
ual preparation was similar to Handel's when he 
was creating his "Messiah." Change one word 
and it may be said of sacred music as truly as 
of astronomy, "The undevout composer is mad." 

Near Haydn's death, in Vienna, 1809, when he 
heard for the last time his magnificent chorus, 
"Let there be Light!" he exclaimed, "Not mine, 
not mine. It all came to me from above." 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 33 

"NOW TO THE LORD A NOBLE SONG." 

When Watts finished this hymn he had achieved 
a "noble song," whether he was conscious of it or 
not; and it deserves a foremost place, where it 
can help future worshippers in their praise as it 
has the past. It is not so common in the later 
hymnals, but it is imperishable, and still later 
collections will not forget it. 

Now to the Lord a noble song, 
Awake my soul, awake my tongue! 
Hosanna to the Eternal Name, 
And all His boundless love proclaim. 

See where it shines in Jesus' face. 
The brightest image of His grace! 
God in the person of His Son 
Has all His mightiest works outdone. 

A rather finical question has occurred to some 
minds as to the theology of the word "works'' in 
the last line, making the second person in the God- 
head apparently a creature; and in a few hymn- 
books the previous line has been made to read — 
God in the Gospel of His Son. 

But the question is a rhetorical one, and the poet's 
free expression — here as in hundreds of other 
cases — has never disturbed the general confidence 
in his orthodoxy. 

Montgomery called Watts "the inventor of 
hymns in our language," and the credit stands 
practically undisputed, for Watts made a hymn 
style that no human master taught him, and his 



34 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

model has been the ideal one for song worship ever 
since; and we can pardon the climax when Pro- 
fessor Charles M. Stuart speaks of him as "writer, 
scholar, thinker and saint,'* for in addition to all 
the rest he was a very good man. 

THE TUNE. 

Old "Ames" was for many years the choir 
favorite, and the words of the hymn printed with 
It in the note-book made the association familiar. 
It was, and is, an appropriate selection, though 
in later manuals George Kingsley's "Ware" is 
evidently thought to be better suited to the high- 
toned verse. Good old tunes never "wear out," 
but they do go out of fashion. 

The composer of "Ames," Sigismund Neu- 
komm, Chevalier, was born in Salzburg, Austria, 
July 10, 1778, and was a pupil of Haydn. Though 
not a great genius, his talents procured him access 
and even intimacy in the courts of Germany, France, 
Italy, Portugal and England, and for thirty years he 
composed church anthems and oratorios with pro- 
digious industry. Neukomm's musical productions, 
numbering no less than one thousand, and popularin 
their day, are, however, mostly forgotten, excepting 
his oratorio of " David" and one or two hymn-tunes. 

George Kingsley, author of "Ware," was born 
in Northampton, Mass., July 7, 181 1. Died in 
the Hospital, in the same city, March 14, 1884. He 
compiled eight books of music for young people and 
several manuals of church psalmody, and was for 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 35 

some time a music teacher in Boston , where he played 
the organ at the Hollis St. church. Subsequently he 
became professor of music in Girard College, Phila- 
delphia, and music instructor in the public schools, 
being employed successively as organist (on Lord's 
Day) at Dr. Albert Barnes' and Arch St. churches, 
and finally in Brooklyn at Dr. Storrs' Church 
of the Pilgrims. Returned to Northampton, 1853. 

"EARLY, MY GOD, WITHOUT DELAY. " 

This and the five following hymns, all by Watts, 
are placed in immediate succession, for unity's 
sake — with a fuller notice of the greatest of hymn- 
writers at the end of the series. 

Early, my God, without delay 

I haste to seek Thy face, 
My thirsty spirit faints away 

Without Thy cheering grace. 

In the memories of very old men and women, 
who sang the fugue music of Morgan's "Mont- 
gomery, "still lingers the second stanza and some 
of the "spirit and understanding" with which it 
used to be rendered in meeting on Sunday mornings. 

So pilgrims on the scorching sand, 

Beneath a burning sky, 
Long for a cooling stream at hand 

And they must drink or die. 

THE TUNE. 

Many of the earlier pieces assigned to this hymn 
were either too noisy or too tame. The best and 



36 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

longest-serving is "Lanesboro," which, with its 
expressive duet in the middle and its soaring final 
strain of harmony, never fails to carry the mean- 
ing of the words. It was composed by William 
Dixon, and arranged and adapted by Lowell Mason. 

William Dixon, an English composer, was a 
music engraver and publisher, and author also of 
several glees and anthems. He was born 1750, 
and died about 1825. 

Lowell Mason, born in Medfield, Mass., 1792, has 
been called, not without reason, " the father of Amer- 
ican choir singing." Returning from Savannah, 
Ga., where he spent sixteen years of his younger life 
as clerk in a bank, he located in Boston (1827), being 
already known there as the composer of "The Mis- 
sionary Hymn." He had not neglected his musical 
studies while living in the South, and it was in Savan- 
nah that he made the glorious harmony of that tune. 

He became president of the Handel and Haydn 
Society, went abroad for special study, was made 
Doctor of Music, and collected a store of themes 
among the great models of song to bring home for 
his future work. 

The Boston Academy of Music was founded by 
him and what he did for the song-service of the 
Church in America by his singing schools, and 
musical conventions, and published manuals, to 
form and organize the choral branch of divine 
worship, has no parallel, unless it is Noah Webster's 
service to the English language. 

Dr. Mason died in Orange, N. J., in 1872. 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 37 

" SWEET IS THE WORK, MY GOD, MY KING. " 

This is one of the hymns that helped to give its 
author the title of '' The Seraphic Watts." 

Sweet is the work, my God, my King 
To praise Thy name, give thanks and sing 
To show Thy love by morning hght, 
And talk of all Thy truth at night. 

THE TUNE. 

No nobler one, and more akin in spirit to the 
hymn, can be found than "Duke Street," Hatton's 
imperishable choral. 

Little is known of the John Hatton who wrote 
"Duke St." He was earlier by nearly a century 
than John Liphot Hatton of Liverpool (born in 
1809), who wrote the opera of "Pascal Bruno," 
the cantata of "Robin Hood" and the sacred 
drama of "Hezekiah." The biographical index 
of the Evangelical Hymnal says of John Hatton, the 
author of "Duke St.": "John, of Warrington; af- 
terwards of St. Helens, then resident in Duke St. in 
the township of Windle; composed several hymn- 
tunes; died in 1793.* His funeral sermon was 
preached at the Presbyterian Chapel, St. Helens, 
Dec. 13." 

* 'COME, WE THAT LOVE THE LORD. " 

Watts entitled this hymn "Heavenly Joy on 
Earth." He could possibly, like Madame Guyon, 

♦Tradition says he was killed by being thrown from a stage-coach. 



38 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

have written such a hymn in a dungeon, but it is 
no less spiritual for its birth (as tradition will have 
it) amid the lovely scenery of Southampton where 
he could find in nature "glory begun below/* 

Come, we that love the Lord, 

And let our joys be known; 
Join in a song with sweet accord. 

And thus surround the throne. 

There shall we see His face, 

And never, never sin; 
There, from the rivers of His grace, 

Drink endless pleasures in. 

Children of grace have found 

Glory begun below: 
Celestial fruits on earthly ground 

From faith and hope may grow. 

Mortality and immortality blend their charms 
in the next stanza. The unfailing beauty of the 
vision will be dwelt upon with delight so long as 
Christians sing on earth. 

The hill of Sion yields 

A thousand sacred sweets. 
Before we reach the heavenly fields, 

Or walk the golden streets. 

THE TUNE. 

"St. Thomas" has often been the interpreter of 
the hymn, and still clings to the words in the 
memory of thousands. 

The Italian tune of "Ain" has more music. It 
IS a fugue piece (simplified in some tune-books), 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 



39 



and the joyful traverse of its notes along the staff 
in four-four time, with the momentum of a good 
choir, is exhilarating in the extreme. 

Corelli, the composer, was a master violinist, the 
greatest of his day, and wrote a great deal of 
violin music; and the thought of his glad instru- 
ment may have influenced his work when harmo- 
nizing the four voices of " Ain." 

Arcangelo Corelli was born at Fusignano, in 
1653. He was a sensitive artist, and although 
faultless in Italian music, he was not sure of him- 
self in playing French scores, and once while 
performing with Handel (who resented the slightest 
error), and once again with Scarlatti, leading an 
orchestra in Naples when the king was present, he 
made a mortifying mistake. He took the humili- 
ation so much to heart that he brooded over it till 
he died, in Rome, Jan. 18, 1717. 

For revival meetings the modern tune set to 
"Come we that love the Lord," by Robert Lowry, 
should be mentioned. A shouting chorus is ap- 
pended to it, but it has melody and plenty of stim- 
ulating motion. 

The Rev. Robert Lowry was born in Philadelphia, 
March 12, 1826, and educated at Lewisburg, Pa. 
From his 28th year till his death, 1899, he was a 
faithful and successful minister of Christ, but 
is more widely known as a composer of sacred 
music. 



40 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

" BE THOU EXALTED, O MY GOD. " 

In this hymn the thought of Watts touches the 
eternal summits. Taken from the 57th and io8th 
Psalms — 

Be Thou exalted, O my God, 

Above the heavens v^here angels dwell; 

Thy power on earth be known abroad 
And land to land Thy wonders tell. 

4c )|c % i(( 4: >«c 

High o*er the earth His mercy reigns, 

And reaches to the utmost sky; 
His truth to endless years remains 

When lower worlds dissolve and die. 

THE TUNE. 

Haydn furnished it out of his chorus of morning 
stars, and it was christened "Creation," after the 
name of his great oratorio. It is a march of 
trumpets. 

"BEFORE JEHOVAH'S AWFUL THRONE. " 

No one could mistake the style of Watts in this 
sublime ode. He begins with his foot on Sinai, 
but flies to Calvary with the angel preacher whom 
St. John saw in his Patmos vision : 

Before Jehovah*s awful throne 

Ye nations bow with sacred joy; 
Know that the Lord is God alone; 

He can create and He destroy. 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 4I 

His sovereign power without our aid 
Made us of clay and formed us men, 

And when Hke wandering sheep we stray, 
He brought us to His fold again. 

4: * 4: He 3|c * 

We'll crowd Thy gates with thankful songs, 
High as the heaven our voices raise, 

And earth with her ten thousand tongues 
Shall fill Thy courts with sounding praise. 

TUNE— OLD HUNDRED. 

Martin Madan's four-page anthem, "Den- 
mark," has some grand strains in it, but it is a 
tune of florid and difficult vocalization, and is now 
heard only in Old Folks' Concerts. 

The Rev. Isaac Watts, D.D., was born at 
Southampton, Eng., in 1674. His father was a 
deacon of the Independent Church there, and 
though not an uncultured man himself, he is said 
to have had little patience with the incurable 
penchant of his boy for making rhymes and verses. 
We hear nothing of the lad's mother, but we can 
fancy her hand and spirit in the indulgence of his 
poetic tastes as well as in his religious training. 
The tradition handed down from Dr. Price, a 
colleague of Watts, relates that at the age of 
eighteen Isaac became so irritated at the crabbed 
and untuneful hymns sung at the Nonconformist 
meetings that he complained bitterly of them to 
his father. The deacon may have felt something 



42 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

as Dr. Wayland did when a rather "fresh" student 
criticised the Proverbs, and hinted that making such 
things could not be "much of a job," and the Doc- 
tor remarked, "Suppose you make a few." Possi- 
bly there was the same gentle sarcasm in the reply 
of Deacon Watts to his son, "Make some yourself, 
then." 

Isaac was in just the mood to take his father at 
his word, and he retired and wrote the hymn — 

Behold the glories of the Lamb. 

There must have been a decent tune to carry it, 
for it pleased the worshippers greatly, when it was 
sung in meeting — and that was the beginning of 
Isaac Watts' career as a hymnist. 

So far as scholarship was an advantage, the young 
writer must have been well equipped already, for 
as early as the entering of his fifth year he was 
learning Latin, and at nine learning Greek; at 
eleven, French; and at thirteen, Hebrew. From 
the day of his first success he continued to indite 
hymns for the home church, until by the end of his 
twenty-second year he had written one hundred 
and ten, and in the two following years a hundred 
and forty-four more, besides preparing himself for 
the ministry. No. 7 in the edition of the first one 
hundred and ten, was that royal jewel of all his 
lyric work — 

When I survey the wondrous cross. 

Isaac Watts was ordained pastor of an Inde- 
pendent Church in Mark Lane, London, 1702, but 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 



43 



repeated illness finally broke up his ministry, and 
he retired, an invalid, to the beautiful home of Sir 
Thomas Abney at Theobaldo, invited, as he sup- 
posed, to spend a week, but it was really to spend 
the rest of his life — thirty-six years. 

Numbers of his hymns are cited as having bio- 
graphical or reminiscent color. The stanza in — 

When I can read my title clear, 

— which reads in the original copy, — 

Should earth against my soul engage 
And hellish darts be hurled, 
Then I can smile at Satan's rage 
And face a frowning world, 

— is said to have been an allusion to Voltaire and his 
attack upon the church, while the calm beauty of 
the harbor within view of his home is supposed to 
have been in his eye when he composed the last 
stanza, — 

There shall I bathe my weary soul 

In seas of heavenly rest, 
And not a wave of trouble roll 
Across my peaceful breast. 

According to the record, — 

What shall the dying sinner do ? 

— was one of his "pulpit hymns," and followed a 
sermon preached from Rom. i :i6. Another, — 

And is this life prolonged to you ? 

— after a sermon from I Cor. 3 122; and another, — 

How vast a treasure we possess, 



44 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

— enforced his text, "All things are yours/' The 
hymn, — 

Not all the blood of beasts 

On Jewish altars slain, 

— was, as some say, suggested to the writer by a 
visit to the abbatoir in Smithfield Market. The 
same hymn years afterwards, discovered, we are 
told, in a printed paper wrapped around a shop 
bundle, converted a Jewess, and influenced her to a 
life of Christian faith and sacrifice. 

A young man, hardened by austere and min- 
atory sermons, was melted, says Dr. Belcher, by 
simply reading, — 

Show pity Lord, O Lord, forgive, 
Let a repenting sinner live. 

— and became partaker of a rich religious experience. 
The summer scenery of Southampton, with its 
distant view of the Isle of Wight, was believed to 
have inspired the hymnist sitting at a parlor 
window and gazing across the river Itchen, to 
write the stanza — 

Sweet fields beyond the swelling flood 

Stand drest in living green; 
So to the Jews old Canaan stood 

While Jordan rolled between. 

The hymn, "Unveil thy bosom, faithful tomb," 
was personal, addressed by Watts "to Lucius on 
the death of Seneca." 

A severe heart-trial was the occasion of another 
hymn. When a young man he proposed marriage 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 45 

to Miss Elizabeth Singer, a much-admired young 
lady, talented, beautiful, and good. She rejected 
him — kindly but finally. The disappointment 
was bitter, and in the first shadow of it he wrote, — 

How vain are all things here below, 
How false and yet how fair. 

Miss Singer became the celebrated Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Rowe, the spiritual and poetic beauty of 
whose Meditations once made a devotional text- 
book for pious souls. Of Dr. Watts and his 
offer of his hand and heart, she always said, "I 
loved the jewel, but I did not admire the casket.'' 
The poet suitor was undersized, in habitually 
delicate health — and not handsome. 

But the good minister and scholar found noble 
employment to keep his mind from preying upon 
itself and shortening his days. During his long 
though afflicted leisure he versified the Psalms, 
wrote a treatise on Logic, an Introduction to the 
Study of Astronomy and Geography, and a work 
On the Improvement of the Mind; and died in 
1748, at the age of seventy-four. 

"O FOR A THOUSAND TONGUES TO SING. " 

Charles Wesley, the author of this hymn, took up 
the harp of Watts when the older poet laid it down. 
He was born at Epworth, Eng., in 1708, the third 
son of Rev. Samuel Wesley, and died in London, 
March 29, 1788. The hymn is believed to have 



46 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

been written May 17, 1739, for the anniversary of 
his own conversion : 

O for a thousand tongues to sing 

My great Redeemer's praise, 
The glories of my God and King, 

And triumphs of His grace. 

The remark of a fervent Christian friend, Peter 
Bohler, "Had I a thousand tongues I would praise 
Christ Jesus with them all," struck an answering 
chord in Wesley's heart, and he embalmed the 
wish in his fluent verse. The third stanza (printed 
as second in some hymnals), has made language for 
* pardoned souls for at least four generations: 

Jesus! the name that calms our fears 

And bids our sorrows cease; 
*Tis music in the sinner's ears, 

'Tis life and health and peace. 

Charles Wesley was the poet of the soul, and 
knew every mood. In the w^ords of Isaac Taylor, 
"There is no main article of belief. . . .no moral 
sentiment peculiarly characteristic of the gospel 
that does not find itself. . . .pointedly and clearly 
conveyed in some stanza of Charles Wesley's 
poetry." And it does not dim the lustre of Watts, 
considering the marvellous brightness,versatility and 
felicity of his greatest successor, to say of the latter, 
with the London Quarterly, that he "was, perhaps, 
the most gifted minstrel of the modern Church." 

Most of the hymns of this good man were hymns 
of experience — and this is why they are so dear to 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 47 

the Christian heart. The music of eternal Hfe is 
in them. The happy glow of a single line in one 
of them — 

Love Divine, all loves excelling, 

— thrills through them all. He led a spotless life 
from youth to old age, and grew unceasingly in 
spiritual knowledge and sweetness. His piety 
and purity were the weapons that alike humbled 
his scoffing fellow scholars at Oxford, and con- 
quered the wild colliers of Kingwood. With his 
brother John, through persecution and ridicule, he 
preached and sang that Divine Love to his country- 
men and in the wilds of America, and on their 
return to England his quenchless melodies multi- 
plied till they made an Evangelical literature 
around his name. His hymns — he wrote no less 
than six thousand — are a liturgy not only for the 
Methodist Church but for English-speaking Chris- 
tendom. 

The voices of Wesley and Watts cannot be 
hidden, whatever province of Christian life and 
service is traversed in themes of song, and in these 
chapters they will be heard again and again. 

A Watts-and-Wesley Scholarship would grace 
any Theological Seminary, to encourage the study 
and discussion of the best lyrics of the two great 
Gospel bards. 

THE TUNES. 

The musical mouth-piece of "O for a thousand 
tongues," nearest to its own date, is old "Azmon" 



48 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

by Carl Glaser (i 734-1829), appearing as No. i 
in the New Methodist Hymnal. Arranged by 
Lowell Mason, 1830, it is still comparatively 
familiar, and the flavor of devotion is in its tone 
and style. 

Dr. Henry John Gauntlett, Vicar of Olney, 
Buckinghamshire, wrote a tune for it in 1872, noble 
in its uniform step and time, but scarcely uttering 
the hymnist's characteristic ardor. 

The tune of "Dedham," by William Gardiner, 
now venerable but surviving by true merit, is not 
unlike "Azmon" in movement and character. 
Though less closely associated with the hymn, as 
a companion melody it is not inappropriate. But 
whatever the range of vocalization or the dignity 
of swells and cadences, a slow pace of single semi- 
breves or quarters is not suited to Wesley's hymns. 
They are flights. 

Professor William Gardiner wrote many works 
on musical subjects early in the last century, and 
composed vocal harmonies, secular and sacred. 
He was born in Leicester, Eng., March 5, 1770, 
and died there Nov. 16, 1853. 

There is an old-fashioned unction and vigor in 
the style of "Peterborough" by Rev. Ralph 
Harrison (1748-1810) that after all best satisfies 
the singer who enters heart and soul into the spirit 
of the hymn. Old Peterborough was composed in 
1786. 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP. 49 

" LORD WITH GLOWING HEART FD PRAISE THEE. " 

This was written in 18 17 by the author of the 
*'Star Spangled Banner," and is a noble American 
hymn of which the country may well be proud, 
both because of its merit and for its birth in the 
heart of a national poet who was no less a Christian 
than a patriot. 

Francis Scott Key, lawyer, was born on the 
estate of his father, John Ross Key, in Frederick, 
Md., Aug. 1st, 1779; and died in Baltimore, Jan. 
II, 1843. A bronze statue of him over his grave, 
and another in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, 
represent the nationality of his fame and the 
gratitude of a whole land. 

Though a slaveholder by inheritance, Mr. Key 
deplored the existence of human slavery, and not 
only originated a scheme of African colonization, 
but did all that a model master could do for the 
chattels on his plantation, in compliance with the 
Scripture command,* to lighten their burdens. 
He helped them in their family troubles, defended 
them gratuitously in the courts, and held regular 
Sunday-school services for them. 

Educated at St. John's College, an active 
member of the Episcopal Church, he was not only 
a scholar but a devout and exemplary man. 

Lord, with glowing heart I'd praise Thee 

For the bliss Thy love bestows, 
For the pardoning grace that saves me, 

And the peace that from it flows. 

*Eph. 6: 9, Coloss. 4: 1. 



50 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Help, O Lord, my weak endeavor; 

This dull soul to rapture raise; 
Thou must light the flame or never 

Can my love be warmed to praise. 

Lord, this bosom's ardent feeling 

Vainly would my life express; 
Low before Thy footstool kneeling. 

Deign Thy suppliant's prayer to bless. 

Let Thy grace, my soul's chief treasure, 
Love's pure flame within me raise. 

And, since words can never measure, 
Let my life show forth Thy praise. 

THE TUNE. 

"St. Chad," a choral in D, with a four-bar 
unison, in the Evangelical Hymnal, is worthy of 
the hymn. Richard Redhead, the composer, 
organist of the Church of St. Mary Magdalene, 
Paddington, Eng., was born at Harrow, Middle- 
sex, March i, 1820, and educated at Magdalene 
College, Oxford. Graduated Bachelor of Music 
at Oxford, 1871. He published Laudes DomincBy 
a Gregorian Psalter, 1843, a Book of Tunes for 
the Christian Tear, and is the author of much rit- 
ual music. 

" HOLY, HOLY, HOLY, LORD GOD ALMIGHTY ." 

There is nothing so majestic in Protestant hym- 
nology as this Tersanctus of Bishop Heber. 

The Rt. Rev. Reginald Heber, son of a clergy- 
man of the same name, was born in Malpas, 



HYMNS OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP 5 1 

Cheshire, Eng., April 2ist, 1783, and educated 
at Oxford. He served the church in Hodnet, 
Shropshire, for about twenty years, and was then 
appointed Bishop of Calcutta, E. I. His labors 
there were cut short in the prime of his life, his 
death occurring in 1826, at Trichinopoly on the 
3d of April, his natal month. 

His hymns, numbering fifty-seven, were collected 
by his widow, and published with his poetical 
works in 1842. 

Holy! holy! holy! Lord God Almighty! 

Early in the morning our song shall rise to Thee. 
Holy! holy! holy! merciful and mighty, 

God in Three Persons, blessed Trinity. 

Holy! holy! holy! all the saints adore Thee, 

Casting down their golden crowns around the glassy sea; 

Cherubim and seraphim, falling down before Thee, 
Which wert, and art, and evermore shall be. 

THE TUNE. 

Grand as the hymn is, it did not come to its full 
grandeur of sentiment and sound in song-worship 
till the remarkable music of Dr. John B. Dykes 
was joined to it. None was ever written that in 
performance illustrates more admirably the solemn 
beauty of congregational praise. The name 
"Nicaea" attached to the tune means nothing to 
the popular ear and mind, and it is known every- 
where by the initial words of the first line. 

Rev. John Bacchus Dykes, Doctor of Music, 
was born at Kingston-upon-Hull, in 1823; ^"^ 



52 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

graduated at Cambridge, in 1847. He became a 
master of tone and choral harmony, and did much 
to reform and elevate congregational psalmody 
in England. He was perhaps the first to demon- 
strate that hymn-tune making can be reduced to a 
science without impairing its spiritual purpose. 
Died Jan. 22, 1876. 

* TORD OF ALL BEING, THRONED AFAR. " 

This noble hymn was composed by Dr. Oliver 
Wendell Holmes, born in Cambridge, Mass., 1809, 
and graduated at Harvard University. A physician 
by profession, he was known as a practitioner 
chiefly in literature, being a brilliant writer and 
long the leading poetical wit of America. He was, 
however, a man of deep religious feeling, and a 
devout attendant at King's Chapel, Unitarian, in 
Boston where he spent his life. He held the 
Harvard Professorship of Anatomy and Physiology 
more than fifty years, but his enduring work is in 
his poems, and his charming volume, The Auto- 
crat of the Breakfast Table. Died Jan. 22, 1896. 

THE TUNE. 

Holmes' hymn is sung in some churches to 
"Louvan," V. C.Taylor's admirable praise tune. 
Other hymnals prefer with it the music of " Keble," 
one of Dr. Dykes' appropriate and finished melodies. 

Virgil Corydon Taylor, an American vocal com- 
poser, was born in Barkhamstead, Conn., April 2, 
1817, died 1891. 



CHAPTER II 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT 
WITNESSES. 



JOHN OF DAMASCUS. 

"Ep/saGe, J) xiaTOi, 
'AvaaTic7£(i)c; 'H^lpa. 

John of Damascus, called also St. John of 
Jerusalem, a theologian and poet, was the last 
but one of the Christian Fathers of the Greek 
Church. This eminent man was named by the 
Arabs " Ibn Mansur," Son (Servant .?) of a Con- 
queror, either in honor of his father Sergius or 
because it was a Semitic translation of his family 
title. He was born in Damascus early in the 8th 
century, and seems to have been in favor with the 
Caliph, and served under him many years in some 
important civil capacity, until, retiring to Palestine, 
he entered the monastic order, and late in life was 
ordained a priest of the Jerusalem Church. He 
died in the Convent of St. Sabas near that city 
about A. D. 780. 

His lifetime appears to have been passed in 

(53) 



54 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

comparative peace. Mohammed having died 
before completing the conquest of Syria, the 
Moslem rule before whose advance Oriental 
Christianity was to lose its first field of triumph 
had not yet asserted its persecuting power in the 
north. This devout monk, in his meditations at 
St. Sabas, dwelt much upon the birth and the 
resurrection of Christ, and made hymns to cele- 
brate them. It was probably four hundred years 
before Bonaventura ( .^) wrote the Christmas 
"Adeste Fideles" of the Latin West that John of 
Damascus composed his Greek "Adeste Fideles" 
for a Resurrection song in Jerusalem. 

Come ye faithful, raise the strain 
Of triumphant gladness. 

****** 

*Tis the spring of souls today 

Christ hath burst His prison; 
From the frost and gloom of death 

Light and life have risen. 

The nobler of the two hymns preserved to us, 
(or six stanzas of it) through eleven centuries is 
entitled "The Day of Resurrection." 

The day of resurrection, 

Earth, tell its joys abroad: 
The Passover of gladness, 

The Passover of God. 
From death to life eternal. 

From earth unto the sky. 
Our Christ hath brought us over. 

With hymns of victory. 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 55 

Our hearts be pure from evil, 

That we may see aright 
The Lord in rays eternal 

Of resurrection light; 
And, listening to His accents. 

May hear, so calm and plain, 
His own, "All hail!'* and hearing. 

May raise the victor-strain. 

Now let the heavens be joyful. 

Let earth her song begin. 
Let all the world keep triumph, 

All that dwell therein. 
In grateful exultation. 

Their notes let all things blend, 
For Christ the Lord is risen, 

O joy that hath no end! 

Both these hymns of John of Damascus were 
translated by John Mason Neale. 

THE TUNE. 

"The Day of Resurrection" is sung in the 
modern hymnals to the tune of "Rotterdam," 
composed by Berthold of Tours, born in that city of 
the Netherlands, Dec. 17, 1838. He was educated 
at the conservatory in Leipsic, and later made 
London his permanent residence, writing both 
vocal and instrumental music. Died 1897. "Rot- 
terdam" is a stately, sonorous piece and conveys 
the flavor of the ancient hymn. 

"Come ye faithful" has for its modern inter- 
preter Sir Arthur Sullivan, the celebrated com- 
poser of both secular and sacred works, but best 



56 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

known in hymnody as author of the great Christian 
march, "Onward Christian Soldiers/' 

Hymns are known to have been written by the 
earHer Greek Fathers, Ephrem Syrus of Mesopo- 
tamia (A. D. 307-373), Basil the Great, Bishop 
of Cappadocia (A. D. 329-379) Gregory Nazi- 
anzen, Bishop of Constantinople (A. D. 335-390) 
and others, but their fragments of song which have 
come down to us scarcely rank them among the 
great witnesses — with the possible exception of the 
last name. An English scholar, Rev. Allen W. 
Chatfield, has translated the hymns extant of 
Gregory Nazianzen. The following stanzas give 
an idea of their quality. The lines are from an 
address to the Deity: 

How, Unapproached! shall mind of man 

Descry Thy dazzling throne, 
And pierce and find Thee out, and scan 

Where Thou dost dwell alone } 

Unuttered Thou! all uttered things 

Have had their birth from Thee; 
The One Unknown, from Thee the spring 

Of all we know and see. 

And lo! all things abide in Thee 

And through the complex whole, 
Thou spreadst Thine own divinity, 

Thyself of all the Goal. 

This is reverent, but rather philosophical than 
evangelical, and reminds us of the Hymn of 
Aratus, more than two centuries before Christ 
was born. 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 57 

ST. STEPHEN, THE SABAITE. 

This pious Greek monk, (734-794,) nephew of 
St. John of Damascus, spent his hfe, from the age 
of ten, in the monastery of St. Sabas. His sweet 
hymn, known in Neale's translation, — 

Art thou weary, art thou languid, 

Art thou sore distrest .? 
Come to Me, saith One, and coming 
Be at rest, 

— is still in the hymnals, with the tunes of Dykes, 
and Sir Henry W. Baker (1821-1877), Vicar of 
Monkland, Herefordshire. 

^_, KING ROBERT IL ..^.^ 

Fent^ Sancte Spiritus. 

Robert the Second, surnamed "Robert the Sage" 
and "Robert the Devout,'' succeeded Hugh Capet, 
his father, upon the throne of France, about the 
year 997. He has been called the gentlest monarch 
that ever sat upon a throne, and his amiability of 
character poorly prepared him to cope with his 
dangerous and wily adversaries. His last years 
were embittered by the opposition of his own sons, 
and the political agitations of the times. He died 
at Melun in 103 1, and was buried at St. Denis. 

Robert possessed a reflective mind, and was fond 
of learning and musical art. He was both a poet 
and a musician. He was deeply religious, and, from 
unselfish motives, was much devoted to the church. 



\ 



5? STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Robeit's hymn, *' Veni, Sancte Splritus," is given 
below. He himself was a chorister; and there was 
no kingly service that he seemed to love so well. 
We are told that it was his custom to go to the 
church of St. Denis, and in his royal robes, with 
his crown upon his head, to direct the choir at 
matins and vespers, and join in the singing. Few 
kings have left a better legacy to the Christian 
church than his own hymn, which, after nearly a 
thousand years, is still an influence in the world: 

Come, Thou Holy Spirit, come, 
And from Thine eternal home 

Shed the ray of light divine; 
Come, Thou Father of the poor, 
Come, Thou Source of all our store, 

Come, within our bosoms shine. 

Thou of Comforters the best. 

Thou the soul's most welcome Guest, 

Sweet Refreshment here below! 
In our labor Rest most sweet, 
Grateful Shadow from the heat, 

Solace in the midst of woe! 

Oh, most blessed Light Divine, 
Shine within these hearts of Thine, 

And our inmost being fill; 
If Thou take Thy grace away. 
Nothing pure in man will stay. 

All our good is turned to ill. 

Heal our wounds; our strength renew 
On our dryness pour Thy dew; 

Wash the stains of guilt away! 
Bend the stubborn heart and will, 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 59 

Melt the frozen, warm the chill, 
Guide the steps that go astray. 

„„0m~' Neale*s Translation. 

THE TUNE. 

The metre and six-line stanza, being uniform 
with those of "Rock of Ages," have tempted some 
to borrow "Toplady" for this ancient hymn, but 
Hastings' tune would refuse to sing other words; 
and, besides, the alternate rhymes would mar the 
euphony. Not unsuitable in spirit are several 
existing tunes of the right measure — like "Nassau" 
or "St. Athanasius" — but in truth the "Veni, 
Sancte Spiritus" in English waits for its perfect 
setting. Dr. Ray Palmer's paraphrase of it in 
sixes-and-fours, to fit " Olivet," — 

Come, Holy Ghost in love, etc. 

— is objectionable both because the word Ghost is 
an archaism in Christian worship and more 
especially because Dr. Palmer's altered version 
usurps the place of his own hymn. "Olivet" 
with "My faith looks up to Thee" makes as in- 
violable a case of psalmodic monogamy as "Top- 
lady " with " Rock of Ages." 

ST. FULBERT. 



"Chori Cantores Hterusalem Novae.** 

St. Fulbert's hymn is a worthy companion of 
Perronet's "Coronation" — if, indeed, it was not 



6o STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Its original prompter — as King Roberts' great 
litany was the mother song of Watts'*' Come, Holy 
Spirit, heavenly Dove," and the countless other 
sacred lyrics beginning w^ith similar v^ords. As 
the translation stands in the Church of England, 
there are six stanzas now sung, though in America 
but four appear, and not in the same sequence. 
The first four of the six in their regular succession 
are as follows: 

Ye choirs of New Jerusalem, 

Your sweetest notes employ, 
The Paschal victory to hymn 

In strains of holy joy. 

For Judah*s Lion bursts His chains, 

Crushing the serpent's head; 
And cries aloud, through death's domains 

To wake the imprisoned dead. 

Devouring depths of hell their prey 

At His command restore; 
His ransomed hosts pursue their way 

Where Jesus goes before. 

Triumphant in His glory now, 

To Him all power is given; 
To Him in one communion bow 

All saints in earth and heaven. 

Bishop Fulbert, known in the Roman and in 
the Protestant ritualistic churches as St. Fulbert of 
Chartres, was a man of brilliant and versatile 
mind, and one of the most eminent prelates of his 
time. He was a contemporary of Robert II, and 
his intimate friend, continuing so after the Pope 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 6l 

(Gregory V.) excommunicated the king for marrying 
a cousin, which was forbidden by the canons of 
the church. 

Fulbert was for some time head of the Theo- 
logical College at Chartres, a cathedral town of 
France, anciently the capital of Celtic Gaul, and 
afterwards he was consecrated as Bishop of that 
diocese. He died about 1029. 

THE TUNE. 

The modern tone-interpreter of Fulbert's hymn 
bears the name "La Spezia" in some collections, 
and was composed by James Taylor about the 
time the hymn was translated into English by 
Robert Campbell. Research might discover the 
ancient tune — for the hymn is said to have been 
sung in the English church during Fulbert's life- 
time — but the older was little likely to be the better 
music. "La Spezia" is a choral of enlivening but 
easy chords, and a tread of triumph in its musical 
motion that suits the march of " Judah's Lion" : 

His ransomed hosts pursue their way 
Where Jesus goes before. 

James Taylor, born 1833, is a Doctor of Music, 
organist of the University of Oxford and Director 
of the Oxford Philharmonic Society. 

Robert Campbell, the translator, was a Scotch 
lav^er, born in Edinburgh, who besides his work 
as an advocate wrote original hymns, and in other 
ways exercised a natural literary gift. He compiled 



62 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

the excellent Hymnal of the diocese of St. Andrews, 
and this was his best work. The date of his death 
is given as Dec. 29, 1868. 

THOMAS OF CELANO. 



Dies irae! dies ilia, 
Solvet saeclum in favilla. 
Teste David cum Sybilla. 

Day of wrath! that day of burning. 
All the world to ashes turning, 
Sung by prophets far discerning. 

Latin ecclesiastical poetry reached its high 
water mark in that awful hymn. The solitaire of 
its sphere and time in the novelty of its rhythmic 
triplets, it stood a wonder to the church and 
hierarchy accustomed to the slow spondees of the 
ancient chant. There could be such a thing as a 
trochaic hymn! — and majestic, too! 

It was a discovery that did not stale. The com- 
pelling grandeur of the poem placed it distinct and 
alone, and the very difficulty of staffing it for vocal 
and instrumental use gave it a zest, and helped to 
keep it unique through the ages. 

Latin hymnody and hymnography, appealing 
to the popular ear and heart, had gradually sub- 
stituted accent for quantity in verse; for the com- 
mon people could never be moved by a Christian 
song in the prosody of the classics. The religion 
of the cross, with the song-preaching of its pro- 
pagandists, created medieval Latin and made it 




Dr. Martin 
Luther 




SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 63 

a secondary classic — mother of four anthem 
languages of Western and Southern Europe. Its 
golden age was the I2th and 13th centuries. The 
new and more flexible school of speech and music 
in hymn and tune had perfected rhythmic beauty 
and brought in the winsome assonance of rhyme. 

The "Dies Irae" was born, it is believed, about 
the year 1255. Its authorship has been debated, 
but competent testimony assures us that the 
original draft of the great poem was found in a 
box among the effects of Thomas di Celano after 
his death. Thomas — surnamed Thomas of Celano 
from his birthplace, the town of Celano in the prov- 
ince of Aquila, Southern Italy — ^was the pupil, friend 
and co-laborer of St. Francis of Assisi, and wrote his 
memoirs. He is supposed to have died near the end 
of the 13th century. That he wrote the sublime 
judgment song there is now practically no question. 

The label on the discovered manuscript would 
suggest that the writer did not consider it either 
a hymn or a poem. Like the inspired prophets he 
had meditated — and while he was musing the fire 
burned. The only title he wrote over it was 
" Prosa de mortuis,*' Prosa (or prosa oratio) — 
from prorsus, "straight forward" — appears here 
in the truly conventional sense it was beginning to 
bear, but not yet as the antipode of "poetry." 
The modest author, unconscious of the magnitude 
of his work, called it simply "Plain speech con- 
cerning the dead."* 

* *'Proses" were original passages introduced into ecclesiastical chants in the 



64 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

The hymn is much too long to quote entire, but 
can be found in Daniel's Thesaurus in any large 
public library. As to the translations of it, they 
number hundreds — in English and German alone, 
and Italy, Spain and Portugal have their ver- 
nacular versions — not to mention the Greek and 
Russian and even the Hebrew. A fev^ stanzas fol- 
low, with their renderings into EngHsh (always 
imperfect) selected almost at random : 

Quantus tremor est futurus 
Quando Judex est venturus, 
Cuncta stricte discussurus! 

Tuba mirum spargens sonum 
Per sepulcra regionum, 
Coget omnes ante thronum! 

O the dread, the contrite kneehng 
When the Lord, in Judgment dealing, 
Comes each hidden thing reveaHng! 

When the trumpet's awful tone 
Through the realms sepulchral blown, 
Summons all before the Throne! 

The solemn strength and vibration of these 
tremendous trihneals suffers no general injury by 
the variant readings — and there are a good many. 
As a sample, the first stanza was changed by some 
canonical redactor to get rid of the heathen word 
Sybilla, and the second line was made the third : 

loth century. During and after the i ith century they were called "Sequences" 
(i. e. following the "Gospel" in the liturgy), and were in metrical form, having 
a prayerful tone. "Sequentia pro defunctis" was the later title of the "Dies 
Irae." 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 65 

Dies Irae, dies ilia 
Crucis expandens vexilla, 
Solvet saeclum in favilla. 

Day of wrath! that day foretold, 
With the cross-flag wide unrolled, 
Shall the world in fire enfold I 

In some readings the original "in favilla'* is 
changed to *'rz/w favilla," "wz//z ashes" instead of 
*'in ashes"; and "Teste Petro" is substituted 
for "Teste David." 

THE TUNE, 

The varieties of music set to the "Hymn of 
Judgment" in the different sections and languages 
of Christendom during seven hundred years are 
probably as numerous as the pictures of the Holy 
Family in Christian art. It is enough to say that 
one of the best at hand, or, at least, accessible, is 
the solemn minor melody of Dr. Dykes in William 
Henry Monk's Hymns Ancient and Modern. It 
was composed about the middle of the last century. 
Both the Evangelical and Methodist Hymnals have 
Dean Stanley's translation of the hymn, the 
former with thirteen stanzas (six-line) to a D 
minor of John Stainer, and the latter to a C major 
of Timothy Matthews. The Plymouth Hymnal 
has seventeen of the trilineal stanzas, by an un- 
known translator, to Ferdinand Hiller's tune in 
F minor, besides one verse to another F minor — 
hymn and tune both nameless. 



66 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

All the composers above named are musicians 
of fame. John Stainer, organist of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, was a Doctor of Music and Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor, and celebrated for his v^orks 
in sacred music, to which he mainly devoted his 
time. He was born June 6, 1840. He died March 
31,1901. 

Rev. Timothy Richard Matthews, born at Colm- 
worth, Eng., Nov. 20, 1826, is a clergyman of the 
Church of England, incumbent of a Lancaster 
charge to which he was appointed by Queen Alex- 
andra. 

Ferdinand Hiller, born 181 1 at Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, of Hebrew parentage, was one of Germany's 
most eminent musicians. For many years he was 
Chapel Master at Cologne, and organized the 
Cologne Conservatory. His compositions are 
mostly for instrumental performance, but he wrote 
cantatas, motets, male choruses, and two oratorios, 
one on the "Destruction of Jerusalem." Died 
May 10, 1855. 

The Very Rev. Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, Dean 
of Westminster, was an author and scholar whom 
all sects of Christians delighted to honor. His 
writings on the New Testament and his published 
researches in Palestine, made him an authority in 
Biblical study, and his contributions to sacred 
literature were looked for and welcomed as eagerly 
as a new hymn by Bonar or a new poem by Tenny- 
son. Dean Stanley was born in 1815, and died 
July 1 8th, 1 88 1. 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 67 

THOMAS A KEMPIS. 

Thomas h Kempis, sub-prior of the Convent 
of St. Agnes, was born at Hamerkin, Holland, 
about the year 1380, and died at Zwoll, 147 1. This 
pious monk belonged to an order called the 
*' Brethren of the Common Life" founded by 
Gerard de Groote, and his fame rests entirely upon 
his one book, the Imitation of Christ, which 
continues to be printed as a religious classic, and 
is unsurpassed as a manual of private devotion. 
His monastic life — as was true generally of the 
monastic life of the middle ages — was not one of 
useless idleness. The Brethren taught school and 
did mechanical work. Besides, before the in- 
vention of printing had been perfected and brought 
into common service, the multiplication of books 
was principally the work of monkish pens. Kem- 
pis spent his days copying the Bible and good 
books — as well as in exercises of devotion that 
promoted religious calm. 

His idea of heaven, and the idea of his order, 
was expressed in that clause of John's description 
of the City of God, Rev. 22:3, *' and His servants 
shall serve Him.'^ Above all other heavenly joys 
that was his favorite thought. We can well under- 
stand that the pious quietude wrought in his mind 
and manners by his habit of life made him a saint 
in the eyes of the people. The frontispiece of one 
edition of his Imitatio Christi pictures him as 



68 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

being addressed before the door of a convent by 
a troubled pilgrim, — 

**0 where is peace ? — for thou its paths hast trod," 
— and his answer completes the couplet, — 

**In poverty, retirement, and with God." 

Of all that is best in inward spiritual life, much 
can be learned from this inspired Dutchman. 
He wrote no hymns, but in his old age he com- 
posed a poem on "Heaven's Joys," which is some- 
times called "Thomas k Kempis' Hymn'* : 

High the angel choirs are raising 

Heart and voice in harmony; 
The Creator King still praising 

Whom in beauty there they see. 

Sweetest strains from soft harps stealing. 

Trumpets* notes of triumph pealing, 

Radiant wings and white stoles gleaming 

Up the steps of glory streaming; 

Where the heavenly bells are ringing; 
"Holy! holy! holy!" singing 

To the mighty Trinity! 
"Holy! holy! holy!" crying, • 

For all earthly care and sighing 
In that city cease to be! 

These lines are not in the hymnals of today — 
and whether they ever found their way into choral 
use in ancient times we are not told. Worse poetry 
has been sung — and more un-hymnlike. Some 
future composer will make a tune to the words of a 
Christian who stood almost in sight of his hundredth 
year — and of the eternal home he writes about. 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 69 

MARTIN LUTHER. 



"Ein Feste Burg 1st U riser Gott" 

Of Martin Luther Coleridge said, "He did as 
much for the Reformation by his hymns as he did 
by his translation of the Bible." The remark is so 
true that it has become a commonplace. 

The above line — which may be seen inscribed 
on Luther's tomb at Wittenburg — is the opening 
sentence and key-note of the Reformer's grandest 
hymn. The forty-sixth Psalm inspired it, and it 
is in harmony with sublime historical periods 
from its very nature, boldness, and sublimity. It 
was written, according to Welles, in the memorable 
year when the evangelical princes delivered their 
protest at the Diet of Spires, from which the word and 
the meaning of the word "Protestant" is derived. 
"Luther used often to sing it in 1530, while the 
Diet of Augsburg was sitting. It soon became the 
favorite psalm with the people. It was one of the 
watchwords of the Reformation, cheering armies 
to conflict, and sustaining believers in the hours of 
fiery trial." 

"After Luther's death, Melancthon, his aflPection- 
ate coadjutor, being one day at Weimar with his 
banished friends, Jonas and Creuziger, heard a 
little maid singing this psalm in the street, and 
said, *Sing on, my little girl, you little know whom 
you com! 



ifort:'" 



A mighty fortress is our God, 
A bulwark never failing; 



70 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Our helper He, amid the flood 

Of mortal ills prevailing. 
For still our ancient foe 
Doth seek to work us woe; 
His craft and power are great. 
And, armed with cruel hate, 

On earth is not his equal. 

* 4c :4c :|c :(c * 

The Prince of Darkness grim — - 
We tremble not for him: 
His rage we can endure, 
For lo! his doom is sure. 

One little word shall fell him. 

That word above all earthly powers — 

No thanks to them — abideth; 
The Spirit and the gifts are ours. 

Through Him who with us sideth. 
Let goods and kindred go, 
This mortal life also; 
The body they may kill, 
God's truth abideth still, 

His kingdom is for ever. 

Martin Luther was born in Eisleben, in Saxony, 
Nov. 10, 1483. He was educated at the University 
of Erfurth, and became an Augustinian monk 
and Professor of Philosophy and Divinity in the 
University of Wittenberg. In 15 17 he composed 
and placarded his ninety-five Theses condemning 
certain practices of the Romish Church and three 
years later the Pope published a bull excom- 
municating him, w^hich he burnt openly before a 
sympathetic multitude in Wittenberg. His life 
was a stormy one, and he was more than once in 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 7 1 

mortal danger by reason of his antagonism to the 
papal authority, but he found powerful patrons, 
and lived to see the Reformation an organized fact. 
He died in his birthplace, Eisleben, Feb. i8th, 

The translation of the *'Ein feste burg," given 
above, in part, is by Rev. Frederick Henry Hedge, 
D.D., born in Cambridge, March 1805, a graduate 
of Harvard, and formerly minister of the Unitarian 
Church in Bangor, Me. Died, 1890. 

Luther wrote thirty-six hymns, to some of which 
he fitted his own music, for he was a musician and 
singer as well as an eloquent preacher. The tune 
in which ''Ein feste Burg" is sung in the hymnals, 
was composed by himself. The hymn has also a 
noble rendering in the music of Sebastian Bach, 
8-4 time, found in Hymns Ancient and Modern, 

BARTHOLOMEW RINGWALDT. 
"Great God, What Do I See and Hear?" 

The history of this hymn is somewhat indefinite, 
though common consent now attributes to Ring- 
waldt the stanza beginning with the above line. 
The Imitation of the "Dies Irae" in German 
which was first in use was printed in Jacob Klug's 
*' Gesanghuch'^ in 1535. Ringwaldt's hymn of 
the Last Day, also inspired from the ancient Latin 
original, appears in his Handhuchlin of 1586, 
but does not contain this stanza. The first line is, 
"The awful Day will surely come," (Es ist 



72 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

gewisslich an der Zeit). Nevertheless through 
the more than two hundred years that the hymn 
has been translated and re-translated, and gone 
through inevitable revisions, some vital identity 
in the spirit and tone of the one seven-line stanza 
has steadily connected it with Ringwaldt*s name. 
Apparently it is the single survivor of a great lost 
hymn — edited and altered out of recognition. 
But its power evidently inspired the added verses, 
as we have them. Dr. Collyer found it, and, 
regretting that it was too short to sing in public 
service, composed stanzas 2d, 3d and 4th. It is 
likely that Collyer first met with it in Psalms and 
Hymns for Public and Private Devotion, Sheffield 
1802, where it appeared anonymously. So far as 
known this was its first publication in English. 
Ringwaldt's stanza and two of Collyer*s are here 
given : 

Great God, what do I see and hear! 

The end of things created! 
The Judge of mankind doth appear 

On clouds of glory seated. 
The trumpet sounds, the graves restore 
The dead which they contained before; 

Prepare, my soul, to meet Him. 

The dead in Christ shall first arise 

At the last trumpet sounding, 
Caught up to meet Him in the skies. 

With joy their Lord surrounding. 
No gloomy fears their souls dismay 
His presence sheds eternal day 

On those prepared to meet Him. 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 73 

Far over space to distant spheres 

The hghtnings are prevailing 
Th* ungodly rise, and all their tears 

And sighs are unavailing. 
The day of grace is past and gone; 
They shake before the Judge's Throne 

All unprepared to meet Him. 

Batholomew Ringwaldt, pastor of the Lutheran 
Church of Longfeld, Prussia, was born in 1531, 
and died in 1599. His hymns appear in a col- 
lection entitled Hymns for the Sundays and Festi- 
vals of the IV hole Tear. 

Rev. William Bengo Collyer D.D., was born 
at Blackheath near London, April 14, 1782, 
educated at Homerton College and settled over a 
Congregational Church in Peckham. In 18 12 he 
published a book of hymns, and in 1837 a Service 
Book to which he contributed eighty-nine hymns. 
He died Jan. 9, 1854. 

THE TUNE, 

Probably it was the customary singing of Ring- 
waldt's hymn (in Germany) to Luther's tune that 
gave it for some time the designation of "Luther's 
Hymn," the title by which the music is still known 
— an air either composed or adapted by Luther, 
and rendered perhaps unisonously or with ex- 
tempore chords. It was not until early in the last 
century that Vincent Novello wrote to it the noble 
arrangement now in use. It is a strong, even-time 
harmony with lofty tenor range, and very im- 



74 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

pressive with full choir and organ or the vocal 
volume of a congregation. In Cheetharns Psalmody 
is it written with a trumpet obligato. 

Vincent Novello, born in London, Sept. 6, 1781, 
the intimate friend of Lamb, Shelley, Keats, Hunt 
and Hazlitt, was a professor of music w^ho attained 
great eminence as an organist and composer of 
hymn-tunes and sacred pieces. He was the 
founder of the publishing house of Novello and 
Ewer, and father of a famous musical family. 
Died at Nice, Aug. 9, 1861. 

ST. FRANCIS XAVIER. 



"0 Deus, Ego Amo Te." 

Francis Xavier, the celebrated Jesuit missionary, 
called "The Apostle of the Indies," was a Spaniard, 
born In 1506. While a student in Paris he met 
Ignatius Loyola, and joined him in the formation 
of the new "Society for the Propagation of the 
Faith." He was sent out on a mission to the East 
Indies and Japan, and gave himself to the work 
with a martyr's devotion. The stations he estab- 
lished in Japan were maintained more than a 
hundred years. He died In China, Dec. 1552. 

His hymn, some time out of use, is being revived 
in later singing-books as expressive of the purest 
and highest Christian sentiment: 

O Deus, ego amo Te. 
Nee amo Te, ut salves me, 
Aut quia non amantes Te 
-^terno punis igne. 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 75 

My God, I love Thee — not because 

I hope for heaven thereby; 
Nor yet because v^ho love Thee not 

Must burn eternally. 

After recounting Christ's vicarious sufferings 
as the chief claim to His disciples' unselfish love, 
the hymn continues, — 

Cur igitur non amem Te, 
O Jesu amantissime! 
Non, ut in coelo salves me, 
Aut in aeternum damnes me. 

Then why, O blessed Jesus Christ, 

Should I not love Thee w^ell ? 
Not for the sake of winning heaven, 

Nor of escaping hell; 

Not with the hope of gaining aught, 

Nor seeking a reward, 
But as Thyself hast loved me. 

Oh, ever-loving Lord! 

E'en so I love Thee, and will love, 

And in Thy praise will sing; 
Solely because Thou art my God 

And my eternal King. 

The translation is by Rev. Edv^ard Caswall, 
18 14-1878, a priest in the Church of Rome. 
Besides his translations, he published the Lyra 
Catholica, the Masque of Mary, and several other 
poetical v^orks. (Page loi.) 

THE TUNE. 

"St. Bernard" — apparently so named because 
originally composed to Casv^alFs translation of 



76 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

one of Bernard of Clairvaux's hymns — is by 
John Richardson, born in Preston, Eng., Dec. 
4, 1817, and died there April 13, 1879. ^^ ^^'^^ 
an organist in Liverpool, and noted as a composer 
of glees, but was the author of several sacred 
tunes. 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH. 

"Give Me My Scallop-Shell of Quiet." 

Few of the hymns of the Elizabethan era survive, 
though the Ambrosian Midnight Hymn, "Hark, 
'tis the Midnight Cry," and the hymns of St. Ber- 
nard and Bernard of Cluny, are still tones in the 
church, and the religious poetry of Sir Walter 
Raleigh comes down to us associated with the 
history of his brilliant, though tragic career. The 
following poem has some fine lines in the quaint 
English style of the period, and was composed by 
Sir Walter during his first imprisonment: 

Give me my scallop-shell of quiet, 

My staff of faith to walk upon, 
My scrip of joy — immortal diet — 

My bottle of salvation, 
My gown of glory, hope's true gage — 
And thus I take my pilgrimage. 

Blood must be my body's balmer. 
While my soul, like faithful palmer, 
Travelleth toward the land of heaven; 
Other balm will not be given. 

Over the silver mountains 

Where spring the nectar fountains. 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 77 

There will I kiss the bowl of bliss, 
And drink my everlasting fill, 
Upon every milken hill; 
My soul will be a-dry before, 
But after that will thirst no more. 

The musings of the unfortunate but high- 
souled nobleman in expectation of Ignominious 
death are Interesting and pathetic, but they have 
no claim to a tune, even if they were less rugged 
and unmetrlcal. But the poem stands notable 
among the pious Witnesses. 

MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS. 
**0 Domine Deus, Speravi in Te** 

This last passionate prayer of the unhappy 
Mary Stuart just before her execution — in a 
language which perhaps flowed from her pen more 
easily than even her English or French — is another 
witness of supplicating faith that struggles out of 
darkness with a song. In her extremity the de- 
voted Catholic forgets her petitions to the Virgin, 
and comes to Christ: 

O Domine Deus, Speravi in Te; 

O care mi Jesu, nunc libera me! 
In dura catena, in misera poena 

Desidero Te! 
Languendo, gemendo, et genuflectendo 
Adoro, imploro ut liberes me! 

My Lord and my God! I have trusted in Thee; 
O Jesus, my Saviour belov'd, set me free: 
In rigorous chains, in piteous pains. 



yS STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

I am longing for Thee! 
In weakness appealing, in agony kneeling, 
I pray, I beseech Thee, O Lord, set me free! 

One would, at first thought, judge this simple 
but eloquent cry worthy of an appropriate tone- 
expression — to be sung by prison evangelists like 
the Volunteers of America, to convicts in the jails 
and penitentiaries. But its special errand and 
burden are voiced so literally that hardened 
hearers would probably mi^pply it — however 
sincerely the petitioner herself meant to invoke 
spiritual rather than temporal deliverance. The 
hymn, if we may call it so, is too literal. Possibly 
at some time or other it may have been set to 
music but not for ordinary choir service. 

SAMUEL RUTHERFORD. 

The sands of time are sinking, 

But, glory, glory dwelleth 
In Immanuel's Land. 

This hymn is biographical, but not autobio- 
graphical. Like the discourses in Herodotus and 
Plutarch, it is the voice of the dead speaking 
through the sympathetic genius of the living after 
long generations. The strong, stern Calvinist of 
1636 in Aberdeen was not a poet, but he be- 
queathed his spirit and life to the verse of a poet of 
1845 in Melrose. Anne Ross Cousin read his two 
hr/ndred and twenty letters written during a two 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 79 

years' captivity for his fidelity to the purer faith, 
and studied his whole history and experience till 
her soul took his soul's place and felt what he felt. 
Her poem of nineteen stanzas (152 lines) is the 
voice of Rutherford the Covenanter, with the 
prolixity of his manner and age sweetened by his 
triumphant piety, and that is why it belongs with 
the Hymns of Great ^Fitnesses. The three or 
four stanzas still occasionally printed and sung 
are only recalled to memory by the above three 
lines. 

Samuel Rutherford was born in Nisbet Parish, 
Scotland, in 1600. His settled ministry was at 
Anworth, in Galloway — 1630-165 1 — with a break 
between 1636 and 1638, when Charles I. angered 
by his anti-prelatical writings, silenced and banished 
him. Shut up In Aberdeen, but allowed, like 
Paul in Rome, to live *'in his own hired house" and 
write letters, he poured out his heart's love in Epis- 
tles to his Anworth flock and to the Non-conform- 
ists of Scotland. When his countrymen rose against 
the attempted Imposition of a new holy Romish 
service-book on their churches, he escaped to his 
people, and soon after appeared In Edinburgh and 
signed the covenant with the assembled ministers. 
Thirteen years later, after Cromwell's death and 
the accession of Charles II. the wrath of the pre- 
lates fell on him at St. Andrews, where the Pres- 
bytery had made him rector of the college. The 
King's decree indicted him for treason, stripped 
him of all his offices, and would have forced him to 



8o STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

the block had he not been stricken with his last sick- 
ness. When the officers came to take him he said, 
"I am summoned before a higher Judge and Ju- 
dicatory, and I am behooved to attend them." He 
died soon after, in the year 1661. 

The first, and a few other of the choicest stanzas 
of the hymn inspired by his life and death are here 
given: 

The sands of time are sinking, 
The dawn of heaven breaks, 
The summer morn I've sighed for — 

The fair, sweet morn — awakes. 
Dark, dark hath been the midnight. 

But dayspring is at hand; 
And glory, glory dwelleth 
In Immanuel's land. 

:4c :ic t * 4: t 
Oh! well it is for ever — 

Oh! well for evermore: 
My nest hung in no forest 

Of all this death-doomed shore; 
Yea, let this vain world vanish, 

As from the ship the strand, 
While glory, glory dwelleth 

In Immanuel's land. 

****** 

The little birds of Anworth — 

I used to count them blest; 
Now beside happier altars 

I go to build my nest; 
O'er these there broods no silence 

No graves around them stand; 
For glor)' deathless dwelleth 

Jn Immanuel's land. 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 61 

I have borne scorn and hatred, 

I have borne wrong and shame, 
Earth's proud ones have reproached me 

For Christ's thrice blessed name. 
Where God's seals set the fairest, 

They've stamped their foulest brand; 
But judgment shines like noonday 

In Immanuel's land. 

They've summoned me before them, 

But there I may not come; 
My Lord says, "Come up hither;" 

My Lord says, "Welcome home;" 
My King at His white throne 

My presence doth command, 
Where glory, glory dwelleth, 

In Immanuel's land. 

A reminiscence of St. Paul in his second Epis- 
tle to Timothy (chap. 4) comes with the last two 
Stanzas. 

THE TUNE. 

The tender and appropriate choral in B flat, 
named "Rutherford" was composed by D'Urhan, 
a French musician, probably a hundred years ago. 
It was doubtless named by those who long after- 
wards fitted it to the words, and knew whose spirit- 
ual proxy the lady stood who indited the hymn. It 
is reprinted in Peloubet's Select Songs, and in the 
Coronation Hymnal. Naturally in the days of the 
hymn's more frequent use people became accus- 
tomed to calling *'The sands of time are sink- 
ing," "Rutherford's Hymn." Rutherford's own 



82 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

words certainly furnished the memorable refrain 
with its immortal glow and gladness. One of his 
joyful exclamations as he lay dying of his lingering 
disease was, " Glory shineth in Immanuel's Land ! " 

Chretien (Christian) Urhan, or D'Urhan, was 
born at Montjoie, France, about 1788, and died, in 
Paris, 1845. He was a noted violin-player, and com- 
poser, also, of vocal and instrumental music. 

Mrs. Anne Ross (Cundell) Cousin, daughter of 
David Ross Cundell, M. D., and widow of Rev. Will- 
iam Cousin of the Free church of Scotland, was 
born in Melrose ( ?), 1824. She wrote many poems, 
most of which are beautiful meditations rather 
than lyrics suitable for public song. Her " Ruther- 
ford Hymn" was first published in the Christian 
Treasury, 1857. 

GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS. 
"Verzage Nicht Du Hauflein Klein." 

The historian tells us that before the battle of 
Lutzen, duringthe Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), 
King Gustavus of Sweden, in the thick fog of an 
autumn morning, with the Bohemian and Austrian 
armies of Emperor Ferdinand in front of him, knelt 
before his troops, and his whole army knelt with 
him in prayer. Then ten thousand voices and the 
whole concert of regimental bands burst forth in 
this brave song: 

Fear not, O little flock, the foe 
Who madly seeks your overthrow, 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 83 

Dread not his rage and power: 
What though your courage sometimes faints. 
His seeming triumph o'er God's saints 

Lasts but a httle hour. 

Be of good cheer, your cause belongs 
To Him who can avenge your wrongs; 

Leave it to Him, our Lord: 
Though hidden yet from all our eyes, 
He sees the Gideon who shall rise 

To save us and His word. 

As true as God's own word is true. 
Nor earth nor hell with all their crew, 

Against us shall prevail: 
A jest and by-word they are grown; 
God is with us, we are His own, 

Our victory cannot fail. 

Amen, Lord Jesus, grant our prayer! 
Great Captain, now Thine arm make bare, 

Fight for us once again: 
So shall Thy saints and martyrs raise 
A mighty chorus to Thy praise. 

World without end. Amen. 

The army of Gustavus moved forward to victory 
as the fog lifted; but at the moment of triumph a 
riderless horse came galloping back to the camp. 
It was the horse of the martyred King. 

The battle song just quoted — next to Luther's 
" Ein feste Burg " the most famous German hymn — 
has always since that day been called "Gustavus 
Adolphus' Hymn"; and the mingled sorrow and 
joy of the event at Lutzen named it also " King 
Gustavus' Swan Song." Gustavus Adolphus did 



84 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

not write hymns. He could sing them, and he could 
make them historic — and it was this connection 
that identified him with the famous battle song. Its 
author was the Rev. Johan Michael Altenburg, a 
Lutheran clergyman, who composed apparently 
both hymn and tune on receiving news of the 
king's victory at Leipsic a year before. 

Gustavus Adolphus was born in 1594. His 
death on the battlefield occurred Nov. 5, 1632 — 
when he was in the prime of his manhood. He was 
one of the greatest military commanders in history, 
besides being a great ruler and administrator, and 
a devout Christian. He was, during the Thirty 
Years' War (until his untimely death), the leading 
champion of Protestantism in Europe. 

The English translator of the battle song was 
Miss Catherine Winkworth, born in London, Sept. 
13, 1827. She was an industrious and successful 
translator of German hymns, contributing many 
results of her work to two English editions of the 
Lyra Germania, to the Church Book of England, and 
to Christian Singers of Germany. She died in 1878. 

The tune of "Ravendale" by Walter Stokes 
(born 1847) ^s ^^^ ^^s^ modern rendering of the 
celebrated hymn. 

PAUL GERHARDT. 
"Befiehl Du Deine Wege." 

Paul Gerhardt was one of those minstrels of ex- 
perience who are — 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 85 

"Cradled Into poetry by wrong, 
And learn in suffering what they teach in song." 

He was a graduate of that school when he wrote 
his "Hymn of Trust:'' 

Commit thou all thy griefs 

And ways into His hands; 
To His sure trust and tender care 

Who earth and heaven commands. 

Thou on the Lord rely, 

So, safe, shalt thou go on; 
Fix on His work thy steadfast eye, 

So shall thy work be done. 

****** 

Give to the winds thy fears; 

Hope, and be undismayed; 
God hears thy sighs and counts thy tears, 

He shall lift up thy head. 

Through waves and clouds and storms 

He gently clears thy way; 
Wait thou His time, so shall this night 

Soon end in joyous day. 

Gerhardt was born at Grafenhelnchen, Saxony, 
1606. Through the first and best years of man- 
hood's strength (during the Thirty Year's War), 
a wandering preacher tossed from place to place, 
he was without a parish and without a home. 

After the peace of Westphalia he settled in the 
little village of Mittenwalde. He was then forty- 
four years old. Four years later he married and re- 
moved to a Berlin church. During his residence 
there he buried his wife, and four of his children. 



86 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

was deposed from the ministry because his Luther- 
an doctrines offended the Elector Frederick, and 
finally retired as a simple arch-deacon to a small 
parish in Lubben, where he preached, toiled, and 
suffered amid a rough and uncongenial people till 
he died, Jan. i6, 1676. 

Few men have ever lived whose case more needed 
a *'Hymn of Trust" — and fewer still could have 
written it themselves. Through all those trial 
years he was pouring forth his soul in devout 
verses, making in all no less than a hundred and 
twenty-five h)'mns — every one of them a comfort 
to others as well as to himself. 

He became a favorite, and for a time the favor- 
ite, hymn-writer of all the German-speaking 
people. Among these tones of calm faith and joy 
we recognize today (in the English tongue), — 

Since Jesus is my Friend, 
Thee, O Immanuel, we praise, 
All my heart this night rejoices, 
How shall I meet Thee, 

— and the English translation of his *'0 Haupt voll 
Blut und Wunden," turned into German by him- 
self from St. Bernard Clairvaux's "Salve caput 
cruentatum," and made dear to us in Rev. James 
Alexander's beautiful lines — 

O sacred head now wounded, 

With grief and shame weighed down, 

Now scornfully surrounded 

With thorns, Thine only crown. 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. Sj 

THE TUNE. 

A plain-song by Alexander Relnagle is used by 
some congregations, but is not remarkably ex- 
pressive. Reinagle, Alexander Robert, (1799- 
1877) of Kidlington, Eng., was organist to the 
church of St. Peter-in-the-East, Oxford. 

'^he great "Hymn of Trust" could have found 
no more sympathetic interpreter than the musician 
of Gerhardt's own land and language, Schumann, 
the gentlfe genius of Zwickau. It bears the name 
"Schumann," appropriately enough, and its elo- 
cution makes a volume of each quatrain, notably 
the one — 

Who points the clouds their coufse, 

Whom wind and seas obey; 
He shall direct thy wandering feet, 

He shall prepare thy way. 

Robert Schumann, Ph.D., was born in Zwickau, 
Saxony, June 8, 18 10. He was a music director 
and conservatory teacher, and the master-mind of 
the pre-Wagnerian period. His compositions be- 
came popular, having a character of their own, 
combining the intellectual and beautiful in art. 
He published in Leipsic a journal promotive of his 
school of music, and founded a choral society in 
Dresden. Happy in the cooperation of his wife, her- 
self a skilled musician, he extended his work to Vieil-. 
na and the Netherlands; but his zeal wore him out, \ 
and he died at the age of forty-six, universally 
lamented as "the eminent man who had done so 
much for the happiness of others." 




88 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Gerhardt's Hymn (ten quatrains) is rarely 
printed entire, and where six are printed only four 
are usually sung. Different collections choose por- 
tions according to the compiler's taste, the stanza 
beginning — 

Give to the winds thy fears, 

— being with some a favorite first verse. 

The translation of the hymn from the German is 
John Wesley's. 

Purely legendary is the beautiful story of the 
composition of the hymn, "Commit thou all thy 
griefs"; how, after his exile from Berlin, traveling 
on foot with his weeping wife, Gerhardt stopped 
at a wayside inn and wrote the lines while he rested; 
and how a messenger from Duke Christian found 
him there, and offered him a home in Meresburg. 
But the most ordinary imagination can fill in the 
possible incidents in a life of vicissitudes such as 
Gerhardt's was. 

LADY HUNTINGDON, 



''When Thou My Righteous Judge Shalt Come." 

Selina Shirley,. Countess of Huntingdon, born 
1707, died 1 79 1, is.familiarly known as the titled 
friend and patroness of Whitefield and his fellow- 
preachers. She early consecrated herself to God, 
and in the great spiritual, awakening under White- 
field and the Wesleys she was a punctual and 
sympathetic helper. Unitirik with the Calvinistic 
Methodists, she neverdieless stbiod aloof from none 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 89 

who preached a personal Christ, and whose watch- 
words were the salvation of souls and the purifica- 
tion of the Church. For more than fifty years 
she devoted her wealth to benevolence and spiritual 
ministries, and died at the age of eighty-four. " I 
have done my work," was her last testimony. 
"I have nothing to do but to go to myFather." 

At various times Lady Huntingdon expressed 
her religious experience in verse, and the manful 
vigor of her school of faith recalls the unbending 
confidence of Job^ for she, was not a stranger to 
affliction. \ 

God*s furnace doth in Zion stand, 

But Zion's God sits by, 
As the refiner views his gold. 

With an observant eye. 

His thoughts are high. His love is wise. 

His wounds a cure intend; 
And, though He does not always smile, 

He loves unto the end. 

., — Her- great hymn^ that keeps her memory green, 
has the old-fashioned flavor. "Massa made God 
BIG!" was the comment on Dr. Bellany made by 
his old negro servant after that noted minister's 
death. In Puritan piety the sternest self-depreci- 
ation qualified every thought of the creature, while 
every allusion to the Creator was a magnificat. 
Lady Huntingdon's hymn has no flattering phrases 
for the human subject. "Worthless worm," and 
"vilest of them all" indicate the true Pauline or 
Oriental prostration of self before a superior 



go STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

being; but there is grandeur in the metre, the 
awful reverence, and the scene of judgment in 
the stanzas — always remembering the mighty 
choral that has so long given the lyric its voice in 
the church, and is ancillary to its fame: 

(^K When TLdu^ my righteous Judge, shalt come 
To take Thy ransomed people home, S/7^ 

Shall I among them stand ? 
Shall such a worthless worm as I, 
Who sometimes am afraid to die, 

Be found at Thy right hand ? 

I love to meet Thy peop!e now, 
Before Thy feet with them to bow, 
;^ :_t ,_ Though vilest of them all; 

l^^ ^ - But ca«t-I bear the piercing thought, * 
What if my name should be left out, 
When Thou for them shalt call ? 

O Lord, prevent it by Thy grace: 
^^J-v^r*^^^" Be Thou my only hiding place, 
j^<i' In this tJiLaccepted-day; 

Thy pardoning voice, oh let me hear, 
To still my unbelieving fear, 

Nor let me fall, I .pray. ^^^ ^-H 

Among Thy saints let me be found, 
Whene'er the archangel's trump shall sound, 

To see Thy smiling face; 
Then loudest of the th^rong I'll sing, 
y»v While heaven's resounding afchrs'ring 

Wjth-^K>ut^j^:«ovefeig« grace. 
yW a < ^ *^"^ * ,' '■ * '^ 
THE TUNE. 

The tune of "Meribah," in which this hymn has 
been sung for the last sixty or more years, is one of 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 9 1 

Dr. Lowell Mason's masterpieces. An earlier 
German harmony attributed to Heinrich Isaac 
and named "Innsbruck" has in some few cases 
claimed association WTth the words, though com- 
posed two hundred years before Lady Huntingdon 
was born. It is strong and solemn, but its cold 
psalm-tune movement does not utter the deep 
emotion of the author's lines. *'Meribah" was 
inspired by the hymn itself, and there is nothing 
invidious in saying it illustrates the fact, memor- 
able in all hymnology, of the natural obligation of 
a hymn to its tune. 

Apropos of both, it is related that Mason was 
once presiding at choir service in a certain church 
where the minister gave out "When thou my 
righteous Judge shalt come" and by mistake 
directed the singers to "omit the second stanza." 
Mason sat at the organ, and while playing the last 
strain, "Be found at thy right hand," glanced 
ahead in the hymnbook and turned with a start 
just in time to command, "Sing the next verse!" 
The choir did so, and "O Lord, prevent it by Thy 
grace!" was saved from being a horrible prayer 
to be kept out of heaven. 

ZINZENDORF. 



"Jesus, Thy Blood and Righteousness." 

Nicolaus Ludwig, Count Von Zinzendorf, was 
born at Dresden, May 26, 1700, and educated at 
Halle and Wittenberg. From his youth he evinced 



92 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

marked seriousness of mind, and deep religious 
sensibilities, and this character appeared in his 
sympathy with the persecuted Moravians, to whom 
he gave domicile and domain on his large estate. 
For eleven years he was Councillor to the Elector 
of Saxony, but subsequently, uniting with the 
Brethren's Church, he founded the settlement 
of Herrnhut, the first home and refuge of the 
reorganized sect, and became a Moravian minister 
and bishop. 

Zinzendorf was a man of high culture, as well 
as profound and sincere piety and in his hymns 
(of which he wrote more than two thousand) he 
preached Christ as eloquently as with his voice. 
The real birth-moment of his religious life is said 
to have been simultaneous with his study of the 
"Ecce Homo" in the Dusseldorf Gallery, a won- 
derful painting of Jesus crowned with thorns. 
Visiting the gallery one day when a young man, he 
gazed on the sacred face and read the legend 
superscribed, "All this I have done for thee; 
What doest thou for me?" Ever afterwards his 
motto was "I have but one passion, and that is 
He, and only He" — a version of Paul's "For me 
to live is Christ." 

Jesus, Thy blood and righteousness 
My beauty are, my glorious dress: 
'Midst flaming worlds, in these arrayed, 
With joy shall I lift up my head, 

Bold shall I stand in Thy great day, 
For who aught to my charge shall lay ? 



SOME HYrvlNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 93 

Fully absolved through these I am — 
From sin and fear, from guilt and shame. 

Lord, I believe were sinners more 
Than sands upon the ocean shore, 
Thou hast for all a ransom paid, 
For all a full atonement made. 

Nearly all the hymns of the great Moravian are 
now out of general use, having accomplished their 
mission, like the forgotten ones of Gerhardt, and 
been superseded by others. More sung in Europe, 
probably, now than any of the survivors is, " Jesus, 
geh voran," ("Jesus, lead on,") which has been 
translated into English by Jane Borthwick* 
(1854). Two others, both translated by John 
Wesley, are with us, the one above quoted, and 
"Glory to God, whose witness train." "Jesus, 
Thy blood," which is the best known, frequently ap- 
pears with the alteration — 

Jesus, Thy rohe of righteousness 
My beauty is, my glorious dress. 

THE TUNE. 

"Malvern," and "Uxbridge" a pure Gregorian, 
both by Lowell Mason, are common expressions 
of the hymn — the latter, perhaps, generally pre- 
ferred, being less plaintive and speaking with a 
surer and more restful emphasis. 

♦Born in Edinburgh 1813. 



94 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

ROBERT SEAGRAVE. 
"Rise, My Soul, and Stretch Thy Wings." 

This hymn was written early in the 1 8th century, 
by the Rev. Robert Seagrave, born at Twyford, 
Leicestershire, Eng., Nov. 22, 1693. Educated 
at Cambridge, he took holy orders in the Estab- 
lished Church, but espoused the cause of the great 
evangelistic movement, and became a hearty co- 
worker with the Wesleys. Judging by the lyric 
fire he could evidently put into his verses, one 
involuntarily asks if he would not have written 
more, and been in fact the song-leader of the 
spiritual reformation if there had been no Charles 
Wesley. There is not a hymn of Wesley's in use 
on the same subject equal to the one immortal 
hymn of Seagrave, and the only other near its 
time that approaches it in vigor and appealing 
power is Doddridge's "Awake my soul, stretch 
every nerve." 

But Providence gave Wesley the harp and ap- 
pointed to the elder poet a branch of possibly 
equal usefulness, where he was kept too busy to 
enter the singers' ranks. 

For eleven years he was the Sunday-evening 
lecturer at Lorimer's Hall, London, and often 
preached in Whitefield's Tabernacle. His hymn 
is one of the most soul-stirring in the English 
language: 

Rise, my soul, and stretch thy wings; 
Thy better portion trace; 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 95 

Rise from transitory things 

Toward Heaven, thy native place; 

Sun and moon and stars decay, 
Time shall soon this earth remove; 

Rise, my soul and haste away 
To seats prepared above. 

Rivers to the ocean run, 

Nor stay in all their course; 
Fire ascending seeks the sun; 

Both speed them to their source: 
So a soul that's born of God 

Pants to view His glorious face, 
Upward tends to His abode 

To rest in His embrace. 

Cease, ye pilgrims, cease to mourn, 

Press onward to the prize; 
Soon your Saviour will return 

Triumphant in the skies. 
Yet a season, and you know 

Happy entrance will be given; 
All our sorrows left below, 

And earth exchanged for heaven. 

This hymn must have found its predestinated 
organ when it found — 

THE TUNE. 

"Amsterdam," the work of James Nares, had 
its birth and baptism soon after the work of 
Seagrave; and they have been breath and bugle 
to the church of God ever since they became one 
song. In The Great Musicians, edited by Francis 
HufFer, is found this account of James Nares: 



96 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

"He was born at Hanwell, Middlesex, in 1715; 
was admitted chorister at the Chapel Royal, under 
Bernard Gates, and when he was able to play the 
organ was appointed deputy for Pigott, of St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor, and became organist 
at York Minster in 1734. He succeeded Greene 
as organist and composer to the Chapel Royal in 
1756, and in the same year was made Doctor of 
Music at Cambridge. He was appointed master 
of the children of the Chapel Royal in 1757, on 
the death of Gates. This post he resigned in 
1780, and he died in 1783, (February 10,) and 
was buried in St. Margaret's Church, West- 
minster. 

"He had the reputation of being an excellent 
trainer of boy's voices, many of his anthems having 
been written to exhibit the accomplishments of 
his young pupils. The degree of excellence the 
boys attained was not won in those days without 
the infliction of much corporal punishment." 

Judging from the high pulse and action in the 
music of "Amsterdam," one would guess the 
energy of the man who made boy choirs — and 
made good ones. In the old time the rule was, 
" Birds that can sing and won't sing, must be made 
to sing"; and the rule was sometimes enforced 
with the master's time-stick. 

A tune entitled "Excelsius," written a hundred 
years later by John Henry Cornell, so nearly 
resembles "Amsterdam" as to suggest an intention 
to amend it. It changes the modal note from G 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 97 

to A, but while it marches at the same pace it 
lacks the jubilant modulations and the choral 
glory of the 18th-century piece. 

SIR JOHN BOWRING. 
"In the Cross of Christ I Glory." 

In this hymn we see, sitting humbly at the feet 
of the great author of our religion, a man who im- 
pressed himself perhaps more than any other save 
Napoleon Bonaparte upon his own generation, 
and who was the wonder of Europe for his im- 
mense attainments and the versatility of his powers. 
Statesman, philanthropist, biographer, publicist, 
linguist, historian, financier, naturalist, poet, 
political economist — there is hardly a branch of 
knowledge or a field of research from which he 
did not enrich himself and others, or a human 
condition that he did not study and influence. 

Sir John Bowring was born in 1792. When a 
youth he was Jeremy Bentham's political pupil, 
but gained his first fame by his vast knowledge of 
European literature, becoming acquainted with 
no less than thirteen* continental languages and 
dialects. He served in consular appointments at 
seven different capitals, carried important reform 
measures in Parliament, was Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary to China and Governor of Hong Kong, and 
concluded a commercial treaty with Siam, where 
every previous commissioner had failed. But in 

♦Exaggerated in some accounts to jorty. 



98 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

all his crowded years the pen of this tireless and 
successful man was busy. Besides his political, 
economic and religious essays, which made him 
a member of nearly every learned society in 
Europe, his translations were countless, and 
poems and hymns of his own composing found 
their way to the public, among them the tender 
spiritual song, — 

How sweetly flowed the Gospel sound 
From lips of gentleness and grace 

When listening thousands gathered round, 
And joy and gladness filled the place, 

— and the more famous hymn indicated at the head 
of this sketch. Knowledge of all religions only 
qualified him to worship the Crucified with both 
faith and reason. Though nominally a Unitarian, 
to him, as to Channing and Martineau and Ed- 
mund Sears, Christ was "all we know of God." 
Bowring died Nov. 23, 1872. But his hymn 
to the Cross will never die: 

In the cross of Christ I glory, 

Towering o'er the wrecks of time; 

All the light of sacred story 

Gathers round its head sublime. 

When the woes of life o'ertake me 

Hopes deceive, and fears annoy, 
Never shall the cross forsake me; 

Lo! it glows with peace and joy. 

When the sun of bliss is beaming 

Light and love upon my way, 
From the cross the radiance streaming 

Adds new lustre to the day. 



SOME HYMNS OF GREAT WITNESSES. 99 

Bane and blessing, pain and pleasure 

By the cross are sanctified, 
Peace is there that knows no measure, 

Joys that through all time abide. 

THE TUNE. 

Ithamar Conkey's "Rathbun" fits the adoring 
words as if they had waited for it. Its air, swelHng 
through diatonic fourth and third to the supreme 
syllable, bears on its waves the homage of the lines 
from bar to bar till the four voices come home to 
rest full and satisfied in the final chord — 
Gathers round its head sublime. 

Ithamar Conkey, was born of Scotch ancestry, 
in Shutesbury, Mass., May 5th, 18 15. He was a 
noted bass singer, and was for a long time con- 
nected with the choir of the Calvary church. New 
York City, and sang the oratorio solos. His tune 
of "Rathbun" was composed in 1847, and pub- 
lished in Greatorex's collection in 1851. He died 
in Elizabeth, N. J., April 30, 1867. 



CHAPTER III 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVO- 
TION AND EXPERIENCE. 



" JESU DULCIS MEMORIA. " 
"Jesus the Very Thought of Thee." 

The original of this delightful hymn is one of 
the devout meditations of Bernard of Clairvaux, 
a Cistercian monk (1091-1153). He was born of 
a noble family in or near Dijon, Burgundy, and 
when only twenty-three years old established a 
monastery at Clairvaux, France, over which he 
presided as its first abbot. Educated in the 
University of Paris, and possessing great natural 
abilities, he soon made himself felt in both the 
religious and political affairs of Europe. For more 
than thirty years he was the personal power that 
directed belief, quieted turbulence, and arbitrated 
disputes, and kings and even popes sought his 
counsel. It was his eloquent preaching that in- 
spired the second crusade. 

His fine poem of feeling, in fifty Latin stanzas, 
has been a source of pious song in several languages; 

(100) 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. lOI 

Jesu, dulcis memorla 

Dans vera cordi gaudia, 

Sed super mel et omnium 

Ejus dulcis presentia. 
Literally — • 

Jesus! a sweet memory 

Giving true joys to the heart, 

But sweet above honey and all things 

His presence [is]. 

The five stanzas (of CaswalFs free translation) 
now in use are familiar and dear to all English- 
speaking believers: 

Jesus, the very thought of Thee 
With sweetness fills my breast. 
But sweeter far Thy face to see. 
And in Thy presence rest. 

Nor voice can sing nor heart can frame 

Nor can the memory find, 
A sweeter sound than Thy blest name, 

O Saviour of mankind. 

The Rev. Edward Caswall was born In Hamp- 
shire, Eng., July 15, 1814, the son of a clergyman. 
He graduated with honors at Brazenose College, 
Oxford, and after ten years of service in the minis- 
try of the Church of England joined Henry New- 
man's Oratory at Birmingham, was confirmed in the 
Church of Rome, and devoted the rest of his life to 
works of piety and charity. He died Jan. 2, 1878. 

THE TUNE. 

No single melody has attached itself to this 
hymn, the scope of selection being as large as the 



102 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

supply of appropriate common-metre tunes. Barn- 
by's "Holy Trinity," Wade's "Holy Cross" and 
Griggs' tune (of his own name) are all good, but 
many, on the giving out of the hymn, would as- 
sociate it at once with the more familiar "Heber" 
by George Kingsley and expect to hear it sung. 
It has the uplift and unction of John Newton's — 

How sweet the name of Jesus sounds 
In the behever's ear. 

" GOD CALLING YET! SHALL I NOT HEAR.? " 

Gerhard Tersteegen, the original author of the 
hymn, and one of the most eminent religious poets 
of the Reformed German church in its early days, 
was born in 1697, in the town of Mors, in West- 
phalia. He was left an orphan in boyhood by the 
death of his father, and as his mother's means were 
limited, he was put to work as an apprentice when 
very young, at Muhlheim on the Rhur, and be- 
came a ribbon weaver. Here, when about fifteen 
years of age, he became deeply concerned for his 
soul, and experienced a deep and abiding spiritual 
work. As a Christian, his religion partook of the 
ascetic type, but his mysticism did not make him 
useless to his fellow-men. 

At the age of twenty-seven, he dedicated all his 
resources and energies to the cause of Christ, 
writing the dedication in his own blood. "God 
graciously called me," he says, "out of the world, 
and granted me the desire to belong to Him, and 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. IO3 

to be willing to follow Him." He gave up secular 
employments altogether, and devoted his whole 
time to religious instruction and to the poor. His 
house became famous as the ''Pilgrims' Cottage," 
and was visited by people high and humble from 
all parts of Germany. In his lifetime he is said 
to have written one hundred and eleven hymns. 
Died April 3, 1769. 

God calling yet! shall I not hear? 
Earth's pleasures shall I still hold dear ? 
Shall life's swift-passing years all fly, 
And still my soul in slumber lie ? 

God calling yet! I cannot stay; 

My heart I yield without delay. 

Vain world, farewell; from thee I part; 

The voice of God hath reached my heart. 

The hymn was translated from the German by 
Miss Jane Borthwick, born in Edinburgh, 18 13. 
She and her younger sister, Mrs. Findlater, jointly 
translated and published, in 1854, Hymns From 
the Land of Luther, and contributed many poetical 
pieces to the Family Treasury. She died in 1897. 

Another translation, imitating the German metre, 
is more euphonious, though less literal and less 
easily fitted to music not specially composed for it, 
on account of its "feminine" rhymes: 

God calling yet! and shall I never hearken? 
But still earth's witcheries my spirit darken; 
This passing life, these passing joys all flying, 
And still my soul in dreamy slumbers lying I 



104 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

THE TUNE. 

Dr. Dykes' "Rivaulx" is a sober choral that 
articulates the hymn-writer's sentiment with sin- 
cerity and with considerable earnestness, but 
breathes too faintly the interrogative and ex- 
postulary tone of the lines. To voice the devout 
solicitude and self-remonstrance of the hymn there 
is no tune superior to "Federal St." 

The Hon. Henry Kemble Oliver, author of " Fed- 
eral St.," was born in Salem, Mass., March, 1800, 
and was addicted to music from his childhood. 
His father compelled him to relinquish it as a 
profession, but it remained his favorite avocation, 
and after his graduation from Harvard the cares 
of none of the various public positions he held, 
from schoolmaster to treasurer of the state of 
Massachusetts, could ever wean him from the study 
of music and its practice. At the age of thirty-one, 
while sitting one day in his study, the last verse of 
Anne Steele's hymn — 

So fades the lovely blooming flower, 

— floated into his mind, and an unbidden melody 
came with it. As he hummed it to himself the 
words shaped the air, and the air shaped the 
words. 

Then gentle patience smiles on pain, 

Then dying hope revives again, 

— became — 

See gentle patience smile on pain; 
See dying hope revive again; 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. IO5 

— and with the change of a word and a tense the 
hymn created the melody, and soon afterward 
the complete tune was made. Two years later it 
was published by Lowell Mason, and Oliver gave 
it the name of the street in Salem on which his 
wife was born, wooed, won, and married. It adds 
a pathos to its history that "Federal St.'* was sung 
at her burial. 

This first of Oliver's tunes was followed by 
"Harmony Grove," "Morning," "Walnut Grove," 
"Merton," "Hudson," "Bosworth," "Salisbury 
Plain," several anthems and motets, and a "Te 
Deum.'' 

In his old age, at the great Peace Jubilee in 
Boston, 1872, the baton was put into his hands, 
and the gray-haired composer conducted the 
chorus of ten thousand voices as they sang the 
words and music of his noble harmony. The 
incident made "Federal St." more than ever a 
feature of New England history. Oliver died in 
1885. 

"MY GOD, HOW ENDLESS IS THY LOVE." 

The spirited tune to this hymn of Watts, by 
Frederick Lampe, variously named "Kent" and 
"Devonshire," historically reaches back so near 
to the poet's time that it must have been one of the 
earliest expressions of his fervent words. 

Johan Friedrich Lampe, born 1693, in Saxony, 
was educated in music at Helmstadt, and came to 



I06 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

England in 1725 as a band musician and composer 
to Covent Garden Theater. His best-known sec- 
ular piece is the music written to Henry Carey's 
burlesque, "The Dragon of Wantley." 

Mrs. Rich, wife of the lessee of the theater, was 
converted under the preaching of the Methodists, 
and after her husband's death her house became 
the home of Lampe and his wife, where Charles 
Wesley often met him. 

The influence of Wesley won him to more seri- 
ous work, and he became one of the evangelist's 
helpers, supplying tunes to his singing campaigns. 
Wesley became attached to him, and after his 
death — in Edinburgh, 1752 — commemorated the 
musician in a funeral hymn. 

In popular favor Bradbury's tune of **Rolland" 
has now superseded the old music sung to Watts' 
lines — 

My God, how endless is Thy love, 
Thy gifts are every evening new. 
And morning mercies from above 
Gently distil like early dew. 

:(: :|c :<c :): 4c * 

I yield my powers to Thy command; 

To Thee I consecrate my days; 
Perpetual blessings from Thy hand 

Demand perpetual songs of praise. 

William Batchelder Bradbury, a pupil of Dr. 
Lowell Mason, and the pioneer in publishing 
Sunday-school music, was born 1816, in York, Me. 
His father, a veteran of the Revolution, was a 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. IO7 

choir leader, and William's love of music was in- 
herited. He left his father's farm, and came to 
Boston, where he first heard a church-organ. 
Encouraged by Mason and others to follow music 
as a profession, he went abroad, studied at Leipsic, 
and soon after his return became known as a 
composer of sacred tunes. He died in Montclair, 
N. J., 1868. 

" FM NOT ASHAMED TO OWN MY LORD. " 

The favorite tune for this spiritual hymn, also by 
Watts, is old "Arlington," one of the most useful 
church melodies in the whole realm of English 
psalmody. Its name clings to a Boston street, and 
the beautiful chimes of Arhngton St. church 
(Unitarian) annually ring its music on special 
occasions, as it has since the bells were tuned: 

Tm not ashamed to own my Lord 

Or to defend His cause, 
Maintain the honor of His Word, 

The glory of His cross. 

Jesus, my God! — I know His Name; 

His Name is all my trust, 
Nor will He put my soul to shame 

Nor let my hope be lost. 

Dr. Thomas Augustine Arne, the creator of 
"Arlington," was born in London, 1710, the son 
of a King St. upholsterer. He studied at Eton, and 
though intended for the legal profession, gave his 
whole mind to music. At twenty-three he began 



I08 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

writing operas for his sister, Susanna (a singer 
who afterwards became the famous tragic actress, 
Mrs. Gibber). 

Arne's music to Milton's "Comus," and to 
"Rule Brittannia" established his reputation. He 
was engaged as composer to Drury Lane Theater, 
and in 1759 received from Oxford his degree of 
Music Doctor. Later in life he turned his attention 
to oratorios, and other forms of sacred music, and 
was the first to introduce female voices in choir 
singing. He died March 5, 1778, chanting hal- 
lelujahs, it is said, with his last bieath. 

" IS THIS THE KIND RETURN.? " 

Dr. Watts in this hymn gave experimental piety 
its hour and language of reflection and penitence: 

Is this the kind return ? 

Are these the thanks we owe, 
Thus to abuse Eternal Love 

Whence all our blessings flow? 

****** 

Let past ingratitude 

Provoke our weeping eyes. 

United in loving wedlock with these words in 
former years was *' Golden Hill," a chime of sweet 
counterpoint too rare to bury its authorship under 
the vague phrase "A Western Melody." It was 
caught evidently from a forest bird* that flutes its 
clear solo in the sunsets of May and June. There 

♦The wood thrush. 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. lOQ 

can be no mistaking the imitation — the same com- 
pass, the same upward thrill, the same fall and 
warbled turn. Old-time folk used to call for 
it, "Sing, my Fairweather Bird." It lingers in a 
few of the twenty- or thirty-years-ago collections, 
but stronger voices have drowned it out of the new. 
"Thacher," (set to the same hymn,) faintly re- 
calls its melody. Nevertheless "Thacher'' is a 
good tune. Though commonly written in sharps, 
contrasting the B flat of its softer and more liquid 
rival of other days, it is one of Handel's strains, 
and lends the meaning and pathos of the lyric text 
to voice and instrument. 

•^HEN I SURVEY THE WONDROUS CROSS." 

This crown of all the sacred odes of Dr. Watts 
for the song-service of the church of God was 
called by Matthew Arnold the "greatest hymn in 
the English language." The day the eminent 
critic died he heard it sung in the Sefton Park 
Presbyterian Church, and repeated the opening 
lines softly to himself again and again after the 
services. The hymn is certainly one of the greatest 
in the language. It appeared as No. 7 in Watts' 
third edition (about 1710) containing five stanzas. 
The second line — 

On which the Prince of Glory died, 

— read originally — 

Where the young Prince of Glory died. 



no STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Only four stanzas are now generally used. The 
omitted one — 

His dying crimson like a robe 

Spreads o'er His body on the tree; 

Then am I dead to all the globe, 
And all the globe is dead to me. 

— is a flash of tragic imagination, showing the 
sanguine intensity of Christian vision in earlier 
time, when contemplating the Saviour's passion; 
but it is too realistic for the spirit and genius of 
song-worship. That the great hymn was designed 
by the writer for communion seasons, and was 
inspired by Gal. 6:14, explains the two last lines if 
not the whole of the highly colored verse. 

THE TUNE. 

One has a wide field of choice in seeking the 
best musical interpretation of this royal song of 
faith and self-effacement: 

When I survey the wondrous Cross 
On which the Prince of Glory died, 

My richest gain I count but loss. 
And pour contempt on all my pride. 

Forbid it, Lord, that I should boast 
Save in the death of Christ my God; 

All the vain things that charm me most, 
I sacrifice them to His blood. 

See from His head. His hands. His feet. 
Sorrow and love flow mingled down; 

Did e'er such love and sorrow meet; 
Or thorns compose so rich a crown ? 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DKVOTION. Ill 

Were the whole realm of Nature mine, 
That were a present far too small; 

Love so amazing, so divine, 

Demands my soul, my life, my all. 

To match the height and depth of these words 
with fitting glory of sound might well have been 
an ambition of devout composers. Rev. G. C. 
Wells' tune in the Revivalist, with its emotional 
chorus, I. B. Woodbury's "Eucharist" in the 
Methodist HymnaU Henry Smart's effective cho- 
ral in Barnby's Hymnary (No. 170), and a score 
of others, have woven the feeling lines into melody 
with varying success. Worshippers in spiritual 
sympathy with the words may question if, after 
all, old *' Hamburg," the best of Mason's loved 
Gregorians, does not, alone, in tone and elocu- 
tion, rise to the level of the hymn. 

" LOVE DIVINE, ALL LOVES EXCELLING. " 

This evergreen song-wreath to the Crucified, 
was contributed by Charles Wesley, in 1746. It is 
found in his collection of 1756, Hymns for Those 
That Seek and Those That Have Redemption in 
the Blood of 'Jesus Christ. 

Love Divine all loves excelling, 

Joy of Heaven to earth come down. 

Fix in us Thy humble dwelling. 
All Thy faithful mercies crown. 
****** 

Come Almighty to deliver. 
Let us all Thy life receive, 



112 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Suddenly return, and never, 
Nevermore Thy temples leave. 

****** 

Finish then Thy new creation; 

Pure and spotless let us be; 
Let us see our whole salvation 

Perfectly secured by Thee. 

Changed from glory into glory 
Till in Heaven we take our place, 

Till we cast our crowns before Thee 
Lost in wonder, love and praise! 

The hymn has been set to H. Isaac's ancient 
tune (1490), to Wyeth's "Nettleton'' (1810), to 
Thos.H. Bailey's (1777-1839)" Isle of Beauty, fare 
thee well" (named from Thomas Moore's song), 
to Edward Hopkins' "St. Joseph," and to a multi- 
tude of others more or less familiar. 

Most familiar of all perhaps, (as in the instance 
of "Far from mortal cares retreating,") is its 
association with "Greenville," the production of 
that brilliant but erratic genius and freethinker, 
Jean Jacques Rousseau. It was originally a love 
serenade, ("Days of absence, sad and dreary") 
from the opera of Le Devin du Village, written 
about 1752. The song was commonly known 
years afterwards as "Rousseau's Dream." But 
the unbelieving philosopher, musician, and mis- 
guided moralist builded better than he knew, and 
probably better than he meant when he wrote his 
immortal choral. Whatever he heard in his 
**dream" (and one legend says it was a "song of 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. II3 

angels*') he created a harmony dear to the church 
he despised, and softened the hearts of the Chris- 
tian world towards an evil teacher who was in- 
spired, like Balaam, to utter one sacred strain. 

Rousseau was born in Geneva, 1712, but he 
never knew his mother, and neither the affection 
or interest of his father or of his other relatives 
was of the quality to insure the best bringing up of 
a child. 

He died July, 1778. But his song survives, while 
the world gladly forgets everything else he wrote. 
It is almost a pardonable exaggeration to say that 
every child in Christendom knows "Greenville.' 

' ^HEN ALL THY MERCIES, O MY GOD. " 

This charming hymn was written by Addison, 
the celebrated English poet and essayist, about 
1 701, in grateful commemoration of his delivery 
from shipwreck in a storm off the coast of Genoa, 
Italy. It originally contained thirteen stanzas, 
but no more than four or six are commonly sung. 
It has put the language of devotional gratitude 
into the mouths of thousands of humble disciples 
who could but feebly frame their own: 

When all Thy mercies, O my God, 

My rising soul surveys, 
Transported with the view I'm lost 

In wonder, love and praise. 

Unnumbered comforts on my soul 
Thy tender care bestowed 



114 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Before my infant heart conceived 
From whom those comforts flowed. 

When in the shppery paths of youth 

With heedless steps I ran, 
Thine arm unseen conveyed me safe, 

And led me up to man. 

Another hymn of Addison — 

How are Thy servants bless'd, O Lord, 

— was probably composed after the same return 
from a foreign voyage. It has been called his 
"Traveller's Hymn." 

Joseph Addison, the best English v^riter of his 
time, was the son of Lancelot Addison, rector of 
Milston, Wiltshire, and afterwards Dean of 
Litchfield. The distinguished author was born in 
Milston Rectory, May i, 1672, and was educated 
at Oxford. His excellence in poetry, both English 
and Latin, gave him early reputation, and a 
patriotic ode obtained for him the patronage of 
Lord Somers. A pension from King William HL 
assured him a comfortable income, which was 
increased by further honors, for in 1704 he was 
appointed Commissioner of Appeals, then secretary 
of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and in 171 7 
Secretary of State. He died in Holland House, 
Kensington, near London, June 17, 1719. 

His hymns are not numerous, (said to be only five) , 
but they are remarkable for the simple beauty 
of their style, as well as for their Christian spirit. 
Of his fine metrical version of the 23rd Psalm,— 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. II5 

The Lord my pasture shall prepare, 
And feed me with a shepherd's care, 

■ — one of his earliest productions, the tradition is 
that he gathered its imagery when a boy Hving 
at Netheravon, near Salisbury Plain, during his 
lonely two-mile walks to school at Amesbury and 
back again. All his hymns appeared first in the 
Spectator, to which he was a prolific contributor. 

THE TUNE. 

The hymn "When all Thy mercies" still has 
"Geneva" for its vocal mate in some congrega- 
tional manuals. The tune is one of the rare 
survivals of the old "canon" musical method, the 
parts coming in one after another with identical 
notes. It is always delightful as a performance 
with its glory of harmony and its sweet duet, and 
for generations it had no other words than Addi- 
son's hymn. 

John Cole, author of "Geneva," was born in 
Tewksbury, Eng., 1774, and came to the United 
States in his boyhood (1785). Baltimore, Md. 
became his American home, and he was educated 
there. Early in life he became a musician and 
music publisher. At least twelve of his principal 
song collections from 1800 to 1832 are mentioned 
by Mr. Hubert P. Main, most of them sacred and 
containing many of his own tunes. 

He continued to compose music till his death, 
Aug. 17, 1855. Mr. Cole was leader of the regi- 



Il6 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

mental band known as "The Independent Blues/* 
which played in the war of 1812, and was present 
at the "North Point" fight, and other battles. 

Besides "Geneva," for real feeling and har- 
monic beauty "Manoah," adapted from Haydn's 
Creation, deserves mention as admirably suited 
to "Addison's" hymn, and also "Belmont," by 
Samuel Webbe, which resembles it in style and 
sentiment. 

Samuel Webbe, composer of "Belmont," was 
of English parentage but was born in Minorca, 
Balearic Islands, in 1740, where his father at that 
time held a government appointment; but his 
father, dying suddenly, left his family poor, and 
Samuel w^as apprenticed to a cabinet-maker. He 
served his apprenticeship, and immediately re- 
paired to a London teacher and began the study 
of music and languages. Surmounting great diffi- 
culties, he became a competent musician, and made 
himself popular as a composer of glees. He was 
also the author of several masses, anthems, and 
hymn-tunes, the best of which are still in occasional 
use. Died in London, 18 16. 

" JESUS, I LOVE THY CHARMING NAME. " 

When Dr. Doddridge, the author of this hymn, 
during his useful ministry, had finished the prep- 
aration of a pulpit discourse that strongly im- 
pressed him, he was accustomed, while his heart 
was yet glowing with the sentiment that had in- 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION II7 

spired him, to put the principal thoughts into 
metre, and use the hymn thus written at the con- 
clusion of the preaching of the sermon. This hymn 
of Christian ardor was written to be sung after a 
sermon from Romans 8:35, "Who shall separate 
us from the love of Christ ?" 

Jesus, I love Thy charming name, 

'Tis music to mine ear: 
Fain would I sound it out so loud 

That earth and heaven should hear. 

****** 

I'll speak the honors of Thy name 

With my last laboring breath, 
Then speechless, clasp Thee in my arms, 

The conqueror of death. 

Earlier copies have — 

The antidote of death. 

Philip Doddridge, D. D., was born in London, 
June 26, 1702. Educated at Kingston Grammar 
School and Kibworth Academy, he became a 
scholar of respectable attainments, and was or- 
dained to the Non-conformist ministry. He was 
pastor of the Congregational church at North- 
ampton, from 1729 until his death, acting mean- 
while as principal of the Theological School in 
that place. In 1749 he ceased to preach and went 
to Lisbon for his health, but died there about two 
years later, of consumption, Oct. 26, 1752. 



Il8 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

THE TUNE. 

The hymn has been sometimes sung to "Pis- 
gah/' an old revival piece by J. C. Lov^ry (1820) 
once much heard in camp-meetings, but it is a pe- 
destrian tune with too many quavers, and a head- 
long tempo. 

Bradbury's "Jazer," in three-four time, is a 
melody with modulations, though more sympa- 
thetic, but it is hard to divorce the hymn from its 
long-time consort, old "ArHngton." It has the ac- 
cent of its sincerity, and the breath of its devotion. 

" LP, ON A NARROW NECK OF LAND. " 

This hymn of Charles Wesley is always desig- 
nated now by the above line, the first of the second 
stanza as originally written. It is said to have been 
composed at Land's End, in Cornwall, with the 
British Channel and the broad Atlantic in view 
and surging on both sides around a *' narrow neck 
of land/' 

Lol on a narrow neck of land, 
*Twixt two unbounded seas, I stand, 

Secure, insensible: 
A point of time, a moment's space. 
Removes me to that heavenly place, 

Or shuts me up in hell. 

O God, mine inmost soul convert. 
And deeply on my thoughtful heart 

Eternal things impress: 
Give me to feel their solemn weight, 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. IIQ 

And tremble on the brink of fate, 
And wake to righteousness. 

The preachers and poets of the great spiritual 
movement of the eighteenth century in England 
abated nothing in the candor of their words. The 
terrible earnestness of conviction tipped their 
tongues and pens vs^ith fire. 

THE TUNE. 

Lady Huntingdon would have lent "Meribah" 
gladly to this hymn, but Mason was not yet born. 
Many times it has been borrowed for Wesley's 
words since it came to its own, and the spirit of the 
pious Countess has doubtless approved the loan. It 
is rich enough to furnish forth her own lyric and 
more than one other of like matter and metre. 

The muscular music of " Ganges " has sometimes 
carried the hymn, and there are those who think its 
thunder is not a whit more Hebraic than the words 
require. 

"COME YE SINNERS POOR AND NEEDY. " 

Few hymns have been more frequently sung in 
prayer-meetings and religious assemblies during the 
last hundred and fifty years. Its author, Joseph 
Hart, spoke what he knew and testified what he 
felt. Born in London, 1 7 1 2, and liberally educated, 
he was in his young manhood very religious, but he 
went so far astray as to indulge in evil practices, and 



120 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

even published writings, both original and trans- 
lated, against Christianity and religion of any kind. 
But he could not drink at the Dead Sea and live. 
The apples of Sodom sickened him. Conscience 
asserted itself, and the pangs of remorse nearly 
drove him to despair till he turned back to the 
source he had forsaken. He alludes to this expe- 
rience in the lines — 

Let not conscience make you linger, 

Nor of fitness fondly dream; 
All the fitness He requireth 

Is to feel your need of Him. 

During Passion Week, 1767, he had an amazing 
view of the sufferings of Christ, under the stress of 
which his heart was changed. In the joy of this ex- 
perience he wrote — 

Come ye sinners poor and needy, 
— and — 

Come all ye chosen saints of God. 

Probably no two hymn-lines have been oftener 
repeated than — 

If you tarry till you're better 
You will never come at all. 

The complete form of the original stanzas is: 

Come ye sinners poor and needy, 
Weak and wounded, sick and sore; 

Jesus ready stands to save you, 
Full of pity, love and power. 

He is able. 
He is wiHing; doubt no more. 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. 121 

The whole hymn — ten stanzas — is not sung 
now as one, but two, the second division begin- 
ning with the Hne — 

Come ye weary, heavy laden. 

Rev. Joseph Hart became minister of Jewin St. 
Congregational Chapel, London, about 1760, 
where he labored till his death, May 24, 1768. 

THE TUNE. 

A revival song by Jeremiah Ingalls (i 764-1828), 
written about 1804, with an easy, popular swing 
and a sforzando chorus — 

Turn to the Lord and seek salvation, 

— monopolized this hymn for a good many years. 
The tunes commonly assigned to it have since been 
" Greenville " and Von Weber's " Wilmot, " in which 
last it is now more generally sung — dropping the 
echo lines at the end of each stanza. 

Carl Maria Von Weber, son of a roving musician, 
was born in Eutin, Germany, 1786. He developed 
no remarkable genius till he was about twenty 
years old, though being a fine vocalist, his singing 
brought him popularity and gain; but in 1806 he 
nearly lost his voice by accidently drinking nitric 
acid. He was for several years private secretary to 
Duke Ludwig at Stuttgart, and in 18 13 Chapel- 
Master at Prague, from which place he went to 
Dresden in 18 17 as Musik-Director. 

Von Weber's Korner songs won the hearts of all 
Germany, and his immortal "Der Freischutz" 



122 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

(the Free Archer), and numerous tender melodies 
like the airs to "John Anderson, my Jo" and "O 
PoortithCauld" have gone to all civilized nations. No 
other composer had suchfeelingfor beauty of sound. 
This beloved musician was physically frail and 
delicate, and died of untimely decline, during a 
visit to London in 1826. 

"O HAPPY SAINTS WHO DWELL IN L IGHT. " 

Sometimes printed "O happy souls /^ This poet- 
ical and flowing hymn seems to have been for- 
gotten in the making up of most modern church 
hymnals. Hymns on heaven and heavenly joys 
abound in embarrassing numbers, but it is dif- 
ficult to understand why this beautiful lyric should 
be universally neglected. It was written probably 
about 1760, by Rev. John Berridge, from the text, 
" Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord. " 

The first line of the second stanza — 

Released from sorrow, toll and strife, 

— has been tinkered in some of the older hymn- 
books, where it is found to read — , 

Released from sorrow, toil and griefs 

— not only committing a tautology, but destroying 
the perfect rhyme with *' life " in the next line. The 
whole hymn, too, has been much altered by substi- 
tuted words and shifted lines, though not gen- 
erally to the serious detriment of its meaning and 
music. 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. I23 

The Rev. John Berridge — friend of the Wesleys, 
Whitefield, and Lady Huntingdon — w^as an ec- 
centric but very worthy and spiritual minister, born 
the son of a farmer, in Kingston, Nottinghamshire, 
Eng.,Mar. I, 1716. He studied at Cambridge, and 
v^as ordained curate of Stapleford and subse- 
quently located as vicar of Everton, 1775. He died 
Jan. 22, 1793. He loved to preach, and he v^as de- 
termined that his tombstone should preach after 
his voice was still. His epitaph, composed by him- 
self, is both a testimony and a memoir: 

"Here lie the earthly remains of John Berridge, late vicar of 
Everton, and an itinerant servant of Jesus Christ, who loved 
his Master and His work, and after running His errands 
many years, was called up to wait on Kim above. 

"Reader, art thou born again ? 

"No salvation without the new birth. 

"I was born in sin, February, 17 i6. 

"Remained ignorant of my fallen state till 1730. 

"Lived proudly on faith and works for salvation till 175 i. 

"Admitted to Everton vicarage, 1755. 

"Fled to Jesus alone for refuge, 1756. 

"Fell asleep in Jesus Christ, — " (1793.) 

THE TUNE. 

The once popular score that easily made the 
hymn a favorite, was "Salem,'' in the old Psal- 
modist. It still appears in some note-books, though 
the name of its composer is uncertain. Its notes 
(in 6-8 time) succeed each other in syllabic mod- 
ulations that give a soft dactylic accent to the meas- 
ure and a wavy current to the lines: 



124 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

O happy saints that dwell in light, 
And walk with Jesus clothed in white, 
Safe landed on that peaceful shore, 
Where pilgrims meet to part no more: 

Released from sorrow, toil and strife, 
Death was the gate to endless life. 
And now they range the heavenly plains 
And sing His love in melting strains. 

Another version reads: 

and welcome to an endless life. 

Their souls have now begun to prove 
The height and depth of Jesus' love. 

' THOU DEAR REDEEMER, DYING LAMB. " 

The author, John Cennick, like Joseph Hart, 
was led to Christ after a reckless boyhood and 
youth, by the work of the Divine Spirit in his soul, 
independent of any direct outward influence. 
Sickened of his cards, novels, and playhouse 
pleasures, he had begun a sort of mechanical 
reform, when one day, walking in the streets of 
London, he suddenly seemed to hear the text 
spoken "I am thy salvation!" His consecration 
began at that moment. 

He studied for the ministry, and became a 
preacher, first under direction of the Wesleys, 
then under Whitefield, but afterwards joined the 
Moravians, or " Brethren." He was born at Read- 
ing, Derbyshire, Eng., Dec. 12, 1718, and died in 
London, July 4, 1755. 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. I25 

THE TUNE. 

The word "Rhine" (in some collections — in 
others "Emmons") names a revival tune once so 
linked with this hymn and so well known that few 
religious people now past middle life could enjoy 
singing it to any other. With a compass one note 
beyond an octave and a third, it utters every line 
with a clear, bold gladness sure to infect a meeting 
with its own spiritual fervor. 

Thou dear Redeemer, dying Lamb, 

I love to hear of Thee; 
No music like Thy charming name, 

Nor half so sweet can be. 

The composer of the bright legato melody just 
described was Frederick Burgmiiller, a young 
German musician, born in 1804. He was a remark- 
able genius, both in composition and execution, 
but his health was frail, and he did not live to 
fulfil the rich possibilities that lay within him. He 
died in 1824 — o^ily twenty years old. The tune 
"Rhine" ("Emmons") is from one of his marches. 

" WHILE THEE I SEEK, PROTECTING POWER. " 

Helen Maria Williams wrote this sweet hymn, 
probably about the year 1800. She was a bril- 
liant woman, better known in literary society for 
her political verses and essays than by her hymns; 
but the hymn here noted bears sufficient wit- 
ness to her deep religious feeling: 



126 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

While Thee I seek, Protecting Power, 

Be my vain wishes stilled, 
And may this consecrated hour 

With better hopes be filled. 
Thy love the power of thought bestowed; 

To Thee my thoughts would soar, 
Thy mercy o'er my life has flowed. 

That mercy I adore. 

Miss Williams was born in the north of Eng- 
land, Nov. 30, 1762, but spent much of her life in 
London, and in Paris, where she died, Dec. 14, 1827. 

THE TUNE. 

Wedded so many years to the gentle, flowing 
music of Pleyel's *' Brattle Street," few lovers of 
the hymn recall its words without the melody of 
that emotional choral. 

The plain psalm-tune, ''Simpson," by Louis 
Spohr, divides the stanzas into quatrains. 

* 7ESUS MY ALL TO HEAVEN IS GONE. " 

This hymn, by Cennick, was familiarized to the 
public more than two generations ago by its re- 
vival tune, sometimes called "Duane Street," long- 
meter double. It is staffed in various keys, but 
its movement is full of life and emphasis, and its 
melody is contagious. The piece was composed 
by Rev. George Coles, in 1835. 

The fact that this hymn of Cennick with Coles's 
tune appears in the ISfew Methodist Hymnal 
indicates the survival of both in modern favor. 







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HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. 12/ 

Jesus my all to heaven is gone, 
He whom I fixed my hopes upon; 
His track I see, and I'll pursue 
The narrow way till Him I view. 
The way the holy prophets went, 
The road that leads from banishment, 
The King's highway of holiness 
I'll go for all Thy paths are peace. 

The memory has not passed away of the hearty 
unison with which prayer-meeting and camp- 
meeting assembhes used to "crescendo" the last 
stanza — 

Then will I tell to sinners round 
What a dear Saviour I have found; 
I'll point to His redeeming blood. 
And say ** Behold the way to God.'* 

The Rev. George Coles was born in Stewkley, 
Eng., Jan. 2, 1792, and died in New York City, 
May I, 1858. He was editor of the A^. T. Chris- 
tian Advocate, and Sunday School Advocate, for 
several years, and was a musician of some ability, 
besides being a good singer. 

"SWEET THE MOMENTS, RICH IN BLESSING. " 

The Hon. and Rev. Walter Shirley, Rector of 
Loughgfee, county of Galway, Ireland, revised this ^tt-jhrli^ 
hymn u«<leF the chastening discipline of a most 
tiying experience. His brother, tJ*e Earl <rf 
Ferrlrs, a licentious man, murdered an old and 
faithful servant in a fit of rage, and was executed 
at Tyburn for the crime. Si^ Walter, after the 



,'-'1 



128 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

disgrace and long distress oF the imprisonment, 
trial, and final tragedy, returned to his little parish 
in Ireland, humbled but driven nearer to the Cross. 

Sweet the moments, rfch in blessing 
Which before the Cross I spend; 

Life and health and peace possessing 
From the sinner's dying Fri^d. 

to V L* ^ All the emotion of one who buries\a mortifying 

sorrow in the heart of Christ, and triess^o forget, 

'' V ^^' trembles in the lines of the above hym^K^s he 

changed and adapted it in his maddest but devoutest 
hours.2 Its original writer was the Rev. James 
Allen, neai:^-twemy years younger than himself, 
^ ' a man of culture and piety, but a Christian of 

?^ ^^ shifting creeds. It is not impossible that he sent 

his hymn to Shirley to revise. At all events it owes 
its present form to Shirley's hand. ^. 

Truly blessed is tiw station i rt^ ^ 
Low before His cross to lie, 

?.'• While I see Divine Compassion a ^ 

L/Uw.^ --v!i Y Seaming in His gracious eye.* ' •'<'^jut^ 

The influence of Sir Walter's family misfortune 
is evident also in the mood out of which breathed 
his other trustful lines — 

Peace, troubled soul, whose plaintive moan 
Hath taught these rocks the note! of woe, 

(changed now to "hath taught these scenes,'' etc). 

(8m Walter Shirley, cousin of the Countess of 

Huntingdon, was born 1725, and died in 1786. 

=*^'Floatmg in His languid eye^'* awtrng ^ahxvc beea the earlier version. 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. I29 

Even in his last sickness he continued to preach to 
his people in his house, seated in his chair. 

Rev. James Oswald Allen was born at Gayle, . . _ , 

Yorkshire, Eng., June 24, L743. He left the ' ^ ^ 

University of Cambridge after a year's study, and 
became an itinerant preacher, but seems to have 
been a man of unstable religious views. After 
roving from one Christian denomination to another 
several times, he built a Chapel, and for forty 
years ministered there to a small Independent 
congregation. He died in Gayle, Oct. 31, 1804. 

The tune long and happily associated with 
"Sweet the Moments" is "Sicily," or the "Sicilian 
H^im«" — from an old Latin hymn-tune, "O 
Sanctissima." 

"O FOR A CLOSER WALK WITH GOD." 



The author, William Cowper, son of a clergy- 
man, was born at Berkhampstead, Hertfordshire, 
Eng., Nov. 15, 1 73 1, and died at Dereham, 
Norfolk, April 25, 1800. Through much of his 
adult life he was afflicted with a mental ailment 
inducing melancholia and at times partial insanity, 
during which he once attempted suicide. He 
sought literary occupation as an antidote to his 
disorder of mind, and besides a great number of 
lighter pieces which diverted him and his friends, 
composed "The Task," an able and delightful 
moral and domestic poetic treatise in blank verse, 
and in the same style of verse translated Homer's 
Odyssey and Iliad. 



130 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

One of the most beloved of English poets, this 
suffering man was also a true Christian, and wrote 
some of our sweetest and most spiritual hymn^. 
Most of these were composed at Olney, where he 
resided for a time with John Newton, his fellow 
hymnist, and jointly with him issued the volume 
known as the Olney Hymns. 

THE TUNE, 

Music more or less closely identified with this 
famihar hymn is Gardiner's " Dedham," and also 
"Mear,'' often attributed to Aaron Williams. Both, 
about equally with the hymn, are seasoned by time, 
but have not worn out their harmony — or their 
fitness to Cowper's prayer. 

William Gardiner was born in Leicester, Eng., 
March 15, 1770, and died there Nov. 11, 1853. 
He was a vocal composer and a "musicographer*' 
or writer on musical subjects. 

One Aaron Williams, to whom "Mear" has by 
some been credited, was of Welsh descent, a com- 
poser of psalmody and clerk of the Scotch church 
in London. He was born in 1734, and died in 
1776. Another account, and the more probable 
one, names a minister of Boston of still earher 
date as the author of the noble old harmony. It 
is found in a small New England collection of 
1726, but not in any English or Scotch collection. 
"Mear'* is presumably an American tune. 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. I3I 

" WHAT VARIOUS HINDRANCES WE MEET. " 

Another hymn of Cowper's; and no one ever 
suffered more deeply the plaintive regret in the 
opening lines, or better wrought into poetic ex- 
pression an argument for prayer. 

What various hindrances we meet 

In coming to a mercy-seat! 

Yet who that knows the worth of prayer 

But wishes to be often there ? 

Prayer makes the darkest clouds withdraw, 
Prayer climbs the ladder Jacob saw. 

The whole hymn is (or once was) so thoroughly 
learned by heart as to be fixed in the church among 
its household words. Preachers to the diffident 
do not forget to quote — 

Have you no words ? ah, think again; 
Words flow apace when you complain. 

4: * >N 4: 4c 4: 

Were half the breath thus vainly spent 
To Heaven in supplication sent. 
Our cheerful song would oftener be, 
"Hear what the Lord hath done for met" 

And there is all the lifetime of a proverb in the 
conplet — 

Satan trembles when he sees 
The weakest saint upon his knees. 

Tune, Lowell Mason's "Rockingham." 



132 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

" MY GRACIOUS REDEEMER I LOVE. " 

This Is one of Benjamin Francis's lays of de- 
votion. The Christian Welshman who bore that 
name was a Gospel minister full of Evangelical 
zeal, who preached in many places, though his 
pastoral home was with the Baptist church in 
Shortwood, Wales. Flattering calls to London 
could not tempt him away from his first and only 
parish, and he remained there till his triumphant 
death. He was born in 1734, and died in 1799. 

My gracious Redeemer I love, 

His praises aloud I'll proclaim, 
And join with the armies above. 

To shout His adorable name. 
To gaze on His glories divine 

Shall be my eternal employ; 
To see them incessantly shine, 

My boundless, ineffable joyo 

Tune, "Birmingham" — an English melody. 
Anonymous. 

"BLEST BE THE TIE THAT BINDS." 



Perhaps the best hymn-expression of sacred 
brotherhood, at least it has had, and still has the 
indorsement of constant use. The author, John 
Fawcett, D.D., is always quoted as the example 
of his own words, since he sacrificed ambition 
and personal interest to Christian affection. 

Born near Bradford, Yorkshire, Jan. 6, 1739, 
and converted under the preaching of Whitefield, 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. I33 

he joined the Methodists, but afterwards became 
a member of the new Baptist church in Bradford. 
Seven years later he was ordained over the Baptist 
Society at Wainsgate. In 1772 he received a call 
to succeed the celebrated Dr. Gill, in London, and 
accepted. But at the last moment, when his 
goods were packed for removal, the clinging love 
of his people, weeping their farewells around him, 
melted his heart. Their passionate regrets were 
more than either he or his good wife could with- 
stand. 

"I will stay,*' he said; "you may unpack my 
goods, and we will live for the Lord lovingly 
together." 

It was out of this heart experience that the 
tender hymn was born. 

Our fears, our hopes, our aims are one, 
Our comforts and our cares. 

Dr. Fawcett died July 25, 18 17. 
Tune, "Boylston/' L. Mason; or "Dennis," 
H. G. NageH. 

''I LOVE THY KINGDOM, LORD." 

"Dr. Dwight's Hymn," as this is known par 
eminence among many others from his pen, is 
one of the imperishable lyrics of the Christian 
Church. The real spirit of the hundred and 
twenty-second Psalm is in it, and it is worthy of 
Watts in his best moments. 



134 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Timothy Dwight was born at Northampton, 
Mass, May 14, 1752, and graduated at Yale 
College at the age of thirteen. He wrote several 
religious poems of considerable length. In 1795 
he was elected President of Yale College, and in 
1800 he revised Watts' Psalms, at the request of the 
General Association of Connecticut, adding a num- 
ber of translations of his own. 

I love Thy kingdom, Lord, 

The house of Thine abode, 
The Church our blest Redeemer saved 

With His own precious blood. 

I love Thy Church, O God; 

Her walls before Thee stand, 
Dear as the apple of Thine eye. 

And graven on Thy hand. 

Dr. Dwight died Jan. 11, 1817. 

Tune, "St. Thomas," Aaron Williams, (1734- 

1776.) 

Mr. Hubert P. Main, however, believes the 
author to be Handel. It appeared as the second 
movement of a four-movement tune in Williams's 
1762 collection, which contained pieces by the 
great masters, with his own; but while not credited 
to Handel, Williams did not claim it himself. 

"MID SCENES OF CONFUSION." 



This hymn, common in chapel hymnbooks 
half a century and more ago, is said to have been 
written by the Rev. David Denham, about 1826. 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. I35 

THE TUNE. 

"Home, Sweet Home" was composed, accord- 
ing to the old account, by John Howard Payne as 
one of the airs in his opera of *'Clari, the Maid of 
Milan," which was brought out in London at 
Drury Lane in 1823. But Charles Mackay, the 
English poet, in the London Telegraph, asserts 
that Sir Henry Bishop, an eminent musician, in 
his vain search for a Sicilian national air, invented 
one, and that it was the melody of "Home, sweet 
Home," which he afterwards set to Howard Payne's 
words. Mr. Mackay had this story from Sir 
Henry himself. 

Mid scenes of confusion and creature complaints 
How sweet to my soul is communion with saints, 
To find at the banquet of mercy there's room 
And feel in the presence of Jesus at home. 

Home, home, sweet, sweet home! 
Prepare me, dear Savior for glory, my home. 

John Howard Payne, author at least, of the 
original words of "Home, Sweet Home," was born 
in New York City June 9, 1791. He was a singer, 
and became an actor and theatrical writer. He com- 
posed the words of his immortal song in the year 
1823, when he was himself homeless and hungry 
and sheltered temporarily in an attic in Paris. 

His fortunes improved at last, and he was ap- 
pointed to represent his native country as consul 
in Tunis, where he died, Apr. 9, 1852. 



136 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

" O, COULD I SPEAK THE MATCHLESS WORTH. 

The writer of this hymn of worshiping ardor 
and exalted Christian love was an English Baptist 
minister, the Rev. Samuel Medley. He was born 
at Cheshunt, Hertfordshire, June 23, 1738, and at 
eighteen years of age entered the Royal Navy, 
where, though he had been piously educated, he 
became dissipated and morally reckless. Wounded 
in a sea fight off Cape Lagos, and in dread of am- 
putation he prayed penitently through nearly a 
whole night, and in the morning the surprised 
surgeon told him his limb could be saved. 

The voice of his awakened conscience was not 
wholly disregarded, though it was not till some 
time after he left the navy that his vow to begin a 
religious life was sincerely kept. After teaching 
school for four years, he began to preach in 1766, 
Wartford in Hertfordshire being the first scene of 
his godly labors. He died in Liverpool July 17, 
1799, at the end of a faithful ministry there of 
twenty-seven years. A small edition of his hymns 
was published during his lifetime, in 1789. 

O could I speak the matchless worth, 
O could I sound the glories forth 

Which in my Saviour shine, 
I'd soar and touch the heavenly strings 
And vie with Gabriel while he sings, 

In notes almost divine 1 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. I37 

THE TUNE. 

"Colebrook," a plain choral; but with a noble 
movement, by Henry Smart, is the English music 
to this fine lyric, but Dr. Mason's "Ariel" is the 
American favorite. It justifies its name, for it has 
wings — in both full harmony and duet — and its 
melody feels the glory of the hymn at every bar. 

"ROCK OF AGES CLEFT FOR ME." 



Augustus Montagu Toplady, author of this 
almost universal hymn, was born at Farnham, 
Surrey, Eng., Nov. 4, 1740. Educated at West- 
minister School, and Trinity College, Dublin, he 
took orders in the Established Church. In his 
doctrinal debates with the Wesleys he was a harsh 
controversialist; but his piety was sincere, and 
marked late in life by exalted moods. Physically 
he was frail, and his fiery zeal wore out his body. 
Transferred from his vicarage at Broad Hem- 
bury, Devonshire, to Knightsbridge, London, at 
twenty-eight years of age, his health began to 
fail before he was thirty-five, and in one of his 
periods of illness he wrote — 

When languor and disease invade 

This trembling house of clay, 
'Tis sweet to look beyond my pains 

And long to fly away. 

And the same homesickness for heaven appears 
under a different figure in another hymn — 



138 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

At anchor laid remote from home, 
Toiling I cry, "Sweet Spirit, come! 
Celestial breeze, no longer stay. 
But swell my sails, and speed my way I" 

Possessed of an ardent religious nature, his 
spiritual frames exemplified in a notable degree 
the emotional side of Calvinistic piety. Edward 
Payson himself, was not more enraptured in 
immediate view of death than was this young 
London priest and poet. Unquestioning faith 
became perfect certainty. As in the bold metaphor 
of **Rock of Ages," the faith finds voice in — 

A debtor to mercy alone, 

— and other hymns in his collection of 1776, two 
years before the end came. Most of this devout 
writing was done in his last days, and he con- 
tinued it as long as strength was left, until, on the 
nth of August, 1778, he joyfully passed away. 

Somehow there was always something peculiarly 
heartsome and ''filling" to pious minds in the 
lines of Toplady in days when his minor hymns 
were more in vogue than now, and they were often 
quoted, without any idea whose making they were. 
"At anchor laid" was crooned by good old ladies 
at their spinning-wheels, and godly invalids found 
"When languor and disease invade" a comfort 
next to their Bibles. 

"Rock of Ages" is said to have been written 
after the author, during a suburban walk, had 
been forced to shelter himself from a thunder 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. I39 

shower, under a clifF. This is, however, but one of 
several stories about the birth-occasion of the 
hymn. 

It has been translated into many languages. 
One of the foreign dignitaries visiting Queen 
Victoria at her "Golden Jubilee'' was a native of 
Madagascar, who surprised her by asking leave 
to sing, but delighted her, when leave was given, 
by singing "Rock of Ages." It was a favorite of 
hers — and of Prince Albert, who whispered it 
when he was dying. People who were school- 
children when Rev. Justus Vinton came home to 
Willington, Ct., with two Karen pupils, repeat to- 
day the "la-pa-ta, i-oo-i-oo" caught by sound 
from the brown-faced boys as they sang their 
native version of "Rock of Ages." 

Gen. J. E. B. Stuart, the famous Confederate 
Cavalry leader, mortally wounded at Yellow 
Tavern, Va., and borne to a Richmond hospital, 
called for his minister and requested that "Rock 
of Ages" be sung to him. 

The last sounds heard by the few saved from 
the wreck of the steamer "London" in the Bay of 
Biscay, 1866, were the voices of the helpless pas- 
sengers singing "Rock of Ages" as the ship went 
down. 

A company of Armenian Christians sang "Rock 
of Ages" in their native tongue while they were 
being massacred in Constantinople. 

No history of this grand hymn of faith forgets 
the incident of Gladstone writing a Latin trans- 



140 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

lation of it while sitting in the House of Commons. 
That remarkable man was as masterly in his 
scholarly recreations as in his statesmanship. 
The supreme Christian sentiment of the hymn ■ 
had permeated his soul till it spoke to him in a I 
dead language as eloquently as in the living one; ■ 
and this is what he made of it: 

rOPLADT, 

Rock of ages, cleft for me, 

Let me hide myself in Thee; 

Let the water and the blood. 

From Thy riven side which flowed. 

Be of sin the double cure, 

Cleanse me from its guilt and power. 

Not the labor of my hands 
Can fulfil Thy law's demands; 
Could my zeal no respite know, 
Could my tears for ever flow, 
All for sin could not atone, 
Thou must save, and Thou alone. 

Nothing in my hand I bring. 
Simply to Thy cross I cling; 
Naked, come to Thee for dress. 
Helpless, look to Thee for grace: 
Foul, I to the fountain fly; 
Wash, me, Saviour, or I die. 

Whilst I draw this fleeting breath, 
When my eyestrings break in death; 
When I soar through tracts unknown, 
See Thee on Thy judgment throne. 
Rock of ages, cleft for me, 
Let me hide myself in Thee. 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. I4I 

GLADSTONE. 

Jesus, pro me perforatus, 
Condar intra tuum latus; 
Tu per lympham profluentem, 
Tu per sanguinem tepentem, 
In peccata mi redunda, 
Tolle culpam, sordes mundal 

Coram Te nee Justus forem 
Quamvis tota vi laborem, 
Nee si fide nunquam cesso, 
Fletu stillans indefesso; 
Tibi soli tantum munus — 
Salva me, Salvator Unus! 

Nil in manu mecum fero, 

Sed me versus crucem gero: 

Vestimenta nudus oro, 

Opem debilis imploro, 

Fontem Christi quaero immundus, 

Nisi laves, moribundus. 

Dum hos artus vita regit, 
Quando nox sepulcro legit; 
Mortuos quum stare jubes, 
Sedens Judex inter nubes; — 
Jesus, pro me perforatus, 
Condar intra tuum latusl 

The wonderful hymn has suffered the mutations 
common to time and taste. 

When I soar thro * tracts unknown 
— becomes — 

When I soar to worlds unknown, 
— getting rid of the unpoetic word, and bettering 
the elocution, but missing the writer's thought 



142 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

(of the unknown patJi, — Instead of going to many 
** worlds"). The Unitarians have their version, 
with substitutes for the ''atonement lines." 

But the Christian lyric maintains its life and 
inspiration through the vicissitudes of age and 
use, as all intrinsically superior things can and 
will, — and as in the twentieth line, — 

When my eyestrlngs break in death; 

— modernized to — 

When my eyelids close in death, 

— the hymn will ever adapt itself to the new 
exigencies of common speech, without losing its 
vitality and pow^r. 

THE TUNE, 

A happy inspiration of Dr. Thomas Hastings 
made the hymn and music inevitably one. Almost 
anywhere to call for the tune of "Toplady" 
(namesake of the pious poet) is as unintelligible 
to the multitude as *'Key" vvould be to designate 
the "Star-spangled Banner." The common people 
— thanks to Dr. Hastings — have learned "Rock 
of Ages" by sound. 

Thomas Hastings was born in Washington, Ct., 
1 784. For eight years he w^as editor of the West- 
ern Recorder, but he gave his life to church music, 
and besides being a talented tone-poet he wrote as 
many as six hundred hymns. In 1832, by in- 
vitation from twelve New York churches, he went 



I 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. I43 

to that city, and did the main work of his life 
there, dying, In 1872, at the good old age of eighty- 
nine. His musical collections number fifty-three. 
He wrote his famous tune In 1830. 

"MY SOUL BE ON THY GUARD." 



Strangely enough, this hymn, a trumpet note 
of Christian warning and resolution, was written 
by one who himself fell into unworthy ways.* But 
the one strong and spiritual watch-song by which 
he is remembered appeals for him, and lets us 
know possibly, something of his own conflicts. 
We can be thankful for the struggle he once 
made, and for the hymn it inspired. It is a voice 
of caution to others. 

George Heath, the author, was an English min- 
ister, born in 1781; died 1822. For a time he was 
pastor of a Presbyterian Church at Honlton, De- 
vonshire, and was evidently a prolific writer, hav- 
ing composed a hundred and forty-four hymns, 
an edition of which was printed. 

THE TUNE. 

No other has been so familiarly linked with the 
words as Lowell Mason's "Laban" (1830). It has 
dash and animation enough to reenforce the hymn, 
and give it popular life, even If the hymn had less 
earnestness and vigor of its own. 

*I have been unable to verify this statement found in Mr. Butterworth'i 
"Story of the Hynans.'^— T. B. 



144 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Ne'er think the vic'try won 

Nor lay thine armor down: 
Thy arduous work will not be done 

Till thou hast gained thy crown. 

Fight on, my soul till death 

Shall bring thee to thy God; 
He'll take thee at thy parting breath 

To His divine abode. 

" PEOPLE OF THE LIVING GOD ." 

Montgomery felt every line of this hymn as he 
committed it to paper. He wrote it when, after 
years in the "swim" of social excitements and 
ambitions, where his young independence swept 
him on, he came back to the little church of his 
boyhood. His father and mother had gone to the 
West Indies as missionaries, and died there. He 
was forty-three years old when, led by divine light, 
he sought readmission to the Moravian" meeting'* 
at Fulneck, and anchored happily in a haven of 
peace. 

People of the living God 

I have sought the world around, 

Paths of sin and sorrow trod, 

Peace and comfort nowhere found: 

Now to you my spirit turns — 

Turns a fugitive unblest; 
Brethren, where your altar burns, 

Oh, receive me into rest. 

James Montgomery, son of Rev. John Mont- 
gomery^ >vas born at Irvine, Ayeshire, Scotland, 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION, I45 

Nov. 4, 1 771, and educated at the Moravian 
Seminary at Fulneck, Yorkshire, Eng. He be- 
came the editor of the Sheffield Iris, and his 
pen was busy in non-professional as v^ell as pro- 
fessional vs^ork until old age. He died in Sheffield, 
April 30, 1854. 

His literary career was singularly successful; 
and a glance through any complete edition of his 
poems will tell us why. His hymns were all 
published during his lifetime, and all, as well as 
his longer pieces, have the purity and polished 
beauty, if not the strength, of Addison's work. 
Like Addison, too, he could say that he had written 
no line which, dying, he would wish to blot. 

The best of Montgomery was in his hymns. 
These were too many to enumerate here, and the 
more enduring ones too familiar to need enumera- 
tion. The church and the world will not soon 
forget "The Home in Heaven,"— 

Forever with the Lord, 

Amen, so let it be. 

Life from the dead is in that word; 

*Tis immortality. 

Nor— 

O where shall rest be found, 

— with its impressive couplet — 

'Tis not the whole of life to live 
Nor all of death to die. 

Nor the haunting sweetness of — 

There is a calm for those who weep. 



146 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Nor, indeed, the hymn of Christian love just now 
before us. 

THE TUNE. 

The melody exactly suited to the gentle trochaic 
step of the home-song, " People of the living God,'' 
is *' Whitman," composed for it by Lowell Mason. 
Few Christians, in America, we venture to say, 
could hear an instrument play ** Whitman" without 
mentally repeating Montgomery's words. 

"TO LEAVE MY DEAR FRIENDS. " 

This hymn, called "The Bower of Prayer," was 
dear to Christian hearts in many homes and 
especially in rural chapel worship half a century 
ago and earlier, and its sweet legato melody still 
lingers in the memories of aged men and women. 

Elder John Osborne, a New Hampshire preach- 
er of the "Christian" (Christ-tan) denomination, 
is said to have composed the tune (and possibly 
the words) about 18 15 — though apparently the 
music was arranged from a flute interlude in one 
of Haydn's themes. The warbling notes of the 
air are full of heart-feeling, and usually the best 
available treble voice sang it as a solo. 

To leave my dear friends and from neighbors to part, 
And go from my home, it affects not my heart 
Like the thought of absenting myself for a day 
From that blest retreat I have chosen to pray, 

I have chosen to pray. 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. I47 

The early shrill notes of the loved nightingale 
That dwelt in the bower, I observed as my bell: 
It called me to duty, while birds in the air 
Sang anthems of praises as I went to prayer, 

As I went to prayer.* 

How sweet were the zephyrs perfumed by the pine, 
The ivy, the balsam, the wild eglantine. 
But sweeter, O, sweeter superlative were 
The joys that I tasted in answer to prayer, 

In answer to prayer. 

"SAVIOUR, THY DYING LOVE ." 

This hymn of grateful piety was written in 
1862, by Rev. S. Dryden Phelps, D.D., of New 
Haven, and first published in Pure Gold, 1871; 
afterwards in the (earher) Baptist Hymn and 
Tune Book. 

Saviour, Thy dying love 

Thou gavest me. 
Nor should I aught withhold 

Dear Lord, from Thee. 

Give me a faithful heart, 

Likeness to Thee, 
That each departing day 

Henceforth may see 
Some work of love begun. 
Some deed of kindness done. 
Some wand'rer sought and won, 

Something for Thee. 

The penultimate line, originally "Some sinful 
wanderer won," was altered by the author him- 

*The American Vocalist omits this stanza as too fanciful as well as too crude 



148 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

self. The hymn is found in most Baptist hymnals, 
and was inserted by Mr. Sankey in Gospel Hymns 
No. I. It has since won its way into several 
revival collections and undenominational manuals. 
Rev. Sylvester Dryden Phelps, D.D., was born 
in Suffield, Ct., May 15, 18 16, and studied at the 
Connecticut Literary Institution in that town. 
An early call to the ministry turned his talents to 
the service of the church, and his long settlement 
— comprising what might be called his principal 
life work — was in New Haven, where he was 
pastor of the First Baptist church twenty-nine 
years. He died there Nov. 23, 1895. 

THE TUNE. 

The Rev. Robert Lowry admired the hymn, and 
gave it a tune perfectly suited to its metre and 
spirit. It has never been sung in any other. 
The usual title of it is "Something for Jesus." 
The meaning and sentiment of both words and 
music are not unlike Miss Havergal's — 

I gave my life for thee. 
"IN SOME WAY OR OTHER." 



This song of Christian confidence was written 
by Mrs. Martha A. W. Cook, wife of the Rev. 
Parsons Cook, editor of the Puritan Recorder, 
Boston. 

It was published in the American Messenger in 
1870, and is still in use here, as a German ver- 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. I49 

sion of it is in Germany. The first stanza fol- 
lows, in the two languages: 

In some way or other the Lord will provide. 
It may not be my way, 
It may not be thy way, 
And yet in His own way 
The Lord will provide. 

Sei's so oder anders, der Herr wird's versehn; 
Mag's nicht sein, wie ich will, 
Mag's nicht sein, wie du willst, 
Doch wird's sein, wie Er will: 
Der Herr wird's versehn. 

In the English version the easy flow of the two 
last lines into one sentence is an example of 
rhythmic advantage over the foreign syntax. 

Mrs. Cook was married to the well-known 
clergyman and editor, Parsons Cook, (i 800-1 865) 
in Bridgeport, Ct., and survived him at his death 
in Lynn, Mass. She was Miss Martha Ann 
Woodbridge, afterwards Mrs. Hawley, and a 
widow at the time of her re-marriage as Mr. Cook's 
second wife. 

THE TUNE, 

Professor Calvin S. Harrington, of Wesley an 
University, Middletown, Ct., set music to the 
words as printed in Winnowed Hymns (1873) ^"^ 
arranged by Dr. Eben Tourjee, organizer of the 
great American Peace Jubilee in Boston. In the 
Gospel Hymns it is, however, superseded by the 
more popular composition of Philip Phillips. 



150 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Dr. Eben Tourjee, late Dean of the College of 
Music in Boston University, and founder and head 
of the New England Conservatory, was born in War- 
wick, R. I., June I, 1834. With only an acad- 
emy education he rose by native genius, from a 
hard-working boyhood to be a teacher of music 
and a master of its science. From a course of 
study in Europe he returned and soon made his 
reputation as an organizer of musical schools and 
sangerfests. The New England Conservatory of 
Music was first established by him in Providence, 
but removed in 1870 to Boston, its permanent 
home. His doctorate of music was conferred 
upon him by Wesleyan University. Died in Bos- 
ton, April 12, 1891. 

Philip Phillips, known as "the singing Pilgrim," 
was born in Jamestown, Chautauqua, Co., N. Y., 
Aug. 13, 1834. He compiled twenty-nine col- 
lections of sacred music for Sunday schools, 
gospel meetings, etc.; also 2l Methodist Hymn and 
Tune Book, 1866. He composed a great number 
of tunes, but wrote no hymns. Some of his books 
were published in London, for he was a cosmo- 
politan singer, and traveled through Europe and 
Australia as well as America. Died in Delaware, 
O., June 25, 1875. 

^^ NEARER, MY GOD, TO THEE ." 

Mr. William Stead, fond of noting what is 
often believed to be the "providential chain of 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. I5I 

causes'* in everything that happens, recalls the 
fact that Benjamin Flower, editor of the Cam- 
bridge Intelligencer^ while in jail (1798) at the 
instigation of Bp. Watson for an article defending 
the French Revolution, and criticising the Bishop's 
political course, was visited by several sympa- 
thizing ladies, one of whom was Miss Eliza Gould. 
The young lady's first acquaintance with him 
there in his cell led to an attachment which event- 
uated in marriage. Of that marriage Sarah 
Flower was born. By the theory of providential 
sequences Mr. Stead makes it appear that the 
forgotten vindictiveness of a British prelate "was 
the causa causans of one of the most spiritual and 
aspiring hymns in the Christian Hymnary." 

"Nearer, My God, to Thee" was on the lips of 
President McKinley as he lay dying by a mur- 
derer's wicked shot. It is dear to President Roose- 
velt for its memories of the battle of Las Quasimas, 
where the Rough Riders sang it at the burial of 
their slain comrades. Bishop Marvin was saved 
by it from hopeless dejection, while practically an 
exile during the Civil War, by hearing it sung in 
the wilds of Arkansas, by an old woman in a log 
hut. 

A letter from Pittsburg, Pa., to a leading Boston 
paper relates the name and experience of a forger 
who had left the latter city and wandered eight 
years a fugitive from justice. On the 5th of 
November, (Sunday,) 1905, he found himself in 
Pittsburg, and ventured into the Dixon Theatre, 



152 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

where a religious service was being held, to hear 
the music. The hymn "Nearer, My God, to Thee" 
so overcame him that he went out weeping bitterly. 
He walked the floor of his room all night, and in 
the morning telephoned for the police, confessed 
his name and crime, and surrendered himself to be 
taken back to the Boston authorities. 

Mrs. Sarah Flower Adams, author of the noble 
hymn (supposed to have been written in 1840), 
was born at Harlow, Eng., Feb. 22, 1805, and died 
there in 1848. At her funeral another of her 
hymns was sung, ending — 

When falls the shadow, cold in death 
I yet will sing with fearless breath, 
As comes to me in shade or sun, 
"Father, Thy will, not mine, be done." 

The attempts to evangelize "Nearer, My God, to 
Thee" by those who cannot forget that Mrs. 
Adams was a Unitarian, are to be deplored. Such 
zeal is as needless as trying to sectarianize an Old 
Testament Psalm. The poem is a perfect religious 
piece — to be sung as it stands, with thanks that it 
was ever created. 

THE TUNE. 

In English churches (since 1861) the hymn was 
and may still be sung to "Horbury," composed 
by Rev. John B. Dykes, and "St. Edmund," by 
Sir Arthur Sullivan. Both tunes are simple and 
appropriate, but such a hymn earns and inevitably 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. I53 

acquires a single tune-voice, so that its music in- 
stantly names it by its words when played on in- 
struments. Such a voice was given it by Lowell 
Mason's " Bethany," (1856). (Why not " Bethel," 
instead, every one who notes the imagery of the 
words must wonder.) "Bethany" appealed to the 
popular heart, and long ago (in America) hymn 
and tune became each other's property. It is 
even simpler than the English tunes, and a single 
hearing fixes it in memory. 

"I NEED THEE EVERY HOUR." 



Mrs. Annie Sherwood Hawks, who wrote this 
hymn in 1872, was born in Hoosick, N. Y., in 1835. 

She sent the hymn (five stanzas) to Dr. Lowry, 
who composed its tune, adding a chorus, to make 
it more effective. It first appeared in a small 
collection of original songs prepared by Lowry 
and Doane for the National Baptist Sunday School 
Association, which met at Cincinnati, O., Novem- 
ber, 1872, and was sung there. 

I need Thee every hour, 

Most gracious Lord, 
No tender voice like Thine 

Can peace afford. 

Chorus. 

I need Thee, Oh, I need Thee, 
Every hour I need Thee; 
Oh, bless me now, my Saviour, 
I come to Thee! 



154 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

One instance, at least, of a hymn made doubly 
impressive by its chorus will be attested by all who 
have sung or heard the pleading words and music 
of Mrs. Hawks' and Dr. Lowry's "I need Thee, 
Oh, I need Thee." 

" I GAVE MY LIFE FOR THEE. " 

This was written in her youth by Frances Ridley 
Havergal, and was suggested by the motto over the 
head of Christ in the great picture, "Ecce Homo," 
in the Art Gallery of Dusseldorf, Prussia, where she 
was at school. The sight — as was the case with 
young Count Zinzendorf — seems to have had 
much to do with the gifted girl's early religious 
experience, and indeed exerted its influence on 
her whole life. The motto read "I did this for 
thee; what doest thou for me ?" and the generative 
effect of the solemn picture and its question soon 
appeared in the hymn that flowed from Miss 
HavergaFs heart and pen. 

I gave my life for thee, 

My precious blood I shed, 
That thou might'st ransomed be 

And quickened from the dead. 
I gave my life for thee: 
What hast thou given for me ? 

Miss Frances Ridley Havergal, sometimes called 
"The Theodosia of the 19th century," was born 
at Astley, Worcestershire, Eng., Dec. 14, 1836. 
Her father. Rev. William Henry Havergal, a 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. I55 

clergyman of the Church of England, was himself 
a poet and a skilled musician, and much of the 
daughter's ability came to her by natural bequest 
as well as by education. Born a poet, she became 
a fine instrumentalist, a composer and an accom- 
plished linguist. Her health was frail, but her life 
was a devoted one, and full of good works. Her 
consecrated words were destined to outlast her by 
many generations. 

"Writing is praying with me," she said. Death 
met her in 1879, when still in the prime of woman- 
hood. 

THE TUNE. 

The music that has made this hymn of Miss 
Havergal familiar in America is named from its 
first line, and was composed by the lamented 
Philip P. Bliss (christened Philipp Bliss*), a pupil 
of Dr. George F. Root. 

He was born in Rome, Pa., Jan. 9, 1838, and less 
than thirty-nine years later suddenly ended his life, 
a victim of the awful railroad disaster at Ashtabula 
O., Dec. 29, 1876, while returning from a visit to 
his aged mother. His wife, Lucy Young Bliss, 
perished with him there, in the swift flames that 
enveloped the wreck of the train. 

The name of Mr. Bliss had become almost a 
household word through his numerous popular 
Christian melodies, which were the American 



♦Mr. Bliss himself changed the spelling of his name, preferring to let the 
third P. do duty alone, as a middle initial. 



156 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

beginning of the series of Gospel Hymns. Many 
of these are still favorite prayer-meeting tunes 
throughout the country and are heard in song- 
service at Sunday-school and city mission meetings. 

" JESUS KEEP ME NEAR THE CROSS. " 

This hymn, one of the best and probably most 
enduring of Fanny J. Crosby's sacred lyrics, was 
inspired by Col. i : 29. 

Frances Jane Crosby (Mrs. Van Alstyne) the 
blind poet and hymnist, was born in Southeast, 
N. Y., March 24, 1820. She lost her eyesight at 
the age of six. Twelve years of her younger life 
were spent in the New York Institution for the 
Blind, where she became a teacher, and in 1858 
was happily married to a fellow inmate, Mr. 
Alexander Van Alstyne, a musician. 

George F. Root was for a time musical instructor 
at the Institution, and she began early to write 
words to his popular song-tunes. "Rosalie, the 
Prairie Flower," and the long favorite melody, 
"There's Music in the Air" are among the many 
to which she supplied the text and the song name. 

She resides in Bridgeport, Ct., where she enjoys 
a serene and happy old age. She has written over 
six thousand hymns, and possibly will add other 
pearls to the cluster before she goes up to join the 
singing saints. 

Jesus, keep me near the Cross, 
There a precious Fountain 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. I57 

Free to all, a healing stream, 

Flows from Calv'ry's mountain. 
Chorus. 

In the Cross, in the Cross 

Be my glory ever. 
Till my raptured soul shall find 

Rest beyond the river. 

:|c 4: * * * * 

Near the Cross! O Lamb of God, 

Bring its scenes before me; 
Help me walk from day to day 

With its shadows o'er me. 
Chorus. 

William Howard Doane, writer of the music to 
this hymn, was born in Preston, Ct., Feb. 3, 1831. 
He studied at Woodstock Academy, and subse- 
quently acquired a musical education which earned 
him the degree of Doctor of Music conferred upon 
him by Denison University in 1875. Having a 
mechanical as well as musical gift, he patented 
more than seventy inventions, and was for some 
years engaged with manufacturing concerns, both 
as employe and manager, but his interest in song- 
worship and in Sunday-school and church work 
never abated, and he is well known as a trainer of 
choirs and composer of some of the best modern 
devotional tunes. His home is in Cincinnati, O. 

" I WOULD NOT LIVE ALWAY. " 

This threnody (we may almost call it) of W. A. 
Muhlenberg, illustrating one phase of Christian ex- 



158 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

perience, was the outpouring of a poetic melancholy 
not uncommon to young and finely strung souls. 
He composed it in his twenties, — long before he be- 
came "Doctor" Muhlenberg, — and for years after- 
wards tried repeatedly to alter it to a more cheerful 
tone. But the poem had its mission, and it had 
fastened itself in the public imagination, either by 
its contagious sentiment or the felicity of its tune, 
and the author was obliged to accept the fame of it 
as it originally stood. 

William Augustus Muhlenberg D.D. was bom 
in Philadelphia, Sept. 16, 1796, the great-grandson 
of Dr. Henry M. Muhlenberg, founder of the Luth- 
eran church in America. In 181 7 he left his an- 
cestral communion, and became an Episcopal 
priest. 

As Rector of St. James church, Lancaster, Pa., 
he interested himself in the improvement of eccle- 
siastical hymnody, and did much good reforming 
work. After a noble and very active life as pro- 
moter of religious education and Christian union, 
and as a friend and benefactor of the poor, he 
died April, 8, 1877, in St. Luke's Hospital, N. Y. 

THE TUNE. 

This was composed by Mr. George Kingsley in 
1833, and entitled "Frederick" (dedicated to the 
Rev. Frederick T. Gray). Issued first as sheet 
music, it became popular, and soon found a place 
in the hymnals. Dr. Louis Benson says of the con- 




Frances 

Ridley 

Havergal 




HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. I59 

ditions and the fancy of the time, "The standard 
of church music did not differ materially from 

that of parlor music Several editors have 

attempted to put a newer tune in the place of Mr. 
Kingsley's. It was in vain, simply because words 
and melody both appeal to the same taste/' 

" SUN OF MY SOUL, MY SAVIOUR DEAR/ ^ 

This gem from Keble's Christian Tear illustrates 
the life and character of its pious author, and, like 
all the hymns of that celebrated collection, is an 
incitive to spiritual thought for the thoughtless, as 
well as a language for those who stand in the Holy 
of Holies. 

The Rev. John Keble was born in Cain, St. Ald- 
wyn, April 25, 1792. He took his degree of A. M. 
and was ordained and settled at Fairford, where he 
began the parochial work that ceased only with his 
life. He died at Bournmouth, March 29, 1866. 

His settlement at Fairford, in charge of three 
small curacies, satisfied his modest ambition, 
though altogether they brought himonly about^ioo 
per year. Here he preached, wrote his hymns and 
translations, performed his pastoral work, and 
was happy. Temptation to wider fields and larger 
salary never moved him. 

THE TUNE. 

The music to this hymn of almost unparalleled 
poetic and spiritual beauty was arranged from a 



l6o STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

German Choral of Peter RItter (i 760-1 846) by 
William Henry Monk, Mus. Doc, born London, 
1823. Dr. Monk was a lecturer, composer, editor, 
and professor of vocal music at King's College. 
This noble tune appears sometimes under the 
name **Hursley" and supersedes an earlier one 
("Halle") by Thomas Hastings. 

Sun of my soul, my Saviour dear, 
It is not night if Thou be near. 
O may no earth-born cloud arise 
To hide Thee from Thy servants* eyes. 

Abide with me from morn till eve, 
For without Thee I cannot live 
Abide with me when night is nigh, 
For without Thee I cannot die. 

The tune "Hursley" is a choice example of po- 
lyphonal sweetness in uniform long notes of perfect 
chord. 

The tune of "Canonbury," by Robert Schu- 
mann, set to Keble's hymn, "New every morn- 
mg is the love," is deservedly a favorite for flow- 
ing long metres, but it could never replace 
"Hursley" with "Sun of my soul." 

" DID CHRIST O'ER SINNERS WEEP? " 

The Rev. Benjamin Beddome WTOte this tender 
hymn-poem while pastor of the Baptist Congre- 
gation at Bourton-on-the-water, Gloucestershire, 
Eng, He was born at Henley, Chatwickshire, Jan. 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. l6l 

23, 1 71 7. Settled in 1743, he remained with the 
same church till his death, Sept. 3, 1795. His 
hymns were not collected and published till 18 18. 

THE TUNE. 

"Dennis," a soft and smoothly modulated har- 
mony, is oftenest sung to the words, and has no 
note out of sympathy with their deep feeling. 

Did Christ o'er sinners weep, 

And shall our cheeks be dry ? 
Let floods of penitential grief 

Burst forth from every eye. 

The Son of God in tears 

Admiring angels see! 
Be thou astonished, O my soul; 

He shed those tears for thee. 

He wept that we might weep; 

Each sin demands a tear: 
In heaven alone no sin is found, 

And there's no weeping there. 

The tune of" Dennis" was adapted by Lowell 
Mason from Johann Georg Nageli, a Swiss music 
pubhsher, composer and poet. He was born in 
Zurich, 1768. It is told of him that his irrepres- 
sible genius once tempted him to violate the ethics 
of authorship. While publishing Beethoven's three 
great solo sonatas (Opus 31) he interpolated two 
bars of his own, an act much commented upon in 
musical circles, but which does not seem to have 
cost him Beethoven's friendship. Possibly, like 



l62 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Murillo to the servant who meddled with his paint- 
ings, the great master forgave the liberty, because 
the work was so good. 

Nageli's compositions are mostly vocal, for school 
and church use, though some are of a gay and play- 
ful nature. The best remembered of his secular and 
sacred styles are his blithe aria to the song of Moore, 
"Life let us cherish, while yet the taper glows" 
and the sweet choral that voices Beddome's hymn. 

* ' MY JESUS, I LOVE THEE. " 

The real originator of the Coronation Hymnal, 
a book into whose making w^ent five years of prayer, 
was Dr. A. J. Gordon, late Pastor of the Clarendon 
St. Baptist church, Boston. While the volume was 
slowly taking form and plan he was wont to hum to 
himself, or cause to be played by one of his family, 
snatches and suggestions of new airs that came to 
him in connection with his own hymns, and 
others which seemed to have no suitable music. 
The anonymous hymn, "My Jesus, I Love Thee," 
he found in a London hymn-book, and though the 
tune to which it had been sung in England was 
sent to him some time later, it did not sound sym- 
pathetic. Dissatisfied, and with the ideal in his 
mind of what the feeling should be in the melody 
to such a hymn, he meditated and prayed over the 
words till in a moment of inspiration the beautiful 
air sang itself to him* which with its simple concords 

♦The fact that this sweet melody recalls to some a similar tune sung 
sixty years ago reminds us again of the story of the tune "America." It is 



HYMNS OF CHRISTIAN DEVOTION. 163 

has carried the hymn into the chapels of every de- 
nomination. 

My Jesus, I love Thee, I know Thou art mine, 
For Thee all the pleasures of sin I resign; 
My gracious Redeemer, my Saviour art Thou, 
If ever I loved Thee, my Jesus, 'tis now. 

****** 

I will love Thee in life, I will love Thee in death. 
And praise Thee as long as Thou lendest me breath, 
And say when the death-dew lies cold on my brow. 
If ever I loved Thee, my Jesus, 'tis now. 

In mansions of glory and endless delight 
I'll ever adore Thee, unveiled to my sight. 
And sing, with the glittering crown on my brow. 
If ever I loved Thee, my Jesus, 'tis now. 

The memory of the writer returns to a day in a 
railway-car en route to the great Columbian Fair in 
Chicago when the tired passengers were suddenly 
surprised and charmed by the music of this melody. 
A young Christian man and woman, husband and 
wife, had begun to sing "My Jesus, I love Thee." 
Their voices (a tenor and soprano) were clear and 
sweet, and every one of the company sat up to lis- 
ten with a look of mingled admiration and rehef. 
Here was something, after all, to make a long jour- 
ney less tedious. They sang all the four verses and 
paused. There was no clapping of hands, for a rev- 
erential hush had been cast over the audience by 

not impossible that an unconscious memory helped to shape the air that came 
to Dr. Gordon's mind; though unborrowed similarities have been inevitaWle 
in the whole history of music 



164 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

the sacred music. Instead of the inevitable ap- 
plause that follows mere entertainment, a gentle 
but eager request for more secured the repetition of 
the delightful duet. This occurred again and again, 
till every one in the car — and some had never heard 
thetuneorv^ords before — must have learned them 
by heart. Fatigue w^as forgotten, miles had been 
reduced to furlongs in a v^eary trip, and a company 
of strangers had been lifted to a holier plane of 
thought. 

Besides this melody there are four tunes by Dr. 
Gordon in his collection, three of them with his own 
words. In all there are eleven of his hymns. Of 
these the "Good morning in Glory," set to his 
music, is an emotional lyric admirable in revival 
meetings, and the one beginning "O Holy Ghost, 
Arise" is still sung, and called for affectionately as 
"Gordon's Hymn." 

Rev. Adoniram Judson Gordon D. D. was born 
in New Hampton, N.H., April 19, 1836, and died in 
Boston, Feb. 2d, 1895, after a life of unsurpassed 
usefulness to his fellowmen and devotion to his 
Divine Master. Like Phillips Brooks he went to his 
grave "in all his glorious prime," and his loss is 
equally lamented. He was a descendant of John 
Robinson of Leyden. 



CHAPTER IV. 



MISSIONARY HYMNS, 



" JESUS SHALL REIGN WHERE'ER THE SUN ." 

One of Watts' sublimest hymns, this Hebrew 
ode to the final King and His endless dominion 
expands the majestic prophesy in the seventy- 
second Psalm: 

Jesus shall reign where'er the sun 
Does his successive journeys run, 
His kingdom stretch from shore to shore 
Till moons shall wax and wane no more. 

The hymn itself could almost claim to be known 
"where'er the sun" etc., for Christian missionaries 
have sung it in every land, if not in every lan- 
guage. 

One of the native kings in the South Sea Islands, 
who had been converted through the ministry of 
English missionaries, substituted a Christian for 
a pagan constitution in 1862. There were five 
thousand of his subjects gathered at the ceremo- 
nial, and they joined as with one voice in singing 
this hymn, 

(165) 



l66 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

THE TUNE. 

"Old Hundred" has often lent the notes of 
its great plain-song to the sonorous lines, and 
"Duke Street/' with superior melody and scarcely 
inferior grandeur, has given them wings; but 
the choice of many for music that articulates the 
life of the hymn would be the tune of "Samson," 
from Handel's Oratorio so named. It appears as 
No. 469 in the Evangelical Hymnal. 

Handel had no peer in the art or instinct of 
making a note speak a word. 

* 7OY TO THE WORLD! THE LORD IS COME! " 

This hymn, also by Watts, is often sung as a 
Christmas song; but "The Saviour Reigns" and "He 
Rules the World" are bursts of prophetic triumph 
always apt and stimulating in missionary meetings. 

Here, again, the great Handel lends appropriate 
aid, for "Antioch," the popular tone-consort of 
the hymn, is an adaptation from his "Messiah." 
The arrangement has been credited to Lowell 
Mason, but he seems to have taken it from an 
English collection by Clark of Canterbury. 

"O'ER THE GLOOMY HILLS OF DARKNESS." 

— - ■ ' 

Dros y hrinian tywyl niwliog. 

This notable hymn was written, probably about 
1750, by the Rev. William Williams, a Welsh 
Calvinistic Methodist, born at Cefnycoed, Jan. 



MISSIONARY HYMNS. 167 

7, 1717, near Llandover. He began the study of 
medicine, but took deacon's orders, and was for 
a time an itinerant preacher, having left the 
estabHshed Church. Died at Pantycelyn, Jan. 
II, 1 78 1. 

His hymn, Hke the two preceding, antedates 
the great Missionary Movement by many years. 

CTer the gloomy hills of darkness 

Look my soul! be still, and gaze! 
See the promises advancing 

To a glorious Day of grace 1 
Blessed Jubilee, 
Let thy glorious morning dawnl 

Let the dark, benighted pagan. 

Let the rude barbarian see 
That divine and glorious conquest 

Once obtained on Calvary. 
Let the Gospel 
Loud resound from pole to pole. 

This song of anticipation has dropped out of the 
modern hymnals, but the last stanza lingers in 
many memories. 

Fly abroad, thou mighty Gospel! 

Win and conquer, never cease; 
May thy lasting wide dominion 

Multiply and still increase. 

Sway Thy scepter. 

Saviour, all the world around! 

THE TUNE. 

Oftener than any other the music of "Zion" 
has been the expression of William Williams' 



1 68 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Missionary Hymn. It was composed by Thomas 
Hastings, in Washington, Ct., 1830. 

^' HASTEN, LORD, THE GLORIOUS TIME. " 

Hasten, Lord, the glorious time 

When beneath Messiah's sway 
Every nation, every cHme 

Shall the Gospel call obey. 
Mightiest kings its power shall own, 

Heathen tribes His name adore, 
Satan and his host o'erthrown 

Bound in chains shall hurt no more. 

Miss Harriet Auber, the author of this melodious 
hymn, was a daughter of James Auber of London, 
and was born in that city, Oct. 4, 1773. After 
leaving London she led a secluded life at Brox- 
bourne and Hoddesdon, in Hertfordshire, writing 
devotional poetry and sacred songs and para- 
phrases. 

Her Spirit of the Psalms, published in 1829, 
was a collection of lyrics founded on the Biblical 
Psalms. " Hasten Lord," etc., is from Ps. 72, known 
for centuries to Christendom as one of the Messi- 
anic Psalms. Her best-known hymns have the 
same inspiration, as — 

Wide, ye heavenly gates, unfold. 

Sweet is the work, O Lord. 

With joy we hail the sacred day. 

Miss Auber died in Hoddesdon, Jan. 20, 1862. 
She lived to witness and sympathise with the 
pioneer missionary enterprise of the 19th century, 



MISSIONARY HYMNS. 169 

and, although she could not stand among the 
leaders of the battle-line in extending the conquest 
of the world for Christ, she was happy in having 
written a campaign hymn which they loved to sing. 
(It is curious that so pains-taking a work as 
Julian's Dictionary of Hymns and Hymn-writers 
credits "With joy we hail the sacred day" to both 
Miss Auber and Henry Francis Lyte. Coinci- 
dences are known where different hymns by differ- 
ent authors begin with the same line; and in this 
case one writer was dead before the other's works 
were published. Possibly the collector may have 
seen a forgotten hymn of Lyte's, with that first line.) 
The tune that best interprets this hymn in spirit 
and in living music is Lowell Mason's "Eltham." 
Its harmony is like a chime of bells. 

"LET PARTY NAMES NO MORE." 



Let party names no more 

The Christian world o'erspread; 
Gentile and Jew, and bond and free, 

Are one in Christ the Head. 

This hymn of Rev. Benjamin Beddome sounds 
like a prelude to the grand rally of the Christian 
Churches a generation later for united advance 
into foreign fields. It was an after-sermon hymn 
— like so many of Watts and Doddridge — and 
spoke a good man's longing to see all sects stand 
shoulder to shoulder in a common crusade. 

Tune — Boylston. 



170 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

" WATCHMAN, TELL US OF THE NIGHT. " 

The tune written to this peaHng hymn of Sir 
John Bowring by Lowell Mason has never been 
superseded. In animation and vocal splendor 
it catches the author's own clear call, echoing the 
shout of Zion's sentinels from city to city, and 
happily reproducing in movement and phrase the 
great song-dialogue. Words and music together, 
the piece ranks with the foremost missionary 
lyrics. Like the greater Mason-Heber world- 
song, it has acquired no arbitrary name, appearing 
in Mason's own tune-books under its first hymn- 
line and likewise in many others. A few hymnals 
have named it " Bowring," (and why not ?) and 
some later ones simply "Watchman." 

I. 

Watchman, tell us of the night, 

What its signs of promise are! 

(Antistrophe) 

Trav'Ier, on yon mountain height, 

See that glory-beaming star! 

2 

Watchman, does its beauteous ray 

Aught of hope or joy foretell ? 
(Antistrophe) 
Trav'Ier, yes; it brings the day, 

Promised day of Israel. 

3 

Watchman, tell us of the night; 
Higher yet that star ascends. 
(Antistrophe) 



MISSIONARY HYMNS. I7I 

Trav'lcr, blessedness and light 

Peace and truth its course portends. 

4 
Watchman, will its beams alone 

Gild the spot that gave them birth ? 
(Antistrophe) 
Trav'ler, ages are its own. 

See! it bursts o'er all the earth. 

" YE CHRISTIAN HERALDS, GO PROCLAIM. " 

In some versions "Ye Christian heroes,^' etc. 

Professor David R. Breed attributes this stirring 
hymn to Mrs. Vokes (or Voke) an EngHsh or 
Welsh lady, who is supposed to have written it 
somewhere near 1780, and supports the claim by 
its date of pubHcation in Missionary and Devo- 
tional Hymns at Portsea, Wales, in 1797. In 
this Dr. Breed follows (he says) "the accepted 
tradition." On the other hand the Coronation 
Hymnal (1894) refers the authorship to a Baptist 
minister, the Rev. Bourne Hall Draper, of South- 
ampton (Eng.), born 1775, and this choice has the 
approval of Dr. Charles Robinson. The question 
occurs whether, when the hymn was published in 
good faith as Mrs. Vokes', it was really the work 
of a then unknown youth of twenty-two. 

The probability is that the hymn owns a mother 
instead of a father — and a grand hymn it is; one 
of the most stimulating in Missionary song-literature. 

The stanza — 



172 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

God shield you with a wall of fire 1 
With flaming zeal your breasts inspire; 
Bid raging winds their fury cease, 
And hush the tumult into peace, 

— has been tampered with by editors, altering the 
last line to "Calm the troubled seas," etc., (for the 
sake of the longer vowel;) but the substitution, 
''Hell shield you," etc., in the first Hne, turns a 
prayer into a mere statement. 

The hymn was — and should remain — a God- 
speed to men like William Carey, who had already 
begun to think and preach his immortal motto, 
"Attempt great things for God; expect great things 
of God." 

THE TUNE 

Is the "Missionary Chant," and no other. Its 
composer, Heinrich Christopher Zeuner, was born 
in Eisleben, Saxony, Sept. 20, 1795. He came to 
the United States in 1827, ^"^ ^^^ ^^^ many 
years organist at Park Street Church, Boston, and 
for the Handel and Haydn Society. In 1854 he 
removed to Philadelphia where he served three 
years as organist to St. Andrews Church, and Arch 
Street Presbyterian. He became insane in 1 857, and 
in November of that year died by his own hand. 

He published an oratorio "The Feast of Tab- 
ernacles," and two popular books, the American 
Harp, 1832, and The Ancient Lyre, 1833. His 
compositions are remarkably spirited and vig- 
orous, and his work as a tune-maker was much 



MISSIONARY HYMNS. I73 

in demand during his life, and is sure to continue, 
in its best examples, as long as good sacred music 
is appreciated. 

To another beautiful missionary hymn of Mrs. 
Vokes, of quieter tone, but songful and sweet. 
Dr. Mason wrote the tune of "Migdol." It is its 
musical twin. 

Soon may the last glad song arise 
Through all the millions of the skies, 
That song of triumph which records 
That "all the earth is now the Lord's." 

" ON THE MOUNTAIN TOP APPEARING. " 

This admired and always popular church hymn 
was written near the beginning of the last century 
by the Rev. Thomas Kelly, born in Dublin, 1760. 
He was the son of the Hon. Chief Baron Thomas 
Kelly of that city, a judge of the Irish Court of 
Common Pleas. His father designed him for the 
legal profession, but after his graduation at 
Trinity College he took holy orders in the Episcopal 
Church, and labored as a clergyman among the 
scenes of his youth for more than sixty years, 
becoming a Nonconformist in his later ministry. 
He was a sweet-souled man, who made troops of 
friends, and was honored as much for his piety as 
for his poetry, music, and oriental learning. 

"I expect never to die," he said, when Lord 
Plunkett once told him he would reach a great age. 
He finished his earthly work on the 14th of May, 



174 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

1855, when he was eighty-five years old. But he 
still lives. His zeal for the coming of the Kingdom 
of Christ prompted his best hymn. 

On the mountain-top appearing, 

Lo! the sacred herald stands, 
Joyful news to Zion bearing, 

Zion long in hostile lands; 
Mourning captive, 
God himself will loose thy bands. 

Has the night been long and mournful ? 

Have thy friends unfaithful proved ? 
Have thy foes been proud and scornful, 

By thy sighs and tears unmoved ? 
Cease thy mourning; 
Zion still is well beloved. 

THE TUNE. 

To presume that Kelly made both words and 
music together is possible, for he was himself a 
composer, but no such original tune seems to 
survive. In modern use Dr. Hastings' "Zion" is 
most frequently attached to the hymn, and was 
probably written for it. 

" YE CHRISTIAN HEROES, WAKE TO GLORY." 

This rather crude parody on the "Marsellaise 
Hymn" (see Chap. 9) is printed in the American 
Vocalisty among numerous samples of early New- 
England psalmody of untraced authorship. It 
might have been sung at primitive missionary 
meetings, to spur the zeal and faith of a Francis 



0SI^)^ 




The Right Rev. 
Reginald Heber, D.D. 




MISSIONARY HYMNS. I75 

Mason or a Harriet Newell. It expresses, at least, 
the new-kindled evangelical spirit of the long-ago 
consecrations in American church life that first 
sent the Christian ambassadors to foreign lands, 
and followed them with benedictions. 

Ye Christian heroes, wake to glory: 

Hark, hark! what milHons bid you rise! 
See heathen nations bow before you, 

Behold their tears, and hear their cries. 
Shall pagan priest, their errors breeding. 

With darkling hosts, and flags unfurled, 
Spread their delusions o'er the world. 

Though Jesus on the Cross hung bleeding ? 
To arms! To arms! 
Christ's banner fling abroad! 
March on! March on! all hearts resolved 

To bring the world to God. 

O, Truth of God! can man resign thee. 

Once having felt thy glorious flame? 
Can rolling oceans e'er prevent thee. 

Or gold the Christian's spirit tame ? 
Too long we slight the world's undoing; 

The word of God, salvation's plan. 
Is yet almost unknown to man. 

While millions throng the road to ruin. 
To arms! to arms! 

The Spirit's sword unsheath: 
March on! March on! all hearts resolved, 
To victory or death. 

"HAIL TO THE LORD'S ANOINTED. " 

James Montgomery (says Dr. Breed) is "dis- 
tinguished as the only layman besides Cowper 



176 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

among hymn-writers of the front rank in the 
English language." How many millions have 
recited and sung his fine and exhaustively de- 
scriptive poem, — 

Prayer is the soul's sincere desire, 

— selections from almost any part of which are 
perfect definitions, and have been standard hymns 
on prayer for three generations. English Hym- 
nology would as unwillingly part with his missionary 
hymns, — 

The king of glory we proclaim. 

Hark, the song of jubilee! 

— and, noblest of all, the lyric of prophecy and 
praise which heads this paragraph. 

Hail to the Lord's anointed. 

King David's greater Son! 
Hail, in the time appointed 

His reign on earth begun. 

ic 4: 4: 4: 4: 4: 

Arabia's desert ranger 

To Him shall bow the knee. 
The Ethiopian stranger 

His glory come to see. 

4: 4: * 4c 4: * 

Kings shall fall down before Him 

And gold and incense bring; 
All nations shall adore Him, 

His praise all people sing. 

The hymn is really the seventy-second Psalm 
in metre, and as a version it suffers nothing by 



MISSIONARY HYMNS. 1 77 

comparison with that of Watts. Montgomery 
wrote it as a Christmas ode. It was sung Dec. 
25, 1 82 1, at a Moravian Convocation, but in 1822 
he recited it at a great missionary meeting in 
Liverpool, and Dr. Adam Clarke was so charmed 
with it that he inserted it in his famous Com- 
mentary. In no long time afterwards it found its 
way into general use. 

The spirit of his missionary parents was Mont- 
gomery's Christian legacy, and in exalted poetical 
moments it stirred him as the divine afflatus kindled 
the old prophets. 

THE TUNE, 

The music editors in some hymnals have bor- 
rowed the favorite choral variously named "Webb" 
in honor of its author, and "The Morning Light 
is Breaking" from the first line of its hymn. 
Later hymnals have chosen Sebastian Wesley's 
"Aurelia" to fit the hymn, with a movement sim- 
ilar to that of "Webb" ; also a German B flat 
melody "Ellacombe," undated, with livelier step 
and a ringing chime of parts. No one of these 
is inappropriate. 

Samuel Sebastian Wesley, grandson of Charles 
Wesley the great hymnist, was born in London, 
1 8 10. Like his father, Samuel, he became a 
distinguished musician, and was organist at 
Exeter, Winchester and Gloucester Cathedrals. 
Oxford gave him the degree of Doctor of Music. 



178 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

He composed instrumental melodies besides many 
anthems, services, and other sacred pieces for 
choir and congregational singing. Died in Glou- 
cester, April 19, 1876. 

" FROM GREENLAND'S ICY MOUNTAINS. " 

The familiar story of this hymn scarcely needs 
repeating; how one Saturday afternoon in the 
year 18 19, young Reginald Heber, Rector of 
Hodnet, sitting with his father-in-law, Dean 
Shipley, and a few friends in the Wrexham 
Vicarage, was suddenly asked by the Dean to 
** write something to sing at the missionary meeting 
tomorrow," and retired to another part of the room 
while the rest went on talking; how, very soon after, 
he returned with three stanzas, which were hailed 
with delighted approval; how he then insisted 
upon adding another octrain to the hymn and 
came back with — 

Waft, waft, ye winds. His story. 
And you, ye waters, roll; 

— and how the great lyric was sung in Wrexham 
Church on Sunday morning for the first time in its 
life. The story is old but always fresh. Nothing 
could better have emphasized the good Dean's 
sermon that day in aid of "The Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts," than 
that unexpected and glorious lyric of his poet son- 
in-law. 



MISSIONARY HYMNS. 179 

By common consent Heber's "Missionary Hymn" 
is the silver trumpet among all the rallying bugles 
of the church. 

THE TUNE. 

The union of words and music in this instance 
is an example of spiritual affinity. "What God 
hath joined together let no man put asunder." 
The story of the tune is a record of providential 
birth quite as interesting as that of the hymn. In 
1823, ^ ^^^y ^^ Savannah, Ga., having received 
and admired a copy of Heber's lyric from England, 
desired to sing it or hear it sung, but knew no 
music to fit the metre. She finally thought of a 
young clerk in a bank close by, Lowell Mason by 
name, who sometimes wrote music for recreation, 
and sent her son to ask him if he would make a 
tune that would sing the lines. The boy returned 
in half an hour with the composition that doubled 
Heber's fame and made his own. 

In the words of Dr. Charles Robinson, "Like 
the hymn it voices, it was done at a stroke, and 
it will last through the ages." 

" THE MORNING LIGHT IS BREAKING. " 

Not far behind Dr. Heber's chef-d'oeuvre in 
lyric merit is the still more famous missionary 
hymn of Dr. S. F. Smith, author of "My Country, 
*Tis of Thee." Another missionary hymn of his 
which is widely used is — 



l8o STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Yes, my native land, I love thee, 
All thy scenes, I love them well. 
Friends, connections, happy country, 
Can I bid you all farewell ? 

Can I leave you 
Far in heathen lands to dwell ? 

Drs. Nutter and Breed speak of "The Morning 
Light is Breaking," and its charm as a hymn of 
peace and promise, and intimate that it has "gone 
farther and been more frequently sung than any 
other missionary hymn." Besides the EngHsh, 
there are versions of it in four Latin nations, the 
Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and French, and 
oriental translations in Chinese and several East 
Indian tongues and dialects, as v^^ell as one in 
Swedish. It author had the rare felicity, while on 
a visit to his son, a missionary in Burmah, of 
hearing it sung by native Christians in their lan- 
guage, and of being welcomed with an ovation 
when they knew who he was. 

The morning light is breakingl 

The darkness disappears; 
The sons of earth are waking 

To penitential tears; 
Each breeze that sweeps the ocean 

Brings tidings from afar. 
Of nations in commotion. 

Prepared for Zion's war. 

Rich dews of grace come o'er us 

In many a gentle shower. 
And brighter scenes before us 

Are opening every hour. 



MISSIONARY HYMNS. l8l 

Each cry to heaven going 

Abundant answer brings, 
And heavenly gales are blowing 

With peace upon their wings. 

% :): 4c * >»: He 

Blest river of Salvation, 

Pursue thy onward way; 
Flow thou to every nation, 

Nor in thy richness stay. 
Stay not till all the lowly 

Triumphant reach their home; 
Stay not till all the holy 

Proclaim, "The Lord is cornel'* 

Samuel Francis Smith, D.D., was born in 
Boston in 1808, and educated in Harvard Uni- 
versity ( 1 825-1 829) . He prepared for the ministry, 
and was pastor of Baptist churches at Waterville, 
Me., and Newton, Mass., before entering the 
service of the American Baptist Missionary union 
as editor of its Missionary Magazine. 

He was a scholarly and graceful writer, both in 
verse and prose, and besides his editorial work, 
he was frequently an invited participant or guest 
of honor on public occasions, owing to his fame 
as author of the national hymn. His pure and gentle 
character made him everywhere beloved and 
reverenced, and to know him intimately in his 
happy old age was a benediction. He died sud- 
denly and painlessly in his seat on a railway train, 
November 16, 1895 in his eighty-eighth year. 

Dr. Smith wrote twenty-six hymns now more or 



l82 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

less in use in church worship, and eight for Sab- 
bath school collections. 

THE TUNE. 

"Millennial Dawn" is the title given it by a Bos- 
ton compiler, about 1844, but since the music and 
hymn became *'one and indivisable'' it has been 
named "Webb," and popularly known as "Morn- 
ing Light" or oftener still by its first hymn-line, 
"The morning light is breaking." 

George James Webb was born near Salisbury, 
Wiltshire, Eng., June 24, 1803. He studied music 
in Salisbury and for several years played the 
organ at Falmouth Church. When still a young 
man (1830), he came to the United States, and 
settled in Boston where he was long the leading 
organist and music teacher of the city. He was 
associate director of the Boston Academy of Music 
with Lowell Mason, and joint author and editor 
with him of several church-music collections. Died 
in Orange, N. J., Nov. 7, 1887. 

Dr. Webb's own account of the tune "Millen- 
nial Dawn" states that he wrote it at sea while on 
his way to America — and to secular words and 
that he had no idea who first adapted it to the 
hymn, nor when. 

"IF I WERE A VOICE, A PERSUASIVE VOICE. " 

This animating lyric was written by Charles 
Mackay. Sung by a good vocalist, the fine solo 
air composed (with its organ chords) by L B. 
Woodbury, is still a feature in some missionary 
meetings, especially the fourth stanza — 



MISSIONARY HYMNS. 183 

If I were a voice, an immortal voice, 

I would fly the earth around: 
And wherever man to his idols bowed, 
I'd publish in notes both long and loud 

The Gospel's joyful sound. 
1 would fly, I would fly, on the wings of day, 
Proclaiming peace on my world-wide way, 
Bidding the saddened earth rejoice — 
If I were a voice, an immortal voice, 

I would fly, I would fly, 
I would fly on the wings of day. 

Charles Mackay, the poet, was born in Perth, 
Scotland, 1814, and educated in London and 
Brussels; was engaged in editorial work on the 
London Morning Chronicle and Glasgow Argus, 
and during the Corn Law agitation wrote popular 
songs, notably "The Voice of the Crowd" and 
"There's a Good Time Coming," which (like the 
far inferior poetry of Ebenezer Elliot) won the last- 
ing love of the masses for a superior man who could 
be "The People's Singer and Friend." He came 
to the United States in 1857 as a lecturer, and 
again in 1862, remaining three years as war 
correspondent of the London Times. Glasgow 
University made him LL.D. in 1847. His numer- 
ous songs and poems were collected in a London 
edition. Died Dec. 24, 1889. 

Isaac Baker Woodbury was born in Beverly, 
Mass., 1819, and rose from the station of a black- 
smith's apprentice to be a tone-teacher in the 
church. He educated himself in Europe, returned 



184 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

and sang his life songs, and died in 1858 at the 
age of thirty-nine. 

A tune preferred by many as the finer music is 
the one written to the words by Mr. Sankey, 
Sacred Songs, No. 2. 

" SPEED AWAY! SPEED AWAY! " 

This inspiriting song of farewell to departing 
missionaries was written in 1890 to Woodbury's 
appropriate popular melody by Fanny J. Crosby, 
at the request of Ira D. Sankey. The key-word 
and refrain are adapted from the original song by 
Woodbur}' (1848), but in substance and lan- 
guage the three hymn-stanzas are the new and 
independent work of this later writer. 

Speed away! speed away on your mission of light, 

To the lands that are lying in darkness and night; 

*Tis the Master's command; go ye forth in His name, 

The wonderful gospel of Jesus proclaim; 

Take your lives in your hand, to the work while 'tis day, 

Speed away! speed away! speed away! 

Speed away, speed away with the life-giving Word, 
To the nations that know not the voice of the Lord; 
Take the wings of the morning and fly o'er the wave, 
In the strength of your Master the lost ones to save; 
He is calling once more, not a moment's delay, 
Speed away! speed away! speed away! 

Speed away, speed away with the message of rest. 
To the souls by the tempter in bondage oppressed; 
For the Saviour has purchased their ransom from sin, 



MISSIONARY HYMNS. 185 

And the banquet is ready. O gather them in; 

To the rescue make haste, there's no time for delay, 

Speed awayl speed away! speed away! 

"ONWARD CHRISTIAN SOLDIERS I" 



Rev. Sabine Baring-Gould, the author of this 
rousing hymn of Christian warfare, became, Hke 
John Henry Newman, a Roman CathoHc writer and 
priest. He was born at Exeter, Eng., Jan 28, 1834. 
Educated at Clare College, Cambridge, he entered 
the service of the church, and was appointed 
Rector of East Mersea, Essex, in 1871. He was 
the author of several hymns, original and trans- 
lated, and introduced into England from Flanders, 
numbers of carols with charming old Christmas 
music. The " Christian Soldiers " hymn is one of his 
(original) processionals, and the most inspiring. 

Onward, Christian soldiers, 

Marching as to war, 
With the cross of Jesus 

Going on before. 
Christ the Royal Master 
Leads against the foe; 
Forward into battle. 

See, His banners go! 

Onward, Christian soldiers, etc. 

He :): ^ :(: jK 4: 

Like a mighty army 

Moves the Church of God; 
Brothers, we are treading 

Where the saints have trod; 



l86 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

We are not divided, 

All one body we. 
One in hope, in doctrine, 

One in charity. 

THE TUNE, 

Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan, Doctor of Music, 
who wrote the melody for this hymn, was born in 
London, May 13, 1842. He gained the Men- 
delssohn Scholarship at the Royal Academy of 
Music, and also at the Conservatory of Leipsic. 
He was a fertile genius, and his compositions in- 
cluded operettas, symphonies, overtures, anthems, 
hymn-tunes, an oratorio ("The Prodigal Son"), 
and almost every variety of tone production, vocal 
and instrumental. Queen Victoria knighted him 
in 1883. 

The grand rhythm of "Onward, Christian 
Soldiers" — hymn and tune — is irresistible whether 
in band march or congregational worship. Sir 
Arthur died in London, November 22, 1900. 

"O CHURCH ARISE AND SING." 



Designed originally for children's voices, the 
hymn of five stanzas beginning with this line was 
written by Hezekiah Butterworth, author of the 
Story of the Hymns (1875), Story oft he Tunes 
(1890), and many popular books of historic 
interest for the young, the most widely read of 
which is Zigzag Journeys in Many Lands, He 



MISSIONARY HYMNS. 187 

also composed and published many poems and 
hymns. He was born in Warren, R. I., Dec. 22, 
1839, and for twenty-five years was connected 
with the Youth's Companion as regular contributor 
and member of its editorial staflF. He died in 
Warren, R. I., Sept. 5, 1905. 

The hymn "O Church, arise" was sung in 
Mason's tune of "Dort'' until Prof. Case wrote a 
melody for it, when it took the name of the "Con- 
vention Hymn." 

Professor Charles CHnton Case, music composer 
and teacher, was born in Linesville, Pa., June 6, 
1843. Was a pupil of George F. Root and pursued 
musical study in Chicago, 111., Ashland, O., and 
South Bend, Ind. He was associated with Root, 
McGranahan, and others in making secular and 
church music books, and later with D. L. Moody 
in evangelical work. 

As author and compiler he has pubHshed numer- 
ous works, among them Church Anthems, the Har- 
vest Song and Case^s Chorus Collection. 

O Church! arise and sing 
The triumphs of your King, 

Whose reign is love; 
Sing your enlarged desires, 
That conquering faith inspires, 
Renew your signal fires, 

And forward move! 

Beneath the glowing arch 
The ransomed armies march. 
We follow on; 



l88 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Lead on, O cross of Light, 
From conquering height to height, 
And add new victories bright 
To triumphs wonl 

" THE BANNER OF IMMANUELl " 

This hymn, set to music and copyrighted in 
Buffalo as a floating waif of verse by an unknown 
author, and used in Sunday-school work, first 
appeared in Dr. F. N. Peloubet's Select Songs 
(Biglow and Main, 1884) with a tune by Rev. 
George Phipps. 

The hymn was written by Rev. Theron Brown, 
a Baptist minister, who was pastor (1859-1870) of 
churches in South Framingham and Canton, Mass. 
He was born in Willimantic, Ct., April 29, 1832. 

Retired from pastoral work, owing to vocal 
disability, he has held contributory and editorial 
relations with the Youth's Companion for more 
than forty years, for the last twenty years a member 
of the office staff. 

Between 1880 and 1890 he contributed hymns 
more or less regularly to the quartet and anti- 
phonal chorus service at the Ruggles St. Church, 
Boston, the " Banner of Immanuel " being one of the 
number. The Blount Family, Nameless Women of 
the Bible, Life Songs (a volume of poems), and sev- 
eral books for boys, are among his published works. 

The banner of Immanuel! beneath its glorious folds 

For life or death to serve and fight we pledge our loyal souls. 



MISSIONARY HYMNS. 189 

No other flag such honor boasts, or bears so proud a name, 
And far its red-cross signal flies as flies the hghtning's flame. 

:|c :(c * He * * 

Salvation by the blood of Christ! the shouts of triumph ring; 
No other watchword leads the host that serves so grand a King, 
Then rally, soldiers of the Cross! Keep every fold unfurled, 
And by Redemption's holy sign we'll conquer all the world. 

The Rev. George Phipps, composer of the tune, 
'Immanuers Banner," was born in Franklin, 
Mass., Dec. ii, 1838, was graduated at Amherst 
College, 1862, and at Andover Theological Semi- 
nary, 1865. Settled as pastor of the Congregational 
Church in Wellesley, Mass., ten years, and at 
Newton Highlands fifteen years. 

He has written many Sunday-school melodies, 
notably the music to "My Saviour Keeps Me Com- 
pany." 



I 



CHAPTER V. 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND 
TRUST. 



One inspiring chapter in the compensations of 
life is the record of immortal verses that were 
sorrow-born. It tells us in the most affecting way 
how affliction refines the spirit and "the agonizing 
throes of thought bring forth glory/* Often a broken 
life has produced a single hymn. It took the long 
living under trial to shape the supreme experience. 

The anguish of the singer 

Made the sweetness of the song. 

Indeed, if there had been no sorrow there would 
have been no song. 

** MY LORD, HOW FULL OF SWEET CONTENT. " 

Jeanne M. B. de la Mothe — known always as 
Madame Guyon — the lady who wrote these words 
in exile, probably sang more *' songs in the night" 
than any hymn-writer outside of the Dark Ages. 
She was born at Montargis, France, in 1648, and 

190 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. I9I 

died in her seventieth year, 1771, in the ancient 
city of Blois, on the Loire. 

A convent-educated girl of high family, a wife at 
the age of fifteen, and a v^idow at twenty-eight, 
her early piety, ridiculed in the dazzling but corrupt 
society of Louis XIV 's time, blossomed through 
a long life in religious ministries and flowers of 
sacred poetry. 

She became a mystic, and her book Spiritual 
Torrents indicates the impetuous ardors of her 
soul. It was the way Divine Love came to her. 
She was the incarnation of the spiritualized Book 
of Canticles. An induction to these intense sub- 
jective visions and raptures had been the remark 
of a pious old Franciscan father, *'Seek God in 
your heart, and you will find Him." 

She began to teach as well as enjoy the new 
light so different from the glitter of the traditional 
worship. But her "aggressive holiness'* was obnox- 
ious to the established Church. "Quietism" was 
the brand set upon her written works and the 
offense that was punished in her person. Bossuet, 
the king of preachers, was her great adversary. 
The saintly Fenelon was her friend, but he could 
not shield her. She was shut up like a lunatic in 
prison after prison, till, after four years of dungeon 
life in the Bastile, expecting every hour to be ex- 
ecuted for heresy, she was banished to a distant 
province to end her days. 

Question as we may the usefulness of her pie- 
tistic books, the visions of her excessively exalted 



192 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

moods, and the passionate, almost erotic phraseol- 
ogy of her Contemplations, Madame Guyon has 
held the world's admiration for her martyr spirit, 
and even her love-flights of devotion in poetry and 
prose do not conceal the angel that walked in the 
flame. 

Today, when religious persecution is unknown, 
we can but dimly understand the perfect triumph 
of her superior soul under suffering and the trans- 
ports of her utter absorption in God that could 
make the stones of her dungeon "look like jewels." 
When we emulate a faith like hers — with all the 
weight of absolute certainty in it — we can sing her 
hymn: 

My Lord, how full of sweet content 

I pass my years of banishment. 

Where'er I dwell, I dwell with Thee, 

In heaven or earth, or on the sea. 

To me remains nor place nor time: 
My country is in every clime; 
I can be calm and free from care 
On any shore, since God is there. 

And could a dearer vade mecum enrich a Chris- 
tian 's outfit than these lines treasured in memory ? 

While place we seek or place we shun, 
The soul finds happiness in none; 
But, with a God to guide our way, 
*Tis equal joy to go or stay. 

Cowper, and also Dr. Thomas Upham, translated 
(from the French) the religious poems of Madame 
Guyon. This hymn is Cowper 's translation. 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. I93 

THE TUNE. 

A gentle and sympathetic melody entitled "Al- 
sace" well represents the temper of the words — 
and in name links the nationalities of writer and 
composer. It is a choral arranged from a sonata 
of the great Ludwig von Beethoven, born in 
Bonn, Germany, 1770, and died in Vienna, Mar. 
1827. Like the author of the hymn he felt the 
hand of affliction, becoming totally deaf soon after 
his fortieth year. But, in spite of the privation, he 
kept on writing sublime and exquisite strains 
that only his soul could hear. His fame rests upon 
his oratorio, "The Mount of Olives," the opera 
of "Fidelio" and his nine wonderful "Sympho- 
nies." 

" NO CHANGE IN TIME SHALL EVER SHOCK. " 

Altered to common metre from the awkward 
long metre of Tate and Brady, the three or four 
stanzas found in earlier hymnals are part of their 
version (probably Tate's) of the 31st Psalm — 
and it is worth calling to mind here that there is no 
hymn treasury so rich in tuneful faith and reliance 
upon God in trouble as the Book of Psalms. This 
feeling of the Hebrew poet was never better ex- 
pressed (we might say, translated) in English than 
by the writer of this single verse — 

No change of time shall ever shock 
My trust, O Lord, in Thee, 



194 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

For Thou hast always been my Rock, 
A sure defense to me. 



THE TUNE. 

The sweet, tranquil choral long ago wedded 
to this hymn is lost from the church collections, 
and its very name forgotten. In fact the hymn 
itself is now seldom seen. If it ever comes back, 
old "Dundee'' (Guillaume Franc 1 500-1 570) will 
sing for it, or some new composer may rise up to put 
the spirit of the psalm into inspired notes. 

" WHY DO WE MOURN DEPARTED FRIENDS? " 

This hymn of holy comfort, by Dr. Watts, was 
long associated with a remarkable tune in C 
minor, "a queer medley of melody" as Lowell 
Mason called it, still familiar to many old people 
as "China." It was composed by Timothy Swan 
when he was about twenty-six years of age (1784) 
and published in 1801 in the New England Har- 
mony. It may have sounded consolatory to mature 
mourners, singers and hearers in the days when 
religious emotion habitually took a sad key, but 
its wild and thrilling chords made children weep. 
The tune is long out of use — though, strange to 
say, one of the most recent hymnals prints the 
hymn with a new minor tune. 

Why do we mourn departed friends, 
Or shake at death's alarms ? 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. I95 

*Tis but the voice that Jesus sends 
To call them to His arms. 

Are we not tending upward too 

As fast as time can move ? 
Nor should we wish the hours more slow 

To keep us from our Love. 

The graves of all His saints He blessed 

And softened every bed: 
Where should the dying members rest 

But with their dying Head ? 

Timothy Swan was born in Worcester, Mass., 
July 23, 1758, and died in Suffield, Ct., July 23, 
1842. He was a self-taught musician, his only 
"course of study*' lasting three weeks, — in a country 
singing school at Groton. When sixteen years 
old he went to Northfield, Mass., and learned the 
hatter's trade, and while at work began to practice 
making psalm-tunes. ** Montague," in two parts, 
was his first achievement. From that time for 
thirty years, mostly spent in Suffield, Ct., he wrote 
and taught music while supporting himself by his 
trade. Many of his tunes were published by him- 
self, and had a w^de currency a century ago. 

Swan was a genius in his way, and it was a true 
comment on his work that "his tunes were re- 
markable for their originality as well as singularity 
— unlike any other melodies." "China," his 
masterpiece, will be long kept track of as a curio, 
and preserved in replicates of old psalmody to illus- 
trate self-culture in the art of song. But the major 



196 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

mode will replace the minor when tender voices 
on burial days sing — 

Why do we mourn departed friends ? 

Another hymn of Watts, — 

God is the refuge of His saints 

When storms of sharp distress invade, 

— sung to Lowell Mason's liquid tune of "Ward," 
and the priceless stanza, — 

Jesus can make a dying bed 
Feel soft as downy pillows are, 

doubly prove the claim of the Southampton bard 
to a foremost place with the song-preachers of 
Christian trust. 

The psalm (Amsterdam version), **God is the 
refuge," etc., is said to have been sung by John 
Howland in the shallop of the Mayflower when 
an attempt was made to effect a landing in spite 
of tempestuous weather. A tradition of this had 
doubtless reached Mrs. Hemans when she wrote — 

Amid the storm they sang, etc. 

" FATHER, WHATETR OF EARTHLY BLISS. " 

This hymn had originally ten stanzas, of which 
the three usually sung are the three last. The 
above line is the first of the eighth stanza, altered 
from — 

And O, whate'er of earthly bliss. 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. I97 

Probably for more than a century the famlHar 
surname "Steele" attached to this and many other 
hymns in the hymn-books conveyed to the general 
public no hint of a mind and hand more feminine 
than Cowper's or Montgomery's. Even intelligent 
people, v^ho had chanced upon sundry copies of 
The Spectator^ somehow fell into the habit of 
putting "Steele" and "Addison" in the same 
category of hymn names, and Sir Richard Steele 
got a credit he never sought. But since stories 
of the hymns began to be published — and made 
the subject of evening talks in church conference 
rooms — many have learned v^hat "Steele" in the 
hymn-book means. It introduces us nov7 to a 
very retiring English lady, Miss Anna Steele, a 
Baptist minister's daughter. She v^as born in 1706, 
at Broughton, Hampshire, in her father's parson- 
age, and in her father's parsonage she spent her 
life, dying there Nov. 1778. 

She was many years a severe sufferer from 
bodily illness, and a lasting grief of mind and heart 
was the loss of her intended husband, who was 
drowned the day before their appointed wedding. 
It is said that this hymn was written under the 
recent sorrow of that loss. 

In 1760 and 1780 volumes of her works in 
verse and prose were pubHshed with her name, 
"Theodosia," and reprinted in 1863 as *' Hymns, 
Psalms, and Poems, by Anna Steele." The hymn 
"Father, whate'er," etc., is estimated as her best, 
though some rank it only next to her — 



198 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Dear Refuge of my weary soul. 

Other more or less well-known hymns of this 
devout and loving writer are, — 

Lord, how mysterious are Thy ways, 
O Thou whose tender mercy hears, 
Thou lovely Source of true delight, 
Alas, what hourly dangers rise, 
So fades the lovely blooming flower, 

— to a stanza of which latter the world owes the 
tune of "Federal St." 

THE TUNE. 

The true musical mate of the sweet hymn- 
prayer came to it probably about the time of its 
hundredth birthday; but it came to stay. Lowell 
Mason's "Naomi" blends with it like a symphony 
of nature. 

Father, whate'er of earthly bliss 

Thy sovereign will denies, 
Accepted at Thy throne of grace 

Let this petition rise. 

Give me a calm and thankful heart 

From every murmer free, 
The blessings of Thy grace impart, 

And make me live to Thee. 

"GUIDE ME, O THOU GREAT JEHOVAH. " 

This great hymn has a double claim on the name 
of Williams. We do not have it exactly in its orig- 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. I99 

inal form as written by Rev. William Williams, 
*'The Watts of Wales," familiarly known as "Wil- 
liams of Pantycelyn." His fellow countryman and 
contemporary, Rev. Peter Williams, or "Williams 
of Carmarthen," who translated it from Welsh 
into English (1771) made alterations and substi- 
tutions in the hymn with the result that only the 
first stanza belongs indisputably to Williams of 
Pantycelyn, the others being Peter's own or the 
joint production of the two. As the former, how- 
ever, is said to have approved and revised the Eng- 
lish translation, we may suppose the hymn retained 
the name of its original author by mutual consent. 

Guide me, O Thou Great Jehovah, 
Pilgrim through this barren land. 

I am weak, but Thou art mighty, 
Hold me by Thy powerful hand; 

Bread of heaven. 
Feed me till I want no more. 

Open Thou the crystal Fountain 

Whence the healing streams do flow. 

Let the fiery cloudy pillar 

Lead me all my journey through. 

Strong Deliverer, 
Be Thou still my Strength and Shield 1 

When I tread the verge of Jordan 

Bid my anxious fears subside; 
Death of death, and hell's destruction, 

Land me safe on Canaan's side. 
Songs of praises 

I will ever give to Thee. 



200 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Musing on my habitation, 

Musing on my heavenly home, 
Fills my heart with holy longing; 

Come, Lord Jesus, quickly come. 
Vanity is all I see. 

Lord, I long to be with Thee. 

The second and third stanzas have not escaped 
the touch of critical editors. The line, — 

Whence the healing streams do flow 

— becomes, — 

Whence the healing waters flow, 

— ^with which alteration there is no fault to find 
except that it is needless, and obliterates the an- 
cient mark. But the third stanza, besides losing its 
second line for — 

Bid the swelling stream divide, 

— is weakened by a more needless substitution. 
Its original third line — 

Death of death, and hell's destruction, 

— is exchanged for the commonplace — 

Bear me through the swelling current. 

That is modern taste; but when modern taste 
meddles with a stalwart old hymn it is sometimes 
more nice than wise. 

It is probable that the famous hymn was sung 
in America before it obtained a European repu- 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. 201 

tation. Its history is as follows: Lady Hunting- 
don having read one of Williams' books with much 
spiritual satisfaction, persuaded him to prepare 
a collection of hymns, to be called the Gloria in 
Excelsis, for special use in Mr. Whitefield's 
Orphans' House in America. In this collection 
appeared the original stanzas of "Guide me, O 
Thou Great Jehovah." In 1 774, two years after its 
publication in the Gloria in Excelsis, it was repub- 
lished in England in Mr. Whitefield's collections of 
hymns. 

The Rev. Peter Williams was born in the parish 
of Llansadurnen, Carmarthenshire, Wales, Jan. 
7, 1722, and was educated in Carmarthen College. 
He was ordained in the Established Church and 
appointed to a curacy, but in 1748 joined the 
Calvinistic Methodists. He was an Independent 
of the Independents however, and preached where 
ever he chose. Finally he built a chapel for him- 
self on his paternal estate, where he ministered dur- 
ing the rest of his life. Died Aug, 8, 1796. 

THE TUNE. 

If "Sardius," the splendid old choral (triple 
time) everywhere identified with the hymn, be not 
its original music, its age at least entitles it to its 
high partnership. The Sacred Lyre (1858) ascribes 
it to Ludovic Nicholson, of Paisley, Scotland, 
violinist and amateur composer, born 1770; died 
1852; but this is not beyond dispute. Of several 



202 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

names one more confidently referred to as its author 
is F. H. Barthelemon (i 741-1808). 

" PEACE, TROUBLED SOUL '* 

Is the brave faith-song of a Christian under deep 
but blameless humiliation — Sir Walter Shirley.* 

THE TUNE. 

Apparently the favorite in several (not recent) 
hymnals for the subdued but confident spirit of 
this hymn of Sir Walter Shirley is Mazzinghi's 
"Palestine," appearing v^ith various tone-signatures 
in different books. The treble and alto lead in a 
sweet duet w^ith slur-flights, like an obligato to the 
bass and tenor. The melody needs rich and cultured 
voices, and is unsuited for congregational singing. 
So, perhaps, is the hymn itself. 

Peace, troubled soul, whose plaintive moan 
Hath taught these rocks the notes of woe; 

Cease thy complaint — suppress thy groan. 
And let thy tears forget to flow; 

Behold the precious balm is found. 

To lull thy pain, to heal thy wound. 

Come, freely come, by sin oppressed, 

Unburden here thy weighty load; 
Here find thy refuge and thy rest, 

And trust the mercy of thy God. 
Thy God's thy Saviour — glorious wordl 
For ever love and praise the Lord. 



♦Sec page 127 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. 2O3 

As now sung the word "scenes" Is substituted 
for "rocks" In the second line, eliminating the 
poetry. Rocks give an echo; and the vivid thought 
in the author's mind Is flattened to an unmeaning 
generality. 

Count Joseph Mazzlnghl, son of Tommasso 
Mazzlnghl, a Corslcan musician, was born in Lon- 
don, 1765. He was a boy of precocious talent. 
When only ten years of age he was appointed or- 
ganist of the Portuguese Chapel, and when nineteen 
years old was made musical director and composer 
at the King's Theatre. For many years he held the 
honor of Music Master to the Princess of Wales, 
afterwards Queen Caroline, and his compositions 
were almost numberless. Some of his songs and 
glees that caught the popular fancy are still remem- 
bered in England, as " The Turnpike Gate, " " The 
Exile," and the rustic duet, "When a Little Farm 
We Keep." 

Of sacred music he composed only one mass and 
six hymn-tunes, of which latter "Palestine" is one. 
Mazzlnghl died in 1844, in his eightieth year. 

** BEGONE UNBELIEF, MY SAVIOUR IS NEAR. " 

The Rev. John Newton, author of this hymn, 
was born in London, July 24, 1725. The son of a 
sea-captain, he became a sailor, and for several 
years led a reckless life. Converted, he took holy 
orders and was settled as curate of Olney, Buck- 
inghamshire, and afterwards Rector of St. Mary of 



204 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Woolnoth, London, where he died, Dec. 21, 1807. 
It was while Hving at Olney that he and Cowper 
wrote and pubHshed the Olney Hymns. His de- 
fiance to doubt in these Hnes is the blunt utterance 
of a sailor rather than the song of a poet: 

Begone, unbelief, my Saviour is near. 

And for my relief will surely appear. 

By prayer let me wrestle and He will perform; 

With Christ in the vessel I smile at the storm. 

THE TUNE 

Old " Hanover," by WilHam Croft (1677— 1 727), 
carries Newton's hymn successfully, but Joseph 
Haydn's choral of "Lyons" is more familiar — and 
better music. 

"Hanover" often accompanies Charles Wesley's 
lyric,— 

Ye servants of God, your Master proclaim. 

"HOW FIRM A FOUNDATION." 



The question of the author of this hymn is treat- 
ed at length in Dr. Louis F. Benson's Studies of 
Familiar Hymns. The utmost that need to be 
said here is that two of the most thorough and 
indefatigable hymn-chasers. Dr. John Julian and 
Rev. H. L. Hastings, working independently of 
each other, found evidence fixing the authorship 
with strong probability upon Robert Keene, a pre- 
centor in Dr. John Rippon's church. Dr. Rippon 
was pastor of a Baptist Church in London from 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. 205 

1773 to 1836, and in 1787 he published a song- 
manual called A Selection of Hymns from the Best 
Authors, etc., in which "How Firm a Foundation" 
appears as a new piece, with the signature " K — . " 
The popularity of the hymn in America has been 
remarkable, and promises to continue. Indeed, 
there are few more reviving or more spiritually 
helpful. It is too familiar to need quotation. But 
one cannot suppress the last stanza, with its power- 
ful and aflFecting emphasis on the Divine promise — 

The soul that on Jesus has leaned for repose. 

I will not, I will not, desert to his foes; 

That soul, though all hell should endeavor to shake, 

I'll never, no never, no never forsake. 

THE TUNE. 

The grand harmony of " Portuguese Hymn " has 
always been identified with this song of trust. 

One opinion of the date of the music writes it 
"about 1780." Since the habit of crediting it to 
John Reading (1677-1764) has been discontinued, 
it has been in several hymnals ascribed to Marco 
Portogallo (Mark, the Portuguese), a musician born 
in Lisbon, 1763, who became a composer of operas 
in Italy, but was made Chapel-Master to the Port- 
uguese King. In 1807, when Napoleon invaded 
the Peninsula and dethroned the royal house of 
Braganza, Old King John VI. fled to Brazil and 
took Marco with him, where he lived till 1815, but 
returned and died in Italy, in 1830. Such is the 
story, and it is all true, only the man's name was 



206 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Simao, instead of Marco. Grovels Dictionary ap- 
pends to Simao's biography the single sentence, 
"His brother wrote for the church.'* That the 
BraziHan episode may have been connected with 
this brother's history by a confusion of names, is 
imaginable, but it is not known that the brother's 
name was Marco. 

On the whole, this account of the authorship of 
the "Portuguese Hymn" — originally written for 
the old Christmas church song " Adeste Fideles" — 
is late and uncertain. Heard (perhaps for the first 
time) in the Portuguese Chapel, London, it was 
given the name which still clings to it. If proofs 
of its Portuguese origin exist, they may yet be found. 

"How Firm a Foundation" was the favorite of 
Deborah Jackson, President Andrew Jackson's be- 
loved wife, and on his death-bed the warrior and 
statesman called for it. It was the favorite of Gen. 
Robert E. Lee, and was sung at his funeral. The 
American love and familiar preference for the re- 
markable hymn was never more strikingly illus- 
trated than when on Christmas Eve, 1898, a whole 
corps of the United States army Northern and 
Southern, encamped on the Quemados hills, near 
Havana, took up the sacred tune and words — 

"Fear not, I am with thee, O be not dismayed." 

Lieut. Col. Curtis Guild (since Governor Guild 
of Massachusetts) related the story in the Sunday 
School Times for Dec. 7, 1901, and Dr. Benson 
quotes it in his book. 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. 20/ 

" WHILE THEE I SEEK, PROTECTING POWER ." 

Miss Helen Maria Williams, who wrote this gen- 
tle hymn of confidence, in 1786, was born in the 
north of England in 1762. When but a girl she 
won reputation by her brilliant literary talents and 
a mental grasp and vigor that led her, like Gail 
Hamilton, "to discuss public affairs, besides cloth- 
ing bright fancies and devout thoughts in graceful 
verse." Most of her life was spent in London, 
and In Paris, where she died, Dec. 14, 1827. 

While Thee I seek, Protecting Power 

Be my vain wishes stilled, 
And may this consecrated hour 

With better hopes be filled: 

When gladness wings my favored hour. 

Thy love my thoughts shall fill, 
Resigned where storms of sorrow lower 

My soul shall meet Thy will. 

My lifted eye without a tear 

The gathering storm shall see: 
My steadfast heart shall know no fear: 

My heart will rest on Thee. 

THE TUNES. 

Old " Norwich, " from Days Psalter, and " Simp- 
son," adapted from Louis Spohr, are found with 
the hymn in several later manuals. In the memor- 
ies of older worshipers "Brattle-Street,'* with Its 
melodious choral and duet arranged from Pleyel 



208 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

by Lowell Mason, is Inseparable from Miss Wil- 
liams' words; but modern hymnals have dropped 
it, probably because too elaborate for average con- 
gregational use. 

Ignaz Joseph Pleyel was born June i, 1757, 
at Ruppersthal, Lower Austria. He was the 
twenty- fourth child of a village schoolmaster. 
His early taste and talent for music procured 
him friends who paid for his education. Haydn 
became his master, and long afterwards spoke of 
him as his best and dearest pupil. Pleyers work 
— entirely instrumental — was much admired by 
Mozart. 

During a few years spent in Italy, he composed 
the music of his best-known opera, "Iphigenia in 
Aulide,'* and, besides the thirtv-four books of his 
symphonies and chamber-pieces, the results of his 
prolific genius make a list too long to enumerate. 
Most of his life was spent in Paris, where he founded 
the (present) house of Pleyel and Wolfe, piano 
makers and sellers. He died in that city, Nov. 14, 
1831. 

'* COME UNTO ME. " 

Come unto Me, when shadows darkly gather. 
When the sad heart is weary and distressed, 
Seeking for comfort from your heavenly Father, 
Come unto Me, and I will give you rest. 

This sweet hymn, by Mrs. Catherine Esling, is 
well known to many thousands of mourners, as also 
is its equally sweet tune of "Henley," by Lowell 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. 2O9 

Mason. Melody and words melt together like harp 
and flute. 

Large are the mansions In thy Father's dwelh'ng, 
Glad are the homes that sorrows never dim, 
Sweet are the harps in holy music swelling, 
Soft are the tones that raise the heavenly hymn. 

Mrs. Catherine Harbison Waterman Esling was 
born in Philadelphia, Apr. 12, 1812. A writer for 
many years under her maiden name, Waterman, 
she married, in 1840, Capt. George Esling, of the 
Merchant Marine, and lived in Rio Janeiro till her 
widowhood, in 1844. 

JOHN WESLEY'S HYMN. 

How happy is the pilgrim's lot. 
How free from every anxious thought. 

These are the opening lines of " John Wesley*s 
Hymn," so called because his other hymns are 
mostly translations, and because of all his own it is 
the one commonly quoted and sung. 

John Wesley, the second son in the famous 
Epworth family of ministers, was a man who 
knew how to endure ** hardness as a good soldier 
of Christ." He was born June 27, 1703, and stud- 
ied at Charterhouse, London, and at Christ 
Church, Oxford, becoming a Fellow of Lincoln 
College. After taking holy orders he went as a 
missionary to Georgia, U. S., in 1735, and on his 
return began his remarkable work in England, 
preaching a more spiritual type of religion, and 



210 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

awakening the whole kingdom with his revival 
fervor and his brother's kindHng songs. The fol- 
lowing paragraph from his itinerant life, gathered 
probably from a page of his own journals, gives 
a glimpse of what the founder of the great Methodist 
denomination did and suffered while carrying his 
Evangelical message from place to place. 

On February 17, 1746, when days were short 
and weather far from favorable, he set out on 
horseback from Bristol to Newcastle, a distance be- 
tween three and four hundred miles. The journey 
occupied ten days. Brooks were swollen, and in 
some places the roads were impassble, obliging the 
itinerant to go round through the fields. At Al- 
drige Heath, in Staffordshire, the rain turned to 
snow, which the northerly wind drove against 
him, and by which he was soon crusted over from 
head to foot. At Leeds the mob followed him, and 
pelted him with whatever came to hand. He ar- 
rived at Newcastle, February 26, "free from every 
anxious thought," and "every worldly fear." 

How lightly he regarded hardship and moles- 
tation appears from his verses — 

Whate'er molests or troubles life, 
When past, as nothing we esteem, 
And pain, like pleasure, is a dream. 

And that he actually enjoys the heroic freedom of 
a rough-rider missionary life is hinted in his hymn- 
Confined to neither court nor cell, 
His soul disdains on earth to dwell, 
He only sojourns here. 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. 211 

God evidently built John Wesley fire-proof and 
water-proof with a view to precisely what he was 
to undertake and accomplish. His frame was 
vigorous, and his spirit unconquerable. Besides 
all this he had the divine gift of a religious faith 
that could move mountains and a confidence in 
his mission that became a second nature. No 
wonder he could suflFer, and last. The brave 
young man at thirty was the brave old man at 
nearly ninety. He died in London, March 2, 1791. 

Blest with the scorn of finite good, 
My soul is lightened of its load 

And seeks the things above. 

There is my house and portion fair; 

My treasure and my heart are there, 

And my abiding home. 

For me my elder brethren stay, 
And angels beckon me away, 

And Jesus bids me come. 

THE TUNE. 

An air found in the Revivalist (1869), in sextuple 
time, that has the real camp-meeting swing, 
preserves the style of music in w^hich the hymn 
was sung by the circuit-preachers and their con- 
gregations — ringing out the autobiographical verses 
with special unction. The favorite was — 

No foot of land do I possess, 

No cottage in this wilderness; 

A poor wayfaring man. 



212 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

I lodge awhile in tents below, 
Or gladly wander to and fro 
Till I my Canaan gain. 

More modern voices sing the John Wesley 
hymn to the tune " Habbakuk, " by Edward Hodges. 
It has a lively three-four step, and finer melody 
than the old. 

Edward Hodges was born in Bristol, Eng., 
July 20, 1796, and died there Sept. 1876. Or- 
ganist at Bristol in his youth, he was graduated 
at Cambridge and in 1825 received the doctorate 
of music from that University. In 1835 he went 
to Toronto, Canada, and two years later to New 
York city, where he was many years Director of 
Music at Trinity Church. Returned to Bristol 
in 1863. 

* ' WHEN GATHERING CLOUDS AROUND I VIEW. " 

One of the restful strains breathed out of illness 
and affliction to relieve one soul and bless millions. 
It was written by Sir Robert Grant (i 785-1838). 

When gathering clouds around I view, 
And days are dark, and friends are few, 
On Him I lean who not in vain 
Experienced every human pain. 

The lines are no less admirable for their literary 
beauty than for their feeling and their faith. Un- 
consciously, it may be, to the writer, in this and 
the following stanza are woven an epitome of the 
Saviour's history. He — 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. 213 

Experienced every human pain, 

felt temptation's power, 

wept o'er Lazarus dead, 

— and the crowning assurance of Jesus' human 
sympathy is expressed in the closing prayer, — 

when I have safely passed 

Thro' every conflict but the last, 
Still, still unchanging watch beside 
My painful bed — for Thou hast died. 

THE TUNE. 

Of the few suitable six-line long metre part songs, 
the charming Russian tone-poem of "St. Peters- 
burg*' by Dimitri Bortniansky is borrowed for the 
hymn in some collections, and with excellent 
effect. It accords well with the mood and tenor 
of the words, and deserves to stay with it as long 
as the hymn holds its place. 

Dimitri Bortniansky, called "The Russian 
Palestrina," was born in 1752 at Gloukoff, a 
village of the Ukraine. He studied music in 
Moscow, St. Petersburg, Vienna, Rome and 
Naples. Returning to his native land, he was 
made Director of Empress Catharine's church choir. 
He reformed and systematized Russian church mu- 
sic, and wrote original scores in the intervals of his 
teaching labors. His works are chiefly motets and 
concertos, which show his genius for rich harmony. 
Died 1825. 



214 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

" JUST AS I AM, WITHOUT ONE PLEA. " 

Charlotte Elliott, of Brighton, Eng., would have 
been well-known through her admired and useful 
hymns, — 

My God, my Father, while I stray, 

My God, is any hour so sweet, 

With tearful eyes I look around, 

— and many others. But in "Just as I am" she 
made herself a voice in the soul of every hesitating 
penitent. The currency of the hymn has been too 
swift for its authorship and history to keep up 
v/ith, but it is a blessed law of influence that good 
works out-run biographies. This master-piece 
of metrical gospel might be called Miss EUiott's 
spiritual-birth hymn, for a reply of Dr. Caesar 
Malan of Geneva was its prompting cause. The 
young lady was a stranger to personal religion 
when, one day, the good man, while staying at her 
father's house, in his gentle way introduced the 
subject. She resented it, but afterwards, stricken 
in spirit by his words, came to him with apologies 
and an inquiry that confessed a new concern of 
mind. "You speak of coming to Jesus, but how .? 
Fm not fit to come." 

"Come just as you are," said Dr. Malan. 

The hymn tells the result. 

Like all the other hymns bound up in her 
Invalid's Hymn-book, it was poured from out the 
heart of one who, as the phrase is, "never knew a 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. 215 

well day," — though she lived to see her eighty- 
second year. 

Illustrative of the way it appeals to the afflicted, 
a little ancedote was told by the eloquent John B. 
Gough of his accidental seat-mate in a city church 
service. A man of strange appearance w^as led 
by the kind usher or sexton to the pew he occupied. 
Mr. Gough eyed him with strong aversion. The 
man's face was mottled, his limbs and mouth 
twitched, and he mumbled singular sounds. 
When the congregation sang he attempted to 
sing, but made fearful work of it. During the 
organ interlude he leaned toward Mr. Gough and 
asked how the next verse began. It was — 

Just as I am, poor, wretched, blind. 

"That's it," sobbed the strange man, "I'm 
blind — God help me!" — and the tears ran down 
his face — " and I'm wretched — and paralytic," and 
then he tried hard to sing the line with the rest. 

"After that," said Mr. Gough, "the poor 
paralytic's singing was as sweet to me as a Beetho- 
ven symphony." 

Charlotte Elliott was born March i8, 1789, 
and died in Brighton, Sept. 22, 1871. She stands 
in the front rank of female hymn-writers. 

The tune of " Woodworth," by William B. Brad- 
bury, has mostly superseded Mason's "Elliott," 
and is now the accepted music of this lyric of 
perfect faith and pious surrender. 



2l6 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Just as I am, — Thy love unknown 
Hath broken every barrier down, 
Now to be Thine, yea. Thine alone, 
O Lamb of God, I come, I come. 

"MY HOPE IS BUILT ON NOTHING LESS. " 

The Rev. Edward Mote was born in London, 
1797. According to his own testimony his parents 
were not God-fearing people, and he "went to a 
school where no Bible was allowed;** but at the 
age of sixteen he received religious impressions 
from a sermon of John Hyatt in Tottenham Court 
Chapel, was converted two years later, studied for 
the ministry, and ultimately became a faithful 
preacher of the gospel. Settled as pastor of the 
Baptist Church in Horsham, Sussex, he remained 
there twenty-six years — until his death, Nov. 13, 
1874. The refrain of his hymn came to him one 
Sabbath when on his way to Holborn to exchange 
pulpits: 

On Christ the solid rock I stand, 

All other ground is sinking sand. 

There were originally six stanzas, the first be- 
ginning: 

Nor earth, nor hell, my soul can move, 
I rest upon unchanging love. 

The refrain is a fine one, and really sums up the 
whole hymn, keeping constantly at the front the 
corner-stone of the poet's trust. 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. 21 7 

My hope Is built on nothing less 
Than Jesus' blood and righteousness. 
I dare not trust the sweetest frame, 
But only lean on Jesus' name. 
On Christ the solid Rock I stand 
All other ground is sinking sand. 

When darkness veils His lovely face 
I trust in His unchanging grace, 
In every high and stormy gale 
My anchor holds within the veil. 
On Christ the solid Rock, etc. 

Wm. B. Bradbury composed the tune (1863). 
It is usually named "The Solid Rock." 

** ABIDE WITH ME! FAST FALLS THE EVENTIDE. " 

The Rev. Henry Francis Lyte, author of this melo- 
dious hymn-prayer, was born at Ednam, near Kel- 
so, Scotland, June first, 1793. A scholar, graduated 
at Trinity College, Dublin; a poet and a musician, 
the hard-working curate was a man of frail phy- 
sique, with a face of almost feminine beauty, and 
a spirit as pure and gentle as a little child's. The 
shadow of consumption was over him all his life. 
His memory is chiefly associated with the district 
church at Lower Brixham, Devonshire, where he 
became "perpetual curate" in 1823. He died at 
Nice, France, Nov. 20, 1847. 

On the evening of his last Sunday preaching 
and communion service he handed to one of his 
family the manuscript of his hymn, "Abide with 
me," and the music he had composed for it. It 



2l8 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

was not till eight years later that Henry Ward 
Beecher introduced it, or a part of it, to American 
Congregationalists, and fourteen years after the 
author's death it began to be sung as we now 
have it, in this country and England. 

Abide with me! Fast falls the eventide, 
The darkness deepens, — Lord with me abide! 
When other helpers fail, and comforts flee, 
Help of the helpless, O abide with me! 

:(c * >|c :|c :«( :»: 

Hold Thou Thy cross before my closing eyes; 
Shine through the gloom, and point me to the skies; 
Heaven's morning breaks, and earth's vain shadows flee; 
In life, in death, O Lord, abide with me! 

THE TUNE 

There is a pathos in the neglect and oblivion of 
L)te's own tune set by himself to his words, 
especially as it was in a sense the work of a dying 
man who had hoped that he might not be "wholly 
mute and useless" w^hile lying in his grave, and 
who had prayed — 

O Thou whose touch can lend 
Life to the dead. Thy quickening grace supply. 
And grant me swan-like my last breath to spend 

In song that may not die! 

His prayer was answered in God's own way. 
Another's melody hastened his hymn on its useful 
career, and revealed to the world its immortal 
value. 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. 219 

By the time it had won its slow recognition in 
England, it was probably tuneless, and the com- 
pilers of Hymns Aiicicnt and Modern (1861) dis- 
covering the fact just as they were finishing their 
work, asked Dr. William Henry Monk, their 
music editor, to supply the want. " In ten minutes," 
it is said, "Dr. Monk composed the sweet, pleading 
chant that is wedded permanently to Lyte's swan 
song.'* 

WiUiam Henry Monk, Doctor of Music, was 
born in London, 1823. His musical education 
was early and thorough, and at the age of twenty- 
six he was organist and choir director in King's 
College, London. Elected (1876) professor of the 
National Training School, he interested himself 
actively in popular musical education, delivering 
lectures at various institutions, and establishing 
choral services. 

His hymn-tunes are found in many song-manuals 
of the English Church and in Scotland, and several 
have come to America. 

Dr. Monk died in 1889. 

' 'COME, YE DISCONSOLATE. " 

By Thomas Moore — about 18 14. The poem 
in its original form differed somewhat from the 
hymn v/e sing. Thomas Hastings — whose religious 
experience, perhaps, made him better qualified 
than Thomas Moore for spiritual expression — 
changed the second Hne, — 



220 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Come, at God's altar fervently kneel, 
— to — 

Come to the mercy seat, 

— and in the second stanza replaced — 

Hope when all others die, 
— with — 

Hope of the penitent; 

— and for practically the whole of the last stanza — 

Go ask the infidel what boon he brings us, 
What charm for aching hearts he can reveal. 
Sweet as that heavenly promise hope sings us, 
* 'Earth has no sorrow that heaven cannot heal," 

— Hastings substituted — 

Here see the Bread of life, see waters flowing 
Forth from the throne of God, pure from above! 
Come to the feast Love, come ever knowing 
Earth has no sorrow but heaven can remove. 

Dr. Hastings was not much of a poet, but he 
could make a singable hymn, and he knew the 
rhythm and accent needed in a hymn-tune. The 
determination was to make an evangelical hymn 
of a poem "too good to lose,'' and in that view 
perhaps the editorial Hberties taken with it were 
excusable. It was to Moore, however, that the 
real hymn-thought and key-note first came, and 
the title-line and the sweet refrain are his own — 
for which the Christian world has thanked him, 
lo these many years. 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. 221 

THE TUNE. 

Those who question why Dr. Hastings' interest 
in Moore's poem did not cause him to make a 
tune for it, must conclude that it came to him with 
its permanent melody ready made, and that the 
tune satisfied him. 

The "German Air" to which Moore tells us he 
wrote the words, probably took his fancy, if it did 
not induce his mood. Whether Samuel Webbe's 
tune now wedded to the hymn is an arrangement 
of the old air or wholly his own is immaterial. One 
can scarcely conceive a happier yoking of counter- 
parts. Try singing "Come ye Disconsolate" to 
"Rescue the Perishing," for example, and we 
shall feel the impertinence of divorcing a hymn 
that has found its musical affinity. 

"JESUS, I MY CROSS HAVE TAKEN. " 

This is another well-known and characteristic 
hymn of Henry Francis Lyte — originally six 
stanzas. We have been told that, besides his 
bodily affliction, the grief of an unhappy division 
or difference in his church weighed upon his 
spirit, and that it is alluded to in these lines — 

Man may trouble and distress me, 
'Twill but drive me to Thy breast, 
Life with trials hard may press me, 
Heaven will bring me sweeter rest. 



222 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

O, 'tis not in grief to harm me 

While Thy love is left to me, 
O, 'tis not in joy to charm me 

Were that joy unmixed with Thee. 

Tunes, "Autumn," by F. H. Barthelemon, or 
"Ellesdie,'' (formerly called *' Disciple") from 
Mozart — familiar in either. 

" FROM EVERY STORMY WIND THAT BLOWS. " 

This is the much-sung and deeply-cherished 
hymn of Christian peace that a pious Manxman, 
Hugh Stowell, was inspired to write nearly a 
hundred years ago. Ever since it has carried 
consolation to souls in both ordinary and extra- 
ordinary trials. 

It was sung by the eight American martyrs, 
Revs. Albert Johnson, John E. Freeman, David 
E. Campbell and their wives, and Mr. and Mrs. 
McMullen, when by order of the bloody Nana 
Sahib the captive missionaries were taken prisoners 
and put to death at Cawnpore in 1857. Two 
little children, Fannie and Willie Campbell, 
suffered with their parents. 

From every stormy wind that blows, 
From every swelling tide of woes 
There is a calm, a sure retreat; 
*Tis found beneath the Mercy Seat. 

Ah, whither could we flee for aid 
W^hen tempted, desolate, dismayed. 
Or how the hosts of hell defeat 
Had suffering saints no Mercy Seat ? 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. 223 

There, there on eagle wings we soar, 
And sin and sense molest no more. 
And heaven comes down our souls to greet 
While glory crowns the Mercy Seat. 

Rev. Hugh Stowell was born at Douglas on the 
Isle of Man, Dec. 3, 1799. He was educated at 
Oxford and ordained to the ministry 1823, re- 
ceiving twelve years later the appointment of 
Canon to Chester Cathedral. 

He was a popular and effective preacher and a 
graceful writer. Forty-seven hymns are credited 
to him, the above being the best known. To 
presume it is "his best," leaves a good margin of 
merit for the remainder. 

"From every stormy wind that blows" has 
practically but one tune. It has been sung to 
Hastings "Retreat" ever since the music was made. 

"CHILD OF SIN AND SORROW." 



Child of sin and sorrow, filled with dismay, 
Wait not for tomorrow, yield thee today. 
Heaven bids thee come, while yet there's room, 
Child of sin and sorrow, hear and obey. 

Words and music by Thomas Hastings. 

"LEAD, KINDLY LIGHT. " 

John Henry Newman, born in London, Feb. 
21, 1 80 1 — known in religious history as Cardinal 
Newman — wrote this hymn when he was a young 
clergyman of the Church of England. "Born 



224 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

within the sound of Bow bells," says Dr. Benson, 
*'he was an imaginative boy, and so superstitious, 
that he used constantly to cross himself when 
going into the dark." Intelligent students of the 
fine hymn will note this habit of its author's mind 
— and surmise its influence on his religious 
musings. 

The agitations during the High Church move- 
ment, and the persuasions of Hurrell Froude, a 
Romanist friend, while he was a tutor at Oxford, 
gradually weakened his Protestant faith, and in 
his unrest he travelled to the Mediterranean coast, 
crossed to Sicily, where he fell violently ill, and after 
his recovery waited three weeks in Palermo for 
a return boat. On his trip to Marsailles he wrote 
the hymn — with no thought that it would ever be 
called a hymn. 

When complimented on the beautiful pro- 
duction after it became famous he modestly said, 
"It was not the hymn but the tune that has gained 
the popularity. The tune is Dykes' and Dr. Dykes 
is a great master." 

Dr. Newman was created a Cardinal of the Church 
of Rome in the Catholic Cathedral of London, 1879. 
Died Aug. 11, 1890. 

THE TUNE. 

*'Lux Benigna," by Dr. Dykes, was composed 
in Aug. 1865, and was the tune chosen for this 
hymn by a committee preparing the Appendix 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. 225 

to Hymns Ancient and Modern. Dr. Dykes' 
statement that the tune came into his head while 
walking through the Strand in London "presents 
a striking contrast with the solitary origin of the 
hymn itself" (Benson). 

Lead, kindly Light, amid th* encircling gloom, 

Lead Thou me on. 
The night is dark and I am far from home; 

Lead Thou me on. 
Keep Thou my feet; I do not ask to see 
The distant scene, — one step enough for me. 

So long Thy power hath bless 'd me, sure it still 

Will lead me on. 
O'er moor and fen, o'er crag and torrent, till 

The night is gone. 
And with the morn those angel faces smile 
Which I have loved long since, and lost awhile. 

"I HEARD THE VOICE OF JESUS SAY. " 

Few if any Christian writers of his generation 
have possessed tuneful gifts in greater opulence 
or produced more vital and lasting treasures of 
spiritual verse than Horatius Bonar of Scotland. 
He inherited some of his poetic faculty from his 
grandfather, a clergyman who wrote several 
hymns, and it is told of Horatius that hymns used 
to " come to" him while riding on railroad trains. 
He was educated in the Edinburgh University 
and studied theology with Dr. Chalmers, and his 



226 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

life was greatly Influenced by Dr. Guthrie, whom 
he followed in the establishment of the Free 
Church of Scotland. 

Born in 1808 in Edinburgh, he was about forty 
years old when he came back from a successful pas- 
torate at Kelso to the city of his home and Alma 
Mater, and became virtually Chalmers' successor 
as minister of the Chalmers Memorial Church. 

The peculiar richness of Bonar's sacred songs 
very early created for them a warm welcome in the 
religious world, and any devout lyric or poem with 
his name attached to it is sure to be read. 

Dr. Bonar died in Edinburgh, July 31, 1889. 
Writing of the hymn, "I heard the voice," etc.. Dr. 
David Breed calls it "one of the most ingenious 
hymns in the language," referring to the fact that 
the invitation and response exactly halve each 
stanza between them — song followed by counter- 
song. "Ingenious" seems hardly the right word 
for a division so obviously natural and almost 
automatic. It is a simple art beauty that a poet 
of culture makes by instinct. Bowring's "Watch- 
man, tell us of the night," is not the only other in- 
stance of similar countersong structure, and the 
regularity in Thomas Scott's little hymn, "Hasten, 
sinner, to be wise," is only a simpler case of the 
way a poem plans itself by the compulsion of its 
subject. 

I heard the voice of Jesus say. 

Come unto me and rest, 
Lay down, thou weary one, lay down 
Thy head upon My breast: 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. 22/ 

I came to Jesus as I was, 

Weary and worn and sad, 
I found in Him a resting-place, 

And He has made me glad. 

THE TUNE. 

The old melody of "Evan," long a favorite, 
and since known everywhere through the currency 
given to it in the Gospel Hymns, has been in 
many collections connected with the words. It is 
good congregational psalmody, and not unsuited to 
the sentiment, taken line by line, but it divides the 
stanzas into quatrains, which breaks the happy 
continuity. "Evan" was made by Dr. Mason in 
1850 from a song written four years earlier by 
Rev. William Henry Havergal, Canon of Worcester 
Cathedral, Eng. He was the father of Frances 
Ridley Havergal. 

The more ancient "Athens," by Felice Giar- 
dini (1716-1796), author of the "Itahan Hymn," 
has clung, and still clings lovingly to Bonar's 
hymn in many communities. Its simplicity, and 
the involuntary accent of its sextuple time, exactly 
reproducing the easy iambic of the verses, in- 
evitably made it popular, and thousands of older 
singers today will have no other music with "I 
heard the voice of Jesus say." 

"Vox Jesu," from the andante in one of the 
quartets of Louis Spohr (i 784-1 859), is a psalm- 
tune of good harmony, but too little feeling. 

An excellent tune for all the shades of expression 



228 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

in the hymn, is the arrangement by Hubert P. Main 
from Franz Abt — in A flat, triple time. Gentle 
music through the first fifteen bars, in alternate 
duet and quartet, utters the Divine Voice with 
the true accent of the lines, and the second portion 
completes the harmony in glad, full chorus — the 
answer of the human heart. 

"Vox Dilecti," by Dr. Dykes, goes farther and 
writes the Voice in B flat minor — which seems a 
needless substitution of divine sadness for divine 
sweetness. It is a tune of striking chords, but its 
shift of key to G natural (major) after the first 
four lines marks it rather for trained choir per- 
formance than for assembly song. 

It is possible to make too much of a dramatic 
perfection or a supposed indication of structural 
design in a hymn. Textual equations, such as 
distinguish Dr. Bonar's beautiful stanzas, are not 
necessarily technical. To emphasize them as in- 
genious by an ingenious tune seems, somehow, a 
reflection on the spontaneity of the hymn. 

Louis Spohr was Director of the Court Theatre 
Orchestra in Cassel, Prussia, in the first half of the 
last century. He was an eminent composer of 
both vocal and instrumental music, and one of the 
greatest violinists of Europe. 

Hubert Piatt Main was born in Ridgefield, Ct., 
Aug. 17, 1839. He read music at sight when only 
ten years old, and at sixteen commenced wTiting 
hymn-tunes. Was assistant compiler with both 
Bradbury and Woodbury in their various publica- 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. 229 

tions, and in 1868 became connected with the 
firm of Biglow and Main, and has been their book- 
maker until the present time. As music editor in 
the partnership he has superintended the pubhca- 
tion of more than five hundred music-books, ser- 
vices, etc. 

" I LOVE TO STEAL AWHILE AWAY. " 

The burdened wife and mother who wrote this 
hymn would, at the time, have rated her history 
with "the short and simple annals of the poor." 
But the poor who are ** remembered for w^hat they 
have done,'* may have a larger place in history 
than many rich who did nothing. 

Phebe Hinsdale Brown, was born in Canaan, 
N. Y., in 1783. Her father, George Hinsdale, who 
died in her early childhood, must have been a 
man of good abilities and religious feeling, being 
the reputed composer of the psalm-tune, *' Hins- 
dale," found in some long-ago collections. 

Left an orphan at two years of age, Phebe "fell 
into the hands of a relative who kept the county 
jail," and her childhood knew little but the bitter 
fare and ceaseless drudgery of domestic slavery. 
She grew up with a crushed spirit, and was a 
timid, shrinking woman as long as she lived. She 
married Timothy H. Brown, a house-painter of 
Ellington, Ct., and passed her days there and in 
Monson, Mass., where she lived some twenty-five 
years. 



230 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

In her humble home in the former town her 
children were born, and it was while caring for her 
own little family of four, and a sick sister, that the 
incident occurred (August 1818), which called 
forth her tender hymn. She was a devout Chris- 
tian, and in pleasant weather, whenever she could 
find the leisure, she would "steal away" at sunset 
from her burdens a little w^hile, to rest and com- 
mune with God. Her favorite place was a 
wealthy neighbor's large and beautiful flower 
garden. A servant reported her visits there to the 
mistress of the house, who called the "intruder" 
to account. 

''If you want anything, why don't you come in ?" 
was the rude question, follow^ed by a plain hint that 
no stealthy person was welcome. 

Wounded by the ill-natured rebuff, the sensitive 
woman sat down the next evening with her baby 
in her lap, and half-blinded by her tears, wrote 
"An Apology for my Twilight Rambles," in the 
verses that have made her celebrated. 

She sent the manuscript (nine stanzas) to her 
captious neighbor — with what result has never 
been told. 

Crude and simple as the little rhyme was, it 
contained a germ of lyric beauty and life. The 
Rev. Dr. Charles Hyde of Ellington, who was a 
neighbor of Mrs. Brown, procured a copy. He 
was assisting Dr. Nettleton to compile the Village 
Hymns, and the humble bit of devotional verse 
was at once judged worthy of a place in the new 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. 23I 

book, Dr. Hyde and his daughter EmeHne giving 
it some kind touches of rhythmic amendment. 

I love to steal awhile away 
From little ones and care, 

— became, — 

I love to steal awhile away 
From every cumb'ring care. 

In the last line of this stanza — 

In gratitude and prayer 

— was changed to — 

In humble, grateful prayer, 

— and the few other defects in syllabic smoothness 
or literary grace were affectionately repaired, but 
the slight furbishing it received did not alter the 
individuality of Mrs. Brown's work. It remained 
hers — and took its place among the immortals of its 
kind, another illustration of how little poetry it takes 
to make a good hymn. Only five stanzas were 
printed, the others being voted redundant by both 
author and editor. The second and third, as now 
sung, are — 

I love in solitude to shed 

The penitential tear. 
And all His promises to plead 

Where none but God can hear. 

I love to think on mercies past 

And future good implore. 
And all my cares and sorrows cast 

On Him whom I adore. 



232 



STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 



Phebe Brown died at Henry, 111., in 1861 ; but she 
had made the church and the world her debtor 
not only for her little lyric of pious trust, but by 
rearing a son, the Rev. Samuel Brown, D.D., who 
became the pioneer American missionary to Japan 
— to which Christian calling two of her grandchil- 
dren also consecrated themselves. 

THE TUNE. 



Mrs. Brown's son Samuel, who, besides being a 
good minister, inherited his grandfather's musical 
gift, composed the tune of " Alonson," (named in 
his mother's honor, after her late home), and it may 
have been the first music set to her hymn. It was 
the fate of his offering, however, to lose its filial 
place, and be succeeded by different melodies, 
though his own still survives in a few collections, 
sometimes with Collyer's "O Jesus in this solemn 
hour." It is good music for a hymn of praise 
rather than for meditative verse. Many years the 
hymn has been sung to "Woodstock," an appro- 
priate and still familiar tune by Deodatus Dutton, 

Button's "Woodstock" and Bradbur}^'s "Brown," 
which often replaces it, are worthy rivals of each 
other, and both continue in favor as fit choral inter- 
pretations of the much-loved hymn. 

Deodatus Dutton was born Dec. 22, 1808, and 
educated at Brown University and Washington 
College (now Trinity) Hartford Ct. While there 
he was a student of music and played the organ 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. 233 

at Dr. Matthews* church. He studied theology 
in New York city, and had recently entered the 
ministry when he suddenly died, Dec. 16, 1832, a 
moment before rising to preach a sermon. Dur- 
ing his brief life he had written several hymn- 
tunes, and published a book of psalmody. Mrs. 
Sigourney wrote a poem on his death. 

" THERE'S A WIDENESS IN GOD'S MERCY. " 

Frederick William Faber, author of this favorite 
hymn-poem, had a peculiar genius for putting 
golden thoughts into common words, and making 
them sing. Probably no other sample of his work 
shows better than this his art of combining literary 
cleverness with the most reverent piety. Cant w^as 
a quality Faber never could put into his religious 
verse. 

He was born in Yorkshire, Eng., June 28, 18 14, 
and received his education at Oxford. Settled 
as Rector of Elton, in Huntingdonshire, in 1843, 
he came into sympathy with the "Oxford Move- 
ment,'' and followed Newman into the Romish 
Church. He continued his ministry as founder 
and priest for the London branch of the Catholic 
congregation of St. Philip Neri for fourteen 
years, dying Sept. 26, 1863, at the age of forty- 
nine. 

His godly hymns betray no credal shibboleth or 
doctrinal bias, but are songs for the whole earthly 
church of God. 



234 



STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 



There's a wideness In God's mercy 

Like the wideness of the sea; 
There's a kindness in His justice 

Which is more than hberty. 
There is welcome for the sinner 

And more graces for the good; 
There is mercy with the Saviour, 

There is healing in His blood. 

There's no place where earthly sorrows 

Are more felt than up in heaven; 
There's no place where earthly failings 

Have such kindly judgment given. 
There is plentiful redemption 

In the blood that has been shed, 
There is joy for all the members 

In the sorrows of the Head. 

For the love of God is broader 

Than the measure of man's mind. 
And the heart of the Eternal 

Is most wonderfully kind. 
If our love were but more simple 

We should take Him at His word. 
And our lives would be all sunshine 

In the sweetness of the Lord. 

No tone of comfort has breathed itself more 
surely and tenderly into grieved hearts than these 
tuneful and singularly expressive sentences of 
Frederick Faber. 

THE TUNE. 



The music of S. J. Vail sung to Faber's hymn 
is one of that composer's best hymn-tunes, and its 



HYMNS OF SUFFERING AND TRUST. 235 

melody and natural movement impress the mean- 
ing as well as the simple beauty of the words. 

Silas Jones Vail, an American music-writer, was 
born Oct., 1818, and died May 20, 1883. Another 
charming tune is " Wellesley, " by Lizzie S. Tourjee. 
daughter of the late Dr. Eben Tourjee. 

' ' UE LEADETH ME! OH, BLESSED THOUGHT. " 

Professor Gilmore, of Rochester University, 
N. Y., when a young Baptist minister (1861) sup- 
plying a pulpit in Philadelphia "jotted down this 
hymn in Deacon Watson's parlor" (as he says) and 
passed it to his wife, one evening after he had made 
"a conference-room talk" on the 23d Psalm. 

Mrs. Gilmore, without his knowledge, sent it to 
the Watchman and Re-fiector (now the Watchman), 

Years after its publication in that paper, when a 
candidate for the pastorate of the Second Baptist 
Church in Rochester, he was turning the leaves of 
the vestry hymnal in use there, and saw his hymn 
in it. Since that first publication in the Devotional 
Hymn and Tune Book (1865) it has been copied in 
the hymnals of various denominations, and steadily 
holds its place in public favor. The refrain added 
by the tunemaker emphasizes the sentiment of the 
lines, and undoubtedly enhances the effect of the 
hymn. 

"He leadeth me" has the true hymn quality, 
combining all the simplicity of spontaneous thought 
and feehngwith perfect accent and liquid rhythm. 



236 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

He leadeth me! Oh, blessed thought, 
Oh, words with heavenly comfort fraught; 
Whate'er I do, where'er I be. 
Still 'tis God's hand that leadeth me! 

3|c * * :(c 4c * 

Lord, I would clasp Thy hand in mine, 
Nor ever murmur nor repine — 
Content, whatever lot I see. 
Since 'tis my God that leadeth me. 

Professor Joseph Henry Gilmore was born in 
Boston, April 29, 1834. He was graduated at Phil- 
lips Academy, Andover, at Brown University, and 
at the Newton Theological Institution, where he 
was afterwards Hebrew instructor. 

After four years of pastoral service he was elected 
(1867) professor of the English Language and 
Literature in Rochester University. He has pub- 
lished Familiar Chats on Books and Reading, also 
several college text-books on rhetoric, logic and 
oratory. 

THE TUNE, 

The little hymn of four stanzas was peculiarly 
fortunate in meeting the eye of Mr. William B. 
Bradbury, ( 1 863) and winning his musical sympathy 
and alliance. Few composers have so exactly caught 
the tone and spirit of their text as Bradbury did 
when he vocalized the gliding measures of *'He 
leadeth me.'* 



CHAPTER VI. 



CHRISTIAN BALLADS. 



Echoes of Hebrew thought, if not Hebrew 
psalmody, may have made their way into the more 
serious pagan Hterature. At least in the more en- 
lightened pagans there has ever revealed itself 
more or less the instinct of the human soul that 
"feels after" God. St. Paul in his address to the 
Athenians made a tactful as well as scholarly point 
to preface a missionary sermon when he cited a line 
from a poem of Aratus (B. C. 272) familiar, doubt- 
less, to the majority of his hearers. 

Dr. Lyman Abbot has thus translated the pas- 
sage in which the line occurs: 

Let us begin from God. Let every mortal raise 
The grateful voice to tune God's endless praise, 
God fills the heaven, the earth, the sea, the air; 
We feel His spirit moving everywhere. 
And we His offspring are.* He, ever good, 
Daily provides for man his daily food. 
To Him, the First, the Last, all homage yield, — 
Our Father wonderful, our help, our shield." 



*ToQ yap xac yevoq h\Li\>. 

(237) 



238 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

" RISE, CROWNED WITH LIGHT/ * 

Alexander Pope, a Roman Catholic poet, born in 
London 1688, died at Twickenham 1744, was not 
a hymnist, but passages in his most serious and ex- 
alted flights deserve a tuneful accompaniment. 
His translations of Homer made him famous, but 
his ethical poems, especially his "Essay on Man," 
are inexhaustible mines of quotation, many of the 
lines and couplets being common as proverbs. His 
"Messiah," written about 1711, is a religious an- 
them in which the prophecies of Holy Writ kindle 
all the splendor of his verse. 

THE TUNE. 

The closing strain, indicated by the above line, 
has been divided into stanzas of four lines suitable 
to a church hymn-tune. The melody selected by 
the compilers of the Plymouth Hymnal, and of the 
Unitarian Hymn and Tune Book is "Savannah," 
an American sounding name for what is really one 
of PleyeFs chorals. The music is worthy of Pope's 
triumphal song. 

The seas shall waste, the skies to smoke decay. 
Rocks fall to dust, and mountains melt away. 
But fixed His Word; His saving power remains: 
Thy realm shall lastj thy own Messiah reigns. 

" OH, WHY SHOULD THE SPIRIT? " 

This is a sombre poem, but its virile strength and 
its literary merit have given it currency, and com- 



CHRISTIAN BALLADS. 239 

mended it to the taste of many people, both weak 
and strong, who have the pensive temperament. 
Abraham Lincoln loved it and committed it to 
memory in his boyhood. Philip Phillips set it to 
music, and sang it — or a part of it — one day during 
the Civil war at the anniversary of the Christian 
Sanitary Commission, when President Lincoln, 
who was present, called for its repetition.* It was 
written by William Knox, born 1789, son of a 
Scottish farmer. 

The poem has fourteen stanzas, the following 
being the first and two last — 

Oh, why should the spirit of mortal be proud ? 
Like a swift-fleeting meteor, a fast-flying cloud, 
A flash of the lightning, a break of the wave. 
He passeth from life to rest in the grave. 

Yea, hope and despondency, pleasure and pain. 
Are mingled together like sunshine and rain; 
And the smile and the tear, the song and the dirge. 
Still follow each other like surge upon surge. 

*Tis the wink of an eye; 'tis the draft of a breath 
From the blossom of health to the paleness of death, 
From the gilded saloon to the bier and the shroud, 
Oh, why should the spirit of mortal be proud ? 

Philip Phillips was born in Jamestown, Chau- 
tauqua Co., N. Y., Aug. II, 1834, and died in Del- 

*This account so nearly resembles the story of Mrs. Gates' "Your Mission," 
sung to a similar audience, on a similar occasion, by the same man, that a pos- 
sible confusion by the narrators of the incident has been suggested. But that 
Mr. Phillips sang twice before the President during the war does not appeal 
to be contradicted. To what air he sang the above verses is uncertain. 



240 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

aware, O., June 25, 1895. He wrote no hymns 
and was not an educated musician, but the airs of 
popular hymn-music came to him and were har- 
monized for him by others, most frequently by his 
friends, S. J. Vail and Hubert P. Main. He com- 
piled and published thirty-one collections for Sun- 
day-schools and gospel meetings, besides the Meth- 
odist Hymn and Tune Book, issued in 1866. 

He was a pioneer gospel singer, and his tuneful 
journeys through America, England and Australia 
gave him the name of the "Singing Pilgrim," the 
title of his song collection (1867). 

** WHEN ISRAEL OF THE LORD BELOVED." 

The "Song of Rebecca the Jewess," in "Ivan- 
hoe," was written by Sir Walter Scott, author of the 
Waverly Novels, "Marmion," etc., born in Edin- 
burgh, 1 77 1, and died at Abbotsford, 1832. The 
lines purport to be the Hebrew hymn with which 
Rebecca closed her daily devotions while in prison 
under sentence of death. 

When Israel of the Lord beloved 

Out of the land of bondage came 
Her fathers' God before her moved, 

An awful Guide in smoke and flame. 

Then rose the choral hymn of praise, 
And trump and timbrel answered keen, 

And Zion's daughters poured their lays. 
With priest's and warrior's voice between. 



CHRISTIAN BALLADS. 24I 

By day along th' astonished lands 

The cloudy Pillar glided slow, 
By night Arabia's crimson'd sands 

Returned the fiery Column's glow. 

:|c 4: >): He He * 

And O, when gathers o'er our path 
In shade and storm the frequent night 

Be Thou, long suffering, slow to wrath, 
A burning and a shining Light! 

The "Hymn of Rebecca" has been set to music 
though never in common use as a hymn. Old 
"Truro", by Dr. Charles Burney (1726-1814) 
is a grand Scotch psalm harmony for the words, 
though one of the Unitarian hymnals borrows Zeun- 
er's sonorous choral, the "Missionary Chant." 
Both sound the lyric of the Jewess in good Christ- 
ian music. 

" WE SAT DOWN AND WEPT BY THE WATERS. " 

The 137th Psalm has been for centuries a fav- 
orite with poets and poetical translators, and its 
pathos appealed to Lord Byron when engaged in 
writing his Hebrew Melodies. 

Byron was born in London, 1788, and died at 
Missolonghi, Western Greece, 1824. 

We sat down and wept by the waters 
Of Babel, and thought of the day 

When the foe, in the hue of his slaughters. 
Made Salem's high places his prey. 

And ye, Oh her desolate daughters. 
Were scattered all weeping away. 



242 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

— Written April, 1814. It was the fashion then for 
musical societies to call on the popular poets for 
contributions, and tunes were composed for them, 
though these have practically passed into oblivion. 
Byron's ringing ballad (from II Kings 19:35) — 

Th' Assyrian came down like a wolf on the fold 
And his cohorts were gleaming in purple and gold, 

— has been so much a favorite for recitation and 
declamation that the loss of its tune is never 
thought of. 

Another poetic rendering of the "Captivity 
Psalm" is worthy of notice among the lay hymns 
not unworthy to supplement clerical sermons. It 
was written by the Hon. Joel Barlow in 1799, and 
published in a pioneer psalm-book at Northamp- 
ton, Mass. It is neither a translation nor properly 
a hymn but a poem built upon the words of the 
Jewish lament, and really reproducing something 
of its plaintive beauty. Two stanzas of it are as 
follows : 

Along the banks where Babel's current flows 

Our captive bands in deep despondence strayed, 

While Zion's fall in deep remembrance rose. 

Her friends, her children mingled with the dead. 

The tuneless harps that once with joy we strung 
When praise employed, or mirth inspired the lay. 

In mournful silence on the willows hung. 
And growing grief prolonged the tedious day. 

Like Pope, this American poet loved onomatope 
and imitative verse, and the last line is a word- 



CHRISTIAN BALLADS. 243 

picture of home-sick weariness. This "psalm*' 
was the best piece of work in Mr. Barlow's series of 
attempted improvements upon Isaac Watts — 
which on the whole were not very successful. The 
sweet cantabile of Mason's "Melton" gave "Along 
the banks" quite an extended lease of life, though 
it has now ceased to be sung. 

Joel Barlow was a versatile gentleman, serving 
his country and generation in almost every useful 
capacity, from chaplain in the continental army 
to foreign ambassador. He was born in Redding, 
Ct., 1755, and died near Cracow, Poland, Dec. 
1812. 

"AS DOWN IN THE SUNLESS. " 

Thomas Moore, the poet of glees and love- 
madrigals, had sober thoughts in the intervals of 
his gaiety, and employed his genius in writing 
religious and even devout poems, which have been 
spiritually helpful in many phases of Christian 
experience. Among them was this and the four 
following hymns, with thirty-four others, each of 
which he carefully labelled with the name of a music 
composer, though the particular tune is left in- 
definite. "The still prayer of devotion" here 
answers, in rhyme and reality, the simile of the 
sea-flower in the unseen deep, and the mariner's 
compass represents the constancy of a believer. 

As, still to the star of its worship, though clouded. 
The needle points faithfully o'er the dim sea. 

So, dark as I roam in this wintry world shrouded, 
The hope of my spirit turns trembling to Thee. 



244 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

It is sung in Plymouth Hymnal to Barnby's **St. 
Botolph." 

" THE TURF SHALL BE MY FRAGRANT SHRINE " 

Is, in part, still preserved in hymn collections, and 
sung to the noble tune of " Louvan," Virgil Tay- 
lor's piece. The last stanza is especially reminis- 
cent of the music. 

There's nothing bright above, below, 
From flowers that bloom to stars that glow; 
But in its light my soul can see 
Some feature of Thy deity. 

" O THOU WHO DRY'ST THE MOURNER^S TEAR " 

Is associated in the Baptist Praise Book with 
Woodbur/s "Siloam.'' 

" THE BIRD LET LOOSE IN EASTERN SKIES " 

Has been sung in Mason's "Coventry," and the 
Plymouth Hymnal assigns it to "Spohr" — a name- 
sake tune of Louis Spohr, while the Unitarian 
Hymn and Tune Book unites to it a beautiful triple- 
time melody from Mozart, and bearing his name. 

" THOU ART, O GOD, THE LIFE AND LIGHT. " 

This is the best of the Irish poet's sacred songs — 
always excepting, "Come, Ye Disconsolate." It is 
said to have been originally set to a secular melody 
composed by the wife of Hon. Richard Brinsley 



CHRISTIAN BALLADS. 245 

Sheridan. It is joined to the tune of "Brighton" 
in the Unitarian books, and WiUiam Monk's 
"Matthias" voices the words for the Plymouth 
Hymnal. The verses have the true lyrical glov^, 
and make a real song of praise as well a composition 
of more than ordinary literary beauty. 

Thou art, O God, the life and light 
Of all this wondrous world we see; 

Its glow by day, its smile by night 
Are but reflections caught from Thee. 

Where'er we turn Thy glories shine, 

And all things fair and bright are Thine. 

When night with wings of starry gloom 
O'ershadows all the earth, and skies 

Like some dark, beauteous bird, whose plume 
Is sparkling with unnumbered eyes, 

That sacred gloom, those fires divine, 

So grand, so countless. Lord, are Thine. 

When youthful spring around us breathes, 
Thy Spirit warms her fragrant sigh. 

And every flower the summer wreathes 
Is born beneath that kindling eye. 

Where'er we turn Thy glories shine, 

And all things fair and bright are Thine. 

" MOURNFULLY, TENDERLY, BEAR ON THE DEAD ." 

A tender funeral ballad by Henry S. Washburn, 
composed in 1846 and entitled "The Burial of Mrs. 
Judson." It is rare now in sheet-music form but 
the American Vocalist, to be found in the stores 



246 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

of most great music publishers and dealers, pre- 
serves the full poem and score. 

Its occasion was the death at sea, off St. Helena, 
of the Baptist missionary, Mrs. Sarah Hall 
Boardman Judson, and the solemn committal of 
her remains to the dust on that historic island, 
Sept. I, 1845. ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^y ^^ America 
from Burmah at the time of her death, and the 
ship proceeded on its homeward voyage im- 
mediately after her burial. The touching circum- 
stances of the gifted lady's death, and the strange 
romance of her entombment where Napoleon's 
grave was made twenty-four years before, inspired 
Mr. Washburn, who was a prominent layman of 
the Baptist denomination, and interested in all its 
ecclesiastical and missionary activities, and he 
wrote this poetic memorial of the event: 

Mournfully, tenderly, bear on the dead; 
Where the warrior has lain, let the Christian be laid. 
No place more befitting, O rock of the sea; 
Never such treasure was hidden in thee. 

Mournfully, tenderly, solemn and slow; 
Tears are bedewing the path as ye go; 
Kindred and strangers are mourners today; 
Gently, so gently, O bear her away. 

Mournfully, tenderly, gaze on that brow; 
Beautiful is it in quietude now. 
One look, and then settle the loved to her rest 
The ocean beneath her, the turf on her breast. 

Mrs. Sarah Judson was the second wife of the 
Rev. Adoniram Judson, D.D., the celebrated pio- 



I 



CHRISTIAN BALLADS. 247 

neer American Baptist missionary, and the 
mother by her first marriage, of the late Rev. 
George Dana Boardman, D.D., LL. D., of Phila- 
delphia. 

The Hon. Henry S. Washburn was born in 
Providence, R. I., 1813, and educated at Brow^n 
University. During most of his long life he re- 
sided in Massachusetts, and occupied there many 
positions of honor and trust, serving in the State 
Legislature both as Representative and Senator. 
He was the author of many poems and lyrics of 
high merit, some of which — notably "The Vacant 
Chair*' — became popular in sheet-music and in 
books of religious and educational use. He died 
in 1903. 

THE TUNE. 

"The Burial of Mrs. Judson*' became favorite 
parlor music when Lyman Heath composed the 
melody for it — of the same name. Its notes and 
movement were evidently inspired by the poem, 
for it reproduces the feeling of every line. The 
threnody was widely known and sung in the 
middle years of the last century, by people, too, 
who had scarcely heard of Mrs. Judson, and re- 
ceived in the music and words their first hint of her 
history. The poem prompted the tune, but the 
tune was the garland of the poem. 

Lyman Heath of Bow, N. H., was born there 
Aug. 24, 1804. He studied music, and became a 
vocalist and vocal composer. Died July 30, 1870. 



248 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

• TELL ME NOT IN MOURNFUL NUMBERS. " 

Longfellow's "Psalm of Life" was written when 
he was a young man, and for some years it carried 
the title he gave it, "What the Young Man's Heart 
Said to the Psalmist" — a caption altogether too 
long to bear currency. 

The history of the beloved poet who wrote this 
optimistic ballad of hope and courage is too well 
known to need recounting here. He was born in 
Portland, Me., in 1807, graduated at Bowdoin 
College, and was for more than forty years pro- 
fessor of Belles Lettres in Harvard University. 
Died in Cambridge, March 4, 1882. Of his longer 
poems the most read and admired are his beautiful 
romance of "Evangeline," and his epic of "Hia- 
watha," but it is hardly too much to say that for 
the last sixty years, his "Psalm of Life" has been 
the common property of all American, if not 
English school-children, and a part of their edu- 
cation. When he was in London, Queen Victoria 
sent for him to come and see her at the palace. 
He went, and just as he was seating himself in the 
waiting coach after the interview, a man in working 
clothes appeared, hat in hand, at the coach window. 

"Please sir, yer honor," said he, "an* are you 
Mr. Longfellow ?" 

"I am Mr. Longfellow," said the poet. 

"An* did you write the Psalm of Life.''" he 
asked. 

"I wrote the Psalm of Life," replied the poet. 



CHRISTIAN BALLADS. 249 

"An*, yer honor, would you be willing to take 
a workingman by the hand?" 

Mr. Longfellow gave the honest Englishman a 
hearty handshake, "And" (said he in telling the 
story) "I never in my life received a compliment 
that gave me more satisfaction." 

The incident has a delightful democratic flavor 
— and it is perfectly characteristic of the amiable 
author of the most popular poem in the English 
language. The "Psalm of Life" is a wonderful 
example of the power of commonplaces put into 
tuneful and elegant verse. 

The thought of setting the poem to music came 
to the compiler of one of the Unitarian church 
singing books. Some will question, however, 
whether the selection was the happiest that could 
have been made. The tune is " Rathbun," Ithamar 
Conkey's melody that always recalls Sir John Bow- 
ring's great hymn of praise. 

" BUILD THEE MORE NOBLE MANSIONS. " 

This poem by Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, 
known among his works as "The Chambered 
Nautilus," was considered by himself as his 
worthiest achievement in verse, and his wish that 
it might live is likely to be fulfilled. It is stately, 
and in character and effect a rhythmic sermon 
from a text in "natural theology." The biography 
of one of the little molluscan sea-navigators that 
continually enlarges its shell to adapt it to its 



250 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

growth inspired the thoughtful lines. The third, 
fourth and fifth stanzas are as follows: 

Year after year beheld the silent toil 

That spread the lustrous coil; 

Still, as the spiral grew, 
He left the last year's dwelling for the new. 
Stole with soft step the shining archway through, 

Built up its idle door, 
Stretched in his last-found home, and knew the old no more. 

Thanks for the heavenly message brought by thee. 

Child of the wand'ring sea. 

Cast from her lap forlorn! 
From thy dead lips a clearer note is born 
Than ever Triton blew from wreathed horn! 

While on my ear it rings 
Through the deep caves of thought I hear a voice that sings, 

"Build thee more noble mansions, O my soul. 
As the swift seasons roll: 
Leave thy low-vaulted past! 
Let each new temple, nobler than the last. 
Shut thee from heaven with a dome more vast, 
Till thou at length art free, 
Leaving thy outgrown shell by life's unresting sea." 

Dr. Frederic Hedge included the poem in his 
hymn-book but without any singing-supplement to 
the words. 

WHITTIER'S SERVICE SONG. 



It may not be our lot to wield 
The sickle in the harvest field. 

If this stanza and the four following do not 
reveal all the strength of John G. Whittier*s spirit, 



CHRISTIAN BALLADS. 25I 

they convey its serious sweetness. The verses 
were loved and prized by both President Garfield 
and President McKinley. On the Sunday before 
the latter went from his Canton, O., home to his 
inauguration in Washington the poem was sung 
as a hymn at his request in the services at the 
Methodist church where he had been a constant 
worshipper. 

The second stanza is the one most generally 
recognized and oftenest quoted: 

Yet where our duty's task is wrought 
In unison with God's great thought, 
The near and future blend in one, 
And whatsoe'er is willed, is done. 

John Greenleaf Whittier, the poet of the 
oppressed, was born in Haverhill, Mass., 1807, 
worked on a farm and on a shoe-bench, and studied 
at the local academy, until, becoming of age, he 
went to Hartford, Conn., and began a brief 
experience in editorial life. Soon after his return 
to Massachusetts he was elected to the Legislature^ 
and after his duties ended there he left the state 
for Philadelphia to edit the Pennsylvania Free- 
man. A few years later he returned again, and 
estabHshed his home in Amesbury, the town with 
which his life and works are always associated. 

He died in 1892 at Hampton Falls, N. H., where 
he had gone for his health. 



252 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

THE TUNE. 

"Abends," the smooth triple-time choral joined 
to Whittier's poem by the music editor of the new 
Methodist Hymnal, speaks its meaning so well 
that it is scarcely worth while to look for another. 
Sir Herbert Stanley Oakeley, the composer, was 
born at Ealing, Eng., July 22, 1830, and educated 
at Rugby and Oxford. He studied music in 
Germany, and became a superior organist, winning 
great applause by his recitals at Edinburgh Uni- 
versity, where he was elected Musical Professor. 

Archbishop Tait gave him the doctorate of music at 
Canterbury in 1871, and he was knighted by Queen 
Victoria in 1876. 

Besides vocal duets, Scotch melodies and student 
songs, he composed many anthems and tunes for 
the church — notably "Edina" ("Saviour, blessed 
Saviour") and "Abends," originally written to Ke- 
ble's "Sun of my Soul." 

* THE BIRD WITH THE BROKEN PINION ." 

This lay of a lost gift, with its striking lesson, 
might have been copied from the wounded bird's 
own song, it is so natural and so clear-toned. 
The opportune thought and pen of Mr. Hezekiah 
Butterworth gave being to the little ballad the 
day he heard the late Dr. George Lorimer preach 
from a text in the story of Samson's fall (Judges 
16:21) "The Philistines took him, and put out 
his eyes, and brought him down to Gaza .... 



CHRISTIAN BALLADS. 253 

and he did grind in the prison-house." A sentence 
in the course of the doctor's sermon, "The bird 
with a broken pinion never soars as high again," 
was caught up by the Hstening author, and became 
the refrain of his impressive song. Rev. Frank M. 
Lamb, the tuneful evangehst, found it in print, and 
wrote a tune to it, and in his voice and the voices 
of other singers the little monitor has since told its 
story in revival meetings, and mission and gospel ser- 
vices throughout the land. 

I walked through the woodland meadows 

Where sweet the thrushes sing, 
And found on a bed of mosses 

A bird with a broken wing. 
I healed its wound, and each morning 

It sang its old sweet strain, 
But the bird with a broken pinion 

Never soared as high again. 

I found a young life broken 

By sin's seductive art; 
And, touched with a Christ-like pity, 

I took him to my heart. 
He lived — with a noble purpose, 

And struggled not in vain; 
But the life that sin had stricken 

Never soared as high again. 

But the bird with a broken pinion 

Kept another from the snare. 
And the life that sin had stricken 

Saved another from despair. 
Each loss has its compensation. 

There is healing for every pain 
But the bird with a broken pinion 

Never soars as high again. 



254 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

In the tune an extra stanza is added — as if 
something conventional were needed to make the 
poem a hymn. But the professional tone of the 
appended stanza, virtually all in its two lines — 

Then come to the dear Redeemer, 
He will cleanse you from every strain, 

— is forced into its connection. The poem told the 
truth, and stopped there; and should be left to 
fasten its own impression. There never was a 
more solemn warning uttered than in this little 
apologue. It promises " compensation " and " heal- 
ing,'* but not perfect rehabilitation. Sin will 
leave its scars. Even He who "became sin for us'* 
bore them in His resurrection body. 

Rev. Frank M. Lamb, composer and singer of 
the hymn-tune, was born in Poland, Me., i860, 
and educated in the schools of Poland and Auburn. 
He was licensed to preach in 1888, and ordained the 
same year, and has since held pastorates in Maine, 
New York, and Massachusetts. 

Besides his tune, very pleasing and appropri- 
ate music has been written to the little ballad of 
the broken wing by Geo. C. Stebbins. 

UNDER THE PALMS. 



In the cantata, "Under the Palms" ("Captive 
Judah in Babylon") — the joint production of 
George F. Root* and Hezekiah Butterworth, several 

♦See page 316. 




Ellen M, 
H. Gates 




i 



CHRISTIAN BALLADS. 255 

of the latter*s songs detached themselves, with their 
music, from the main work, and lingered in choral 
or solo service in places v^here the sacred operetta 
was presented, both in America and England. 
One of these is an effective solo in deep contralto, 
with a suggestion of recitative and chant — 

By the dark Euphrates' stream, 
By the Tigris, sad and lone 
I wandered, a captive maid; 
And the cruel Assyrian said, 
* 'Awake your harp's sweet tone!" 

I had heard of my fathers' glory from the lips of holy men. 
And I thought of the land of my fathers; I thought of my 
fathers' land then. 

Another is — 

O church of Christ! our blest abode, 

Celestial grace is thine. 
Thou art the dwelling-place of God, 

The gate of joy divine. 

Whene'er I come to thee in joy. 

Whene'er I come in tears. 
Still at the Gate called Beautiful 

My risen Lord appears. 

— ^with the chorus — 



Where'er for me the sun may set, 

Wherever I may dwell, 
My heart shall nevermore forget 

Thy courts, Immanuel! 



256 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

"IF YOU CANNOT ON THE OCEAN. " 

This popular Christian ballad, entitled "Your 
Mission," was written one stormy day in the win- 
ter of 1 861-2 by Miss Ellen M. Huntington (Mrs. 
Isaac Gates), and made her reputation as one of 
the few didactic poets whose exquisite art wins a 
hearing for them everywhere. In a moment of 
revery, while looking through the window at the 
falling snow, the words came to her: 

If you cannot on the ocean 
Sail among the swiftest fleet. 

She turned away and wrote the lines on her 
slate, following with verse after verse till she 
finished the whole poem. "It wrote itself," she 
says in her own account of it. 

Reading afterwards what she had written, she 
was surprised at her work. The poem had a meaning 
and a "mission." So strong was the impression 
that the devout girl fell on her knees and con- 
secrated it to a divine purpose. Free copies of it 
went to the Cooperstown, N. Y., local paper, and 
to the New York Examtner, and appeared in both. 
From that time the history and career of "Your 
Mission" presents a marked illustration of "catenal 
influence," or transmitted suggestion. 

In the later days of the Civil War Philip Phillips, 
who had a wonderfully sweet tenor voice, was invited 
to sing at a great meeting of the United States Chris- 
tian Commission in the Senate Chamber at Wash- 
ington, February, 1865, President Lincoln and 



CHRISTIAN BALLADS. 257 

Secretary Seward (then president of the commis- 
sion) were there, and the hall was crowded with 
leading statesmen, army generals, and friends of 
the Union. The song selected by Mr. Phillips was 
Mrs. Gates' ''Your Mission": 

If you cannot on the ocean 

Sail among the swiftest fleet, 
Rocking on the highest billows, 

Laughing at the storms you meet, 
You can stand among the sailors 

Anchored yet within the bay; 
You can lend a hand to help them 

As they launch their boats away. 

The hushed audience listened spell-bound as 
the sweet singer went on, their interest growing to 
feverish eagerness until the climax was reached 
in the fifth stanza: 

If you cannot in the conflict 

Prove yourself a soldier true, 
If where fire and smoke are thickest 

There's no work for you to do, 
When the battlefield is silent 

You can go with careful tread; 
You can bear away the wounded, 

You can cover up the dead. 

In the storm of enthusiasm that followed, Presi- 
dent Lincoln handed a hastily scribbled line on 
a bit of paper to Chairman Seward, 

"Near the close let us have *Your Mission' 
repeated." 

Mr. Phillips' great success on this occasion 
brought him so many calls for his services that he 



258 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

gave up everything and devoted himself to his 
tuneful art. **Your Mission" so gladly welcomed 
at Washington made him the first gospel songster, 
chanting round the world the divine message of the 
hymns. It was the singing by Philip Phillips that 
first impressed Ira D. Sankey with the amazing 
power of evangelical solo song, and helped him 
years later to resign his lucrative business as a 
revenue officer and consecrate his own rare vocal 
gift to the Christian ministry of sacred music. 
Heaven alone can show the birth-records of souls 
won to God all along the journeys of the "Singing 
Pilgrims," and the rich succession of Mr. Sankey's 
melodies, that can be traced back by a chain of 
causes to the poem that "wrote itself" and became 
a hymn. And the chain may not yet be complete. 
In the words of that providential poem — 

Though they may forget the singer 
They will not forget the song. 

Mrs. Ellen M. H. Gates, whose reputation as an 
author was made by this beautiful and always 
timely poem, was born in Torrington, Ct., and is 
the youngest sister of the late CoUis P. Huntington. 
Her hymns — included in this volume and in other 
publications — are much admired and loved, both 
for their sweetness and elevated religious feeling, 
and for their poetic quality. Among her published 
books of verse are "Night," "At Noontide," and 
"Treasures of Kurium." Her address is New 
York City. 



CHRISTIAN BALLADS. 259 

THE TUNE. 

Sidney Martin Grannis, author of the tune, was 
born Sept. 23, 1827, ^" Geneseo, Livingston county, 
N.Y. Lived in Leroy, of the same state, from 
1 83 1 to 1884, when he removed to Los Angeles, 
Cal., where several of his admirers presented him 
a cottage and grounds, which at last accounts he 
still occupies. Mr. Grannis won his first reputa- 
tion as a popular musician by his song "Do They 
Miss Me at Home, "and his " Only Waiting," 
"Cling to the Union," and "People Will Talk You 
Know," had an equally wide currency. As a solo 
singer his voice was remarkable, covering a range 
of two octaves, and while travelling with members 
of the "Amphion Troupe," to which he belonged, 
he sang at more than five thousand concerts. 
His tune to "Your Mission" was composed in New 
Haven, Ct., in 1864. 

" TOO LATE! TOO LATE! YE CANNOT ENTER NOW ." 

"Too Late" is a thrilling fragment or side-song 
of Alfred Tennyson's, representing the vain plea 
of the five Foolish Virgins. Its tune bears the 
name of a London lady, "Miss Lindsay" (after- 
wards Mrs. J. Worthington Bliss). The arrange- 
ment of air, duo and quartet is very impressive*. 

**Late, late, so late! and dark the night and chill: 
Late, late, so late! but we can enter still." 
"Too late! too late! ye cannot enter now!" 

*Methodfst Hymnal, No. 743. 



26o STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

"No light! so late! and dark and chill the night — 
O let us in that we may find the light!" 
"Too late! too late! ye cannot enter now!" 

4c * * 4: :tc ^ 

"Have we not heard the Bridegroom Is so sweet? 
O let us in that we may kiss his feet!" 
"No, No — ! too late! ye cannot enter now!" 

The words are found in "Queen Guinevere," a 
canto of the "Idyls of the King." 

" OH, GALILEE, SWEET GALILEE . " 

This is the chorus of a charming poem of three 
stanzas that shaped itself in the mind of Mr. 
Robert Morris while sitting over the ruins on the 
traditional site of Capernaum by the Lake of 
Genneseret. 

Each cooing dove, each sighing bough. 
That makes the eve so blest to me, 

Has something far diviner now. 
It bears me back to Gahlee. 

Chorus 

Oh, Galilee, sweet Galilee, 

Where Jesus loved so much to be; 

Oh, Galilee, blue Galilee, 

Come sing thy song again to me. 

Robert Morris, LL.D., born Aug. 31, 18 18, 
was a scholar, and an expert in certain scientific 
subjects, and wrote works on numismatics and the 
*' Poetry of Free Masonry.*' Commissioned to 
Palestine in 1868 on historic and archeological 
service for the United Order, he explored the 



CHRISTIAN BALLADS. 261 

scenes of ancient Jewish and Christian Hfe and 
event in the Holy Land, and being a religious man, 
followed the Saviour's earthly footsteps with a 
reverent zeal that left its inspiration with him 
while he lived. He died in the year 1888, but his 
Christian ballad secured him a lasting place in 
every devout memory. 

THE TUNE, 

The author wrote out his hymn in 1874 and 
sent it to his friend, the musician, Mr. Horatio R. 
Palmer,* and the latter learned it by heart, and 
carried it with him in his musings "till it floated out 
in the melody you know," (to use his own words.) 

♦See page 311. 



CHAPTER VII. 



OLD REVIVAL HYMNS. 



The sober churches of the "Old Thirteen" 
states and of their successors far into the nineteenth 
century, sustained evening prayer-meetings more 
or less commonly, but necessity made them in 
most cases "cottage meetings," appointed on 
Sunday and here and there in the scattered homes 
of country parishes. Their intent was the same 
as that of "revival meetings," since so called, 
though the method — and the music — ^were dif- 
erent. The results in winning sinners, so far as 
they owed anything to the hymns and hymn- 
tunes, were apt to be a new^ generation of Christian 
recruits as sombre as the singing. "Lebanon" 
set forth the appalling shortness of human life; 
"Windham" gave its depressing story of the great 
majority of mankind on the "broad road," and 
other minor tunes proclaimed God's sovereignty 
and eternal decrees; or if a psalm had His love in 
it, it was likely to be sung in a similar melancholy 
key. Even in his gladness the good minister, 
Thomas Baldwin, of the Second Baptist Church, 

(262) 



OLD REVIVAL HYMNS. 263 

at Boston, North End, returning from Newport, 
N. H., where he had happily harmonized a dis- 
cordant church, could not escape the strait-lace 
of a C minor for his thankful hymn — 

From whence doth this union arise, 
That hatred is conquered by love. 

"The Puritans took their pleasures seriously," 
and this did not cease to be true till at least two 
hundred years after the Pilgrims landed or Boston 
was founded. 

Time, that covered the ghastly faces on the old 
grave-stones with moss, gradually stole away the 
unction of minor-tune singing. 

The songs of the great revival of 1740 swept the 
country with positive rather than negative music. 
Even Jonathan Edwards admitted the need of bet- 
ter psalm-books and better psalmody. 

Edwards, during his life, spent some time among 
the Indians as a missionary teacher; but probably 
neither he nor David Brainerd ever saw a Christian 
hymn composed by an Indian. The following, 
from the early years of the last century, is appar- 
ently the first, certainly the only surviving, effort 
of a converted but half-educated red man to utter 
his thoughts in pious metre. Whoever trimmed 
the original words and measure into printable 
shape evidently took care to preserve the broken 
English of the simple convert. It is an interesting 
relic of the Christian thought and sentiment of a 
pagan just learning to prattle prayer and praise: 



264 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

In de dark wood, no Indian nigh, 
Den me look heaben, send up cry. 

Upon my knees so low. 
Dat God on high, in shinee place, 
See me in night, with teary face, 

De priest, he tell me so. 

God send Him angel take me care; 
Him come Heself and hear um prayer, 

If Indian heart do pray. 
God see me now, He know me here. 
He say, poor Indian, neber fear. 

Me wid you night and day. 

So me lub God wid inside heart; 
He fight for me, He take my part. 

He save my life before. 
God lub poor Indian in de wood; 
So me lub God, and dat be good; 

Me pray Him two times more. 

When me be old, me head be gray. 
Den He no lebe me, so He say: 

Me wid you till you die. 
Den take me up to shinee place. 
See white man, red man, black man's face. 

All happy 'like on high. 

Few days, den God will come to me. 
He knock off chains. He set me free. 

Den take me up on high. 
Den Indian sing His praises blest. 
And lub and praise Him wid de rest. 

And neber, neber cry. 

The above hymn, which may be found in dif- 
ferent forms in old New England tracts and hymn- 
books, and which used to be sung in Methodist con- 



OLD REVIVAL HYMNS. 265 

ference and prayer-meetings in the same v^ay that 
old slave-hymns and the *' Jubilee Singers'* re- 
frains are sometimes sung now, was composed by 
William Apes, a converted Indian, who was born 
in Massachusetts, in 1798. His father was a white 
man, but married an Indian descended from the 
family of King Philip, the Indian warrior, and the 
last of the Indian chiefs. His grandmother was the 
king's granddaughter, as he claimed, and was fa- 
mous for her personal beauty. He caused his auto- 
biography and religious experience to be published. 
The original hymn is quite long, and contains some 
singular and characteristic expressions. 

The authorship of the tune to which the words 
Were sung has been claimed for Samuel Cowdell, a 
schoolmaster of Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, 
1820, but the date of the lost tune was probably 
much earlier 

In the early days of New England, before the 
Indian missions had been brought to an end by the 
sweeping away of the tribes, several fine hymns 
were composed by educated Indians, and were 
used in the churches. The best known is that be- 
ginning — 

When shall we all meet again ? 

It was composed by three Indians at the planting 
of a memorial pine on leaving Dartmouth College, 
where they had been studying. The lines indicate 
an expectation of missionary life and work. 

When shall we all meet again ? 
When shall we all meet again ? 



266 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Oft shall glowing hope expire, 
Oft shall wearied love retire, 
Oft shall death and sorrow reign 
Ere we all shall meet again. 

Though in distant lands we sigh, 
Parched beneath a burning sky, 
Though the deep between us rolls. 
Friendship shall unite our souls; 
And in fancy's wide domain. 
There we all shall meet again. 

When these burnished locks are gray. 
Thinned by many a toil-spent day, 
When around this youthful pine 
Moss shall creep and ivy twine, 
(Long may this loved bower remain!) 
Here may we all meet again. 

When the dreams of life are fled, 
When its wasted lamps are dead, 
When in cold oblivion's shade 
Beauty, health, and strength are laid. 
Where immortal spirits reign, 
There we all shall meet again. 

This parting piece was sung in religious meet- 
ings as a hymn, like the other once so common, but 
later, — 

*'When shall we meet again. 
Meet ne'er to sever r' 

— to a tune in B flat minor, excessively plaintive, and 
likely to sadden an emoional singer or hearer to 
tears. The full harmony is found in the American 
Vocalist, and the air is reprinted in the Revivalist 
(1868). The fact that minor music is the natural 



I 



OLD REVIVAL HYMNS. 267 

Indian tone in song makes it probable that the 
melody is as ancient as the hymn — though no date 
is given for either. 

Tradition says that nearly fifty years later the 
same three Indians v^ere providentially drawn to 
the spot w^here they parted, and met again, and 
v^hile they v^ere together composed and sang an- 
other ode. Truth to tell, however, it had only one 
note of gladness, and that was in the first stanza: 

Parted many a toil-spent year, 
Pledged in youth to memory dear, 
Still to friendship's magnet true, 
We our social joys renew; 
Bound by love's unsevered chain. 
Here on earth we meet again. 

The remaining three stanzas dwell principally on 
the ravages time has made . The reunion ode of those 
stoical college classmates of a stoical race could 
have been sung in the same B flat minor. 

"AWAKED BY SINAI'S AWFUL SOUND.' * 

The name of the Indian, Samson Occum, who 
wrote this hymn (variously spelt Ockom, Ockum, 
Occam, Occom) is not borne by any public insti- 
tution, but New England owes the foundation of 
Dartmouth College to his hard work. Dartmouth 
College was originally "Moore's Indian Charity 
School," organized (1750) in Lebanon, Ct., by Rev. 
Eleazer Wheelock and endowed (1755) by Joshua 
Moore (or More). Good men and women who 



268 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

had at heart the spiritual welfare of a fading race 
contributed to the school's support and young 
Indians resorted to it from both New England and 
the Middle States, but funds were insufficient, and 
it was foreseen that the charity must inevitably 
outgrow its missionary purpose and if continued at 
all must depend on a wider and more liberal pat- 
ronage. 

Samson Occum was born in Mohegan, New 
London Co., Ct., probably in the year 1722. Con- 
verted from paganism in 1740 (possibly under the 
preaching of Whitefield, who was in this country 
at that time) he desired to become a missionary to 
his people, and entered Eleazer Wheelock's school. 
After four years study, then a young man of twenty- 
two, he began to teach and preach among the Mon- 
tauk Indians, and in 1759 the Presbytery of Suffolk 
Co., L. I., ordained him to the ministry. A benevo- 
lent society in Scotland, hearing of his ability and 
zeal, gave him an appointment, under its auspices, 
among the Oneidas in 1761, where he labored 
four years. The interests of the school at Lebanon, 
where he had been educated, were dear to him, and 
he was tireless in its cause, procuring pupils for it, 
and working eloquently as its advocate with voice 
and pen. In 1765 he crossed the Atlantic to so- 
licit funds for the Indian school, and remained 
four years in England and Scotland, lecturing in its 
behalf, and preaching nearly four hundred ser- 
mons. As a result he raised ten thousand pounds. 
The donation was put in charge of a Board of 



OLD REVIVAL HYMNS. 269 

Trustees of which Lord Dartmouth wzs chairman. 
When it wzs decided to remove the school from 
Lebanon, Ct., the efforts of Governor Wentworth, of 
New Hampshire, secured its location at Hanover in 
that state. It was christened after Lord Dartmouth 
— and the names of Occum, Moore and Wheelock 
retired into the encyclopedias. 

The Rev. Samson Occum died in 1779, while 
laboring among the Stockbridge (N. Y.) Indians. 
Several hymns were written by this remarkable 
man, and also "An Account of the Customs and 
Manners of the Montauks. " The hymn, " Awaked 
by Sinai's Awful Sound," set to the stentorian tune 
of "Ganges," was a tremendous sermon in itself 
to old-time congregations, and is probably as indic- 
ative of the doctrines which converted its writer as 
of the cotemporary belief prominent in choir and 
pulpit. 

Awaked by Sinai's awful sound, 

My soul in bonds of guilt I found, 
And knew not where to go. 

Eternal truth did loud proclaim 

"The sinner must be born again, 
Or sink in endless woe." 

When to the law I trembling fled, 
It poured its curses on my head: 

I no relief could find. 
This fearful truth increased my pain, 
"The sinner must be born again," 

And whelmed my troubled mind. 

+ **%** 



270 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

But while I thus in anguish lay, 
Jesus of Nazareth passed that way; 

I felt His pity move. 
The sinner, once by justice slain, 
Now by His grace is born again. 

And sings eternal Love! 

The rugged original has been so often and so 
variously altered and ** toned down," that only a 
few unusually accurate aged memories can re- 
call it. The hymn began going out of use fifty 
years ago, and is now seldom seen. 

The name "S. Chandler," attached to "Ganges," 
leaves the identity of the composer in shadow. It 
is supposed he was born in 1760. The tune ap- 
peared about 1790. 

'' WHERE NOW ARE THE HEBREW CHILDREN ? " 

This quaint old unison, repeating the above three 
times, followed by the answer (thrice repeated) and 
climaxed with — 

Safely in the Promised Land, 

— was a favorite at ancient camp-meetings, and a 
good leader could keep it going in a congregation 
or a happy group of vocalists, improvising a new 
start-line after every stop until his memory or in- 
vention gave out. 

They went up from the fiery furnace, 
They went up from the fiery furnace, 
They went up from the fiery furnace, 
Safely to the Promised Land. 



OLD REVIVAL HYMNS. 2/1 

Sometimes it was — 

Where now is the good Elijah ? 

— and, — 

He went up in a chariot of fire; 

— and again, — 

Where now is the good old Daniel ? 

He went up from the den of lions; 

— and so on, finally announcing — 

By and by we'll go home for to meet him, [three times] 
Safely in the Promised Land. 

The enthusiasm excited by the swinging rhythm of 
the tune sometimes rose to a passionate pitch, and 
it was seldom used in the more controlled relig- 
ious assemblies. If any attempt was ever made to 
print the song* the singers had little need to read 
the music. Like the ancient runes, it came into 
being by spontaneous generation, and lived in pho- 
netic tradition. 

A strange, wild paean of exultant song was one 
often heard from Peter Cartwright, the muscular 
circuit-preacher. A remembered fragment shows 
its quality: 

Then my soul mounted higher 

In a chariot of fire, 
And the moon it was under my feet. 

There is a tradition that he sang it over a stalwart 
blacksmith while chastising him for an ungodly de- 

*Mr. Hubert P. Main believes he once saw "The Hebrew Children" in 
print in one of Horace Waters' editions of the Sabbath Bell. 



272 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

fiance and assault in the course of one of his gospel 
journeys — and that the defeated blacksmith became 
his friend and follower. 

Peter Cartwright was born in Amherst county, 
Va., Sept. I, 1785, and died near Pleasant Plains, 
Sangamon county, 111., Sept., 1872. 

" THE EDEN OF LOVE. '* 

This song, written early in the last century, by 
John J. Hicks, recalls the name of the eccentric 
traveling evangelist, Lorenzo Dow, born in Co- 
ventry, Ct., October 16, 1777; died in Washington, 
D. C, Feb. 2, 1834. It was the favorite hymn of his 
wife, the beloved Peggy Dow, and has furnished 
the key-word of more than one devotional rhyme 
that has uplifted the toiling souls of rural evan- 
gelists and their greenwood congregations: 

How sweet to reflect on the joys that await me 

In yon blissful region, the haven of rest, 
Where glorified spirits with welcome shall greet me, 

And lead me to mansions prepared for the blest. 
There, dwelling in light, and with glory enshrouded, 

My happiness perfect, my mind's sky unclouded, 
I'll bathe in the ocean of pleasure unbounded. 

And range with delight through the Eden of love. 

The words and tune were printed in Leaviti's 
Christian Lyre, 1830. 

The same strain in the same metre is continued in 
the hymn of Rev. Wm. Hunter, D. D., (1842) printed 
in his Minstrel of Zion (1845). J* ^' Dadmun's 
Melodian (i860) copied it, retaining, apparently, 



OLD REVIVAL HYMNS. 273 

the original music, with an added refrain of invita- 
tion, ''Will you go ? will you go ?" 

We are bound for the land of the pure and the holy, 
The home of the happy, the kingdom of love; 

Ye wand'rers from God on the broad road of folly, 
O say, will you go to the Eden above ? 

The old hymn-tune has a brisk out-door delivery, 
and is full of revival fervor and the ozone of the 
pines. 

*' CANA-AN, BRIGHT CANA-AN ^* 

Was one of the stimulating melodies of the old-time 
awakenings, which were simply airs, and were sung 
unisonously. "OCana-an" (pronounced in three 
syllables) was the chorus, the hymn-lines being 
either improvised or picked up miscellaneously 
from memory, the interline, "I am bound for the 
land of Cana-an,'' occurring between every two. 
John Wesley's "How happy is the pilgrim's lot" 
was one of the snatched stanzas swept into the 
current of the song. An example of the tune- 
leader's improvisations to keep the hymn going 
was — 

If you get there before I do, — 

/ am hound for the land of Cana-an! 

Look out for me, I'm coming too — 
/ am hound for the land of Cana-an! 

And then hymn and tune took possession of the 
assembly and rolled on in a circle with — 

Cana-an, bright Cana-an! 

1 am bound for the land of Cana-an; 



274 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Cana-an it is my hap-py home, 

1 am bound for the land of Cana-an 

— till the voices came back to another starting-line 
and began again. There was always a movement 
to the front when that tune was sung, and — with all 
due abatement for superficial results in the sen- 
sation of the moment — it is undeniable that many 
souls were truly born into the kingdom of God un- 
der the sound of that rude woodland song. 

Both its words and music are credited to Rev. John 
Maffit, who probably wrote the piece about 1829. 

" A CHARGE TO KEEP I HAVE . " 

This hymn of Charles Wesley was often heard 
at the camp grounds, from the rows of tents in the 
morning while the good women prepared their 
pancakes and coffee, and 

THE TUNE. 

was invariably old "Kentucky," by Jeremiah In- 
galls. Sung as a solo by a sweet and spirited voice, it 
slightly resembled "Golden Hill," but oftener its 
halting bars invited a more draw^ling style of execu- 
tion unworthy of a hymn that merits a tune like 
"St.Thomas." 

Old "Kentucky" was not field music. 

" CHRISTIANS, IF YOUR HEARTS ARE WARM. " 

Elder John Leland, born in Grafton, Mass., 1 754, 
was not only a strenuous personality in the Baptist 



OLD REVIVAL HYMNS. 275 

denomination, but was well known everywhere in 
New England, and, in fact, his preaching trip to 
Washington (1801) w^ith the "Cheshire Cheese" 
made his fame national. He is spoken of as "the 
minister who wrote his own hymns" — a peculiarity 
In which he imitated Watts and Doddridge. When 
some natural shrinking was manifest in converts of 
his winter revivals, under his rigid rule of imme- 
diate baptism, he wrote this hymn to fortify them: 

Christians, if your hearts are warm, 
Ice and cold can do no harm; 
If by Jesus you are prized 
Rise, believe and be baptized. 

He found use for the hymn, too. In rallying 
church-members who staid away from his meetings 
In bad weather. The "poetry" expressed what he 
wanted to say — which, in his view, was sufficient 
apology for it. It was sung in revival meetings like 
others that he wrote, and a few hymnbooks now 
long obsolete contained It; but of Leland's hymns 
only one survives. Gray-headed men and women 
remember being sung to sleep by their mothers 
with that old-fashioned evening song to Amzi 
Chapln's* tune — 

The day is past and gone, 

The evening shades appear, 
O may we all remember well 

The night of death draws near; 

*Amzi Chapin has left, apparently, nothing more than the record of his 
birth, March 2, 1768, and the memory of his tune. It appeared as early as 
1805. 



276 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

— and with all its solemnity and other-worldness it 
is dear to recollection, and its five stanzas are lov- 
ingly hunted up in the (ev/ hymnals where it is found. 
BT2idhury's" Bidden,'' {Baptist Praise Book, 1873,) 
is one of its tunes. 

Elder Leland was a remarkable revival preacher, 
and his prayers — as was said of Elder Jabez Swan's 
fifty or sixty years later — "brought heaven and 
earth together.'' He traveled through the Eastern 
States as an evangelist, and spent a season in 
Virginia in the same work. In 1801 he revisited 
that region on a curious errand. The farmers of 
Cheshire, Mass., where Leland was then a settled 
pastor, conceived the plan of sending "the biggest 
cheese in America" to President Jefferson, and 
Leland (who was a good democrat) offered to go 
to Washington on an ox-team with it, and " preach 
all the way" — which he actually did. 

The cheese weighed 1450 lbs. 

Elder Leland died in North Adams, Mass., Jan. 
14, 1844. Another of his hymns, which deserved to 
live with his "Evening Song," seemed to be answered 
in the brightness of his death-bed hope: 

O when shall I see Jesus 
And reign with Him above, 

And from that flowing fountain 
Drink everlasting love .? 

"AWAKE, MY SOUL, TO JOYFUL LAYS. " 

This glad hymn of Samuel Medley is his thanks- 
giving song, written soon after his conversion. In 



OLD REVIVAL HYMNS. 2/7 

the places of rural v^^orshlp no lay of Christian 
praise and gratitude was ever more heartily sung 
than this at the testimony meetings. 

Awake, my soul, to joyful lays, 
And sing thy great Redeemer's praise; 
He justly claims a song from me: 
His loving-kindness, oh, how free! 
Loving-kindness, loving-kindness. 
His loving-kindness, oh, how free! 

THE TUNE, 

With its queer curvet in every second line, had no 
other name than "Loving-Kindness," and w^as 
probably a camp-meeting melody in use for some 
time before its publication. It is found in Leavitt' s 
Christian Lyre as early as 1830. The name 
"William Caldwell" is all that is known of its com- 
poser, though he is supposed to have lived in 
Tennessee. 

" THE LORD INTO HIS GARDEN COMES. " 

Was a common old-time piece sure to be heard at 
every religious rally, and every one present, saint and 
sinner, had it by heart, or at least the chorus of it — 

Amen, amen, my soul replies, 
I'm bound to meet you in the skies. 
And claim my mansion there, etc. 

The anonymous* "Garden Hymn, as old, at 



*A "Rev." Mr. Campbell, author of "The Glorious Light of Zion," "There 
is a Holy City," and "There is a Land of Pleasure," has been sometimes 
credited with the origin of the Garden Hymn. 



278 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

least, as 1800," has nearly passed out of reach, 
except by the long arm of the antiquary; but it 
served its generation. 

Its vigorous tune is credited to Jeremiah Ingalls 

(1764-1838). 

The Lord Into His garden comes; 
The spices yield a rich perfume, 

The liHes grow and thrive, 

The hhes grow and thrive. 
Refreshing showers of grace divine 
From Jesus flow to every vine, 

Which makes the dead revive. 

Which makes the dead revive. 

" THE CHARIOT! THE CHARIOT! " 

Henry Hart Milman, generally known as Dean 
Milman, was born in 1791, and w^as educated at 
Oxford. In 1821 he was installed as university 
professor of poetry at Oxford, and it was while 
filling this position that he wrote this celebrated 
hymn, under the title of " The Last Day." It is not 
only a hymn, but a poem — a sublime ode that re- 
calls, in a different movement, the tones of the 
"Dies Irae.'' 

Dean Milman (of St Paul's), besides his many 
striking poems and learned historical works, wrote 
at least twelve hymns, among which are — 

Ride on, ride on in majesty, 

O help us Lord; each hour of need 
Thy heavenly succor give. 

When our heads are bowed with woe. 



OLD REVIVAL HYMNS. 279 

— which last may have been written soon after he laid 
three of his children in one grave, in the north 
aisle of Westminister Abbey. He lived a laborious 
and useful life of seventy-seven years, dying Sept. 
24, 1868. 

There were times in the old revivals when the 
silver clarion of the "Chariot Hymn" must needs 
replace the ruder blast of Occum in old "Ganges" 
and sinners unmoved by the invisible God of Horeb 
be made to behold Him — in a vision of the " Last 
Day." 

The Chariot! the Chariot! its wheels roll in fire 
When the Lord cometh down in the pomp of His ire, 
Lo, self-moving, it drives on its pathway of cloud, 
And the heavens with the burden of Godhead are bowed. 

He 4: He 4: * H: 

The Judgment! the Judgment! the thrones are all set, 
Where the Lamb and the white-vested elders are met; 
There all flesh is at once in the sight of the Lord, 
And the doom of eternity hangs on His word. 

The name "Williams" or "J.Williams" is attached 
to various editions of the trumpet-like tune, but 
so far no guide book gives us location, date or sketch 
of the composer. 

" COME, MY BRETHREN . " 

Another of the "unstudied" revival hymns of 
invitation. 

Come, my brethren, let us try 

For a little season 
Every burden to lay by, 
Come and let us reason. 



28o STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

What is this that casts you down, 

What is this that grieves you ? 
Speak and let your wants be known; 

Speaking may relieve you. 

This colloquial rhyme was apt to be started by 
some good brother or sister in one of the chill) 
pauses of a prayer-meeting. The air (there was 
never anything more to it) with a range of only a 
fifth, slurred the last syllable of every second line, 
giving the quaint effect of a bent note, and al- 
together the music was as homely as the verse. Both 
are anonymous. But the little chant sometimes 
served its purpose wonderfully well. 

" BRETHREN, WHILE WE SOJOURN HERE ." 

This hymn was always welcome in the cottage 
meetings as well as in the larger greenwood 
assemblies. It was written by Rev. Joseph Swain, 
about 1783. 

Brethren, while we sojourn here 
Fight we must, but should not fear. 
Foes we have, but we've a Friend, 
One who loves us to the end; 
Forward then with courage go; 
Long we shall not dwell below. 
Soon the joyful news will come, 
* 'Child, your Father calls, 'Come home.'" 

The tune was sometimes "Pleyel's Hymn,*' 
but oftener it was sung to a melody now generally 
forgotten of much the same movement but slurred 
in peculiarly sweet and tender turns. The cadence 



OLD REVIVAL HYMNS. 281 

of the last tune gave the refrain line a melting 
effect : 

Child, your Father calls, "Come home. '* 

Some of the spirit of this old tune (in the few 
hymnals v^here the hymn is now printed) is pre- 
served in Geo. Kingsley's "Messiah" which accom- 
panies the words, but the modulations are wanting. 

Joseph Swain was born in Birmingham, Eng. 
in 1 76 1. Bred among mechanics, he was early 
apprenticed to the engraver's trade, but he was a 
boy of poetic temperament and fond of writing 
verses. After the spiritual change which brought 
a new purpose into his life, he was baptized by Dr. 
Rippon and studied for the ministry. At the age 
of about twenty-five, he was settled over the Baptist 
church in Walworth, where he remained till his 
death, April i6, 1796. 

For more than a century his hymns have lived 
and been loved in all the English-speaking world. 
Among those still in use are — 

How sweet, how heavenly is the sight. 

Pilgrims we are to Canaan bound, 

O Thou in whose presence my soul takes delight. 

" HAPPY DAY. " 

O happy day that fixed my choice. 

— Doddridge. 
O how happy are they who the Saviour obey. 

— Charles Wesley. 



282 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

These were voices as sure to be heard in con- 
verts' meetings as the leader's prayer or text, the 
former sung inevitably to Rimbault's tune, 
"Happy Day," and the latter to a "Western Mel- 
ody" quite as closely akin to Wesley's words. 

Edward Francis Rimbault, born at Soho, Eng., 
June 13, 18 16, was at sixteen years of age organist 
at the Soho Swiss Church, and became a skilled 
though not a prolific composer. He once received 
— and declined — the offer of an appointment as 
professor of music in Harvard College. Died of a 
lingering illness Sept. 26, 1876. 

*' COME, HOLY SPIRIT, HEAVENLY DOVE. " 

—Watts. 

This was the immortal song-litany that fitted 
almost anywhere into every service. The Presby- 
terians and Congregationalists sang it in Tansur's 
"St. Martins," the Baptists in William Jones' 
"Stephens" and the Methodists in Maxim's 
"Turner" (which had the most music), but the 
hymn went about as well with one as with another. 

The Rev. William Jones (i 726-1 800) an English 
rector, and Abraham Maxim of Buckfield, Me., 
(i 773-1829) contributed quite a liberal share of 
the "continental" tunes popular in the latter part 
of the 1 8th century. Maxim was eccentric, but 
the tradition that an unfortunate affair of the heart 
once drove him into the woods to make away with 
himself, but a bird on the roof of a logger's hut, 



OLD REVIVAL HYMNS. 283 

making plaintive sounds, interrupted him, and he 
sat dow^n and wrote the tune "Hallowell," on a 
strip of white birch bark, is more Hkely legend- 
ary. The following words, said to have inspired 
his minor tune, are still set to it in the old collec- 
tions ; 

As on some lonely building's top 

The sparrow makes her moan, 
Far from the tents of joy and hope 

I sit and grieve alone.* 

Maxim was fond of the minor mode, but his 
minors, like "Hallowell," "New Durham," etc., 
are things of the past. His major chorals and 
fugues, such as "Portland," "Buckfield," and 
"Turner" had in them the spirit of healthier 
melody and longer life. He published at least two 
collections. The Oriental Harmony, in 1802, and 
The Northern Harmony, in 1 805. 

William Tansur (Tans-ur), author of "St. Mar- 
tins" (1669-1783), was an organist, composer, com- 
piler, and theoretical writer. He was born at 
Barnes, Surrey, Eng., (according to one account,) 
and died at St. Neot's. 

*^ COME, THOU FOUNT OF EVERY BLESSING ." 

This hymn of Rev. Robert Robinson was almost 
always heard in the tune of "Nettleton," com- 
posed by John Wyeth, about 1812. The more 

♦Versified by Nahum Tate from Ps. 102: 7. 



284 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

wavy melody of "Sicily'* (or "Sicilian Hymn") 
sometimes carried the verses, but never with the 
same sympathetic unction. The sing-song move- 
ment and accent of old *'Nettleton" made it the 
country favorite. 

Robert Robinson, born in Norfolk, Eng., Sept. 
27, 1735, was a poor boy, left fatherless at eight 
years of age, and apprenticed to a barber, but was 
converted by the preaching of Whitefield and 
studied till he obtained a good education, and was 
ordained to the Methodist ministry. He is 
supposed to have written his well-known hymn in 
1758. A certain unsteadiness of mind, however, 
caused him to revise his religious beliefs too often 
for his spiritual health or enjoyment, and after 
preaching as a Methodist, a Baptist, and an 
Independent, he finally became a Socinian. On 
a stage-coach journey, when a lady fellow-passen- 
ger began singing "Come, Thou Fount of Every 
Blessing," to relieve the monotony of the ride, he 
said to her, "Madam, I am the unhappy man 
who wrote that hymn many years ago; and I 
would give a thousand worlds, if I had them, if I 
could feel as I felt then." 

Robinson died June 9, 1790. 

John Wyeth was born in Cambridge, Mass., 
1792, and died at Harrisburg, Pa., 1858. He was 
a musician and publisher, and issued a Music 
Book, Wyeth^s Repository of Sacred Music, 



OLD REVIVAL HYMNS. 285 

" A POOR WAYFARING MAN OF GRIEF /* 

Written by James Montgomery, Dec, 1826, was a 
hymn of tide and headway in George Coles' tune of 
**Duane St.," with a step that made every heart 
beat time. The four picturesque eight-Hne stanzas 
made a practical sermon in verse and song from 
Matt. 25:35, telHng how— 

A poor wayfaring man of grief 

Hath often crossed me on my way. 
Who sued so humbly for relief 

That I could never answer nay. 
I had no power to ask his name, 

Whither he went or whence he came, 
Yet there was something in his eye 

That won my love, I knew not why; 

— and in the second and third stanzas the narrator 
relates how he entertained him, and this was the 
sequel — 

Then in a moment to my view 
The stranger started from disguise 

The token in His hands I knew; 
My Saviour stood before my eyes. 

When once that song was started, every tongue 
took it up, (and it was strange if every foot did 
not count the measure,) and the coldest kindled 
with gospel warmth as the story swept on.* 

♦Montgomery's poem, "The Stranger," has seven stanzas. The full dra- 
matic effect of their connection could only be produced by a set piece. 



286 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

"WHEN FOR ETERNAL WORLDS I STEER. " 

It was no solitary experience for hearers in a 
house of prayer where the famous Elder Swan held 
the pulpit, to feel a climactic thrill at the sudden 
breaking out of the eccentric orator with this song 
in the very middle of his sermon — 

When for eternal worlds I steer, 
And seas are calm and skies are clear, 
And faith in lively exercise. 
And distant hills of Canaan rise, 
My soul for joy then claps her wings, 
And loud her lovely sonnet sings, 
"Vain world, adieu!" 

With cheerful hope her eyes explore 
Each landmark on the distant shore. 
The trees of life, the pastures green, 
The golden streets, the crystal stream, 
Again for joy, she claps her wings. 
And loud her lovely sonnet sings, 
"Vain world, adieu!" 

Elder Jabez Swan was born in Stonington, Ct., 
Feb. 23, 1800, and died 1884. ^^ ^"^^^ ^ tireless 
worker as a pastor (long in New London, Ct.,) and 
a still harder toiler in the field as an evangelist and 
as a helper eagerly called for in revivals; and, 
through all, he was as happy as a boy in vacation. 
He was unlearned in the technics of the schools, 
but always eloquent and armed with ready wit; 
unpolished, but poetical as a Hebrew prophet and 
as terrible in his treatment of sin. Scoffers and 
"hoodlums'* who interrupted him in his meetings 
never interrupted him but once. 



OLD REVIVAL HYMNS. 287 

The more Important and canonical hymnals and 
praise-books had no place for *' Sonnet," as the 
bugle-like air to this hymn was called. Rev. 
Jonathan Aldrich, about i860, harmonized it in 
his Sacred Lyre, but this, and the few other old 
vestry and field manuals that contain it, were com- 
piled before it became the fashion to date and 
authenticate hymns and tunes. In this case both 
are anonymous. Another (and probably earlier) 
tune sung to the same words is credited to "S. 
Arnold," and appears to have been composed 
about 1790. 

" rM A PILGRIM, AND FM A STRANGER. '' 

This hymn still lives — and is likely to live, at 
least in collections that print revival music. Mrs. 
Mary Stanley (Bunce) Dana, born in Beaufort, 
S.C., Feb. 15, 1810, wrote it while living in a 
northern state, where her husband died. By the 
name Dana she is known in hymnology, though 
she afterwards became Mrs. Shindler. The tune 
identified with the hymn, "I'm a Pilgrim," is 
untraced, save that it is said to be an "Italian 
Air," and that its original title was " Buono Notte" 
(good night). 

No other hymn better expresses the outreaching 
of ardent faith. Its very repetitions emphasize and 
sweeten the vision of longed-for fruition. 

I can tarry, I can tarry but a night, 
Do not detain me, for I am going. 






288 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

There the sunbeams are ever shining, 

O my longing heart, my longing heart is there. 

9|c :4c * * * * 

Of that country to which I'm going. 
My Redeemer, my Redeemer is the light. 
There is no sorrow, nor any sighing, 
Nor any sin there, nor any dying, 
I'm a pilgrim, etc. 

The same devout poetess also wrote (1840) the 
once popular consolatory hymn, — 

O sing to me of heaven 
When I'm about to die, 

— sung to the familiar tune by Rev. E. W. Dunbar; 
also to a melody composed 1854 by Dr. William 
Miller. 

The line w^as first written — 

When / am called to die, 

— in the author's copy. The hymn (occasioned by 
the death of a pious friend) was written Jan. 
15, 1840. 

Mrs. Dana (Shindler) died in Texas, Feb. 8, 
1883. 

** JOYFULLY, JOYFULLY ONWARD I MOVE. " 

The maker of this hymn has been confounded 
with the maker of its tune — partly, perhaps, from 
the fact that the real composer of the tune also 
wrote hymns. The author of the words was the 
Rev. William Hunter, D.D., an Irish-American, 



OLD REVIVAL HYMNS. 289 

and a Methodist minister. He v^as born near 
Ballymoney, County Antrim, Ire., May, 1811, and 
was brought to America when a child six years 
old. He received his education in the common 
schools and at Madison College, Hamilton, N. Y., 
(now Madison University), and was successively 
a pastor, editor and Hebrew professor. Besides 
his work in these different callings, he wrote many 
helpful hymns — in all one hundred and twenty- 
five — of which "Joyfully, Joyfully," dated 1842, 
is the best. It began originally with the line, — 

Friends fondly cherished have passed on before, 
— and the line, — 

Home to the land of delight I will go, 
- — was written, — 

Home to the land of bright spirits I'll go. 
Dr. Hunter died in Ohio, 1877. 

THE TUNE. 

Rev. Abraham Dow Merrill, the author of the 
music to this triumphal death-song, was born in 
Salem, N. H., 1796, and died April 29, 1878. He 
also was a Methodist minister, and is still every- 
where remembered by the denomination to which 
he belonged in New Hampshire and Vermont. 
He rode over these states mingling in revival 
scenes many years. His picture bears a close 
resemblance to that of Washington, and he was 



290 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

somewhat famous for this resemblance. His work 
was everywhere blessed, and he left an imperish- 
able influence in New England. The tune, linked 
with Dr. Hunter's hymn, formed the favorite 
melody which has been the dying song of many 
who learned to sing it amid the old revival scenes: 

Death, with thy weapons of war lay me low; 
Strike, king of terrors; I fear not the blow. 
Jesus has broken the bars of the tomb, 
Joyfully, joyfully haste to thy home. 

" TIS THE OLD SHIP OF ZION, HALLELUJAH! " 

This may be found, vocalized with full harmony, 
in the American Vocalist. With all the parts to- 
gether (more or less) it must have made a vocif- 
erous song-service, but the hymn was oftener sung 
simply in soprano unison; and there was sound 
enough in the single melody to satisfy the most 
zealous. 

All her passengers will land on the bright eternal shore, 

O, glory hallelujah! 
She has landed many thousands, and will land as many more, 

O, glory hallelujah! 

Both hymn and tune have lost their creators' 
names, and, like many another ** voice crying in 
the wilderness," they have left no record of their 
beginning of days. 

" MY BROTHER, I WISH YOU WELL. " 

My brother, I wish you well. 
My brother, I wish you well; 



OLD REVIVAL HYMNS. 29I 

When my Lord calls I trust you will 
Be mentioned in the Promised Land. 

Echoes that remain to us of those fervid and 
affectionate, as well as resolute and vehement, 
expressions of religious life as sung in the early 
revivals of New England, in parts of the South, 
and especially in the Middle West, are suggestive 
of spontaneous melody forest-born, and as un- 
conscious of scale, clef or tempo as the song of a 
bird. The above "hand-shaking" ditty at the 
altar gatherings apparently took its tune self-made, 
inspired in its first singer's soul by the feeling of 
the moment — and the strain was so simple that the 
convert could join in at once and chant — 
When my Lord comes I trust / shall 

— ^through all the loving rotations of the crude 
hymn-tune. Such song-births of spiritual enthu- 
siasm are beyond enumeration — and it is useless to 
hunt for author or composer. Under the momen- 
tum of a wrestling hour or a common rapture of 
experience, counterpoint was unthought of, and 
the same notes for every voice lifted pleading and 
praise in monophonic impromptu. The refrains — 

O how I love Jesus, 

O the Lamb, the Lamb, the loving Lamb, 

I'm going home to die no more, 

Pilgrims we are to Canaan's land, 

O turn ye, O turn ye, for why will you die, 

Come to Jesus, come to Jesus, just now, 



292 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

— each at the sound of its first syllable brought its 
own music to every singer's tongue, and all — male 
and female — were sopranos together. This habit 
in singing those rude liturgies of faith and fellow- 
ship was recognized by the editors of the Revivalist, 
and to a multitude of them space was given only 
for the printed melody, and of this sometimes only 
the three or four initial bars. The tunes were the 
church's rural field-tones that everybody knew. 

Culture smiles at this unclassic hymnody of long 
ago, but its history should disarm criticism. To 
wanderers its quaint music and "pedestrian" 
verse were threshold call and door-way welcome 
into the church of the living God. Even in the 
flaming days of the Second Advent following, 
in 1842-3, they awoke in many hardened hearts 
the spiritual glow that never dies. The delusion 
passed away, but the grace remained. 

The church — and the world — owe a long debt 
to the old evangelistic refrains that rang through 
the sixty years before the Civil War, some of them 
flavored with tuneful piety of a remoter time. 
They preached righteousness, and won souls that 
sermons could not reach. They opened heaven 
to thousands who are now rejoicing there. 



CHAPTER VIIL 



SUNDAY-SCHOOL HYMNS. 



SHEPHERD OF TENDER YOUTH. 
'Xrofxtov irwAo)]/ aSdcov 

We are assured by repeated references in the 
patristic writings that the primitive years of the 
Christian Church were not only years of suffering 
but years of song. That the despised and often 
persecuted "Nazarenes,'* scattered in little colon- 
ies throughout the Roman Empire, did not forget 
to mingle tones of praise and rejoicing with their 
prayers could readily be believed from the much- 
quoted letter of a pagan lawyer, written about as 
long after Jesus' death, as from now back to the 
death of John Quincy Adams — the letter of Pliny 
the younger to the Emperor Trajan, in which 
he reports the Christians at their meetings singing 
"hymns to Christ as to a god." 

Those disciples who spoke Greek seem to have 
been especially tuneful, and their land of poets 
was doubtless the cradle of Christian hymnody. 
Believers taught their songs to their children, and 

(293) 



294 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

it is as certain that the oldest Sunday-school hymn 
was written somewhere in the classic East as that 
the Book of Revelation was written on the Isle of 
Patmos. The one above indicated was found in 
an appendix to the Tutor, a. book composed by 
Titus Flavius Clemens of Alexandria, a Christian 
philosopher and instructor whose active life began 
late in the second century. It follows a treatise 
on Jesus as the Great Teacher, and, though his own 
words elsewhere imply a more ancient origin of 
the poem, it is always called "Clement's Hymn." 
The line quoted above is the first of an English 
version by the late Rev. Henry Martyn Dexter, 
D.D. It does not profess to be a translation, but 
aims to transfer to our common tongue the spirit 
and leading thoughts of the original. 

Shepherd of tender youth, 

Guiding in love and truth 
Through devious ways; 

Christ, our triumphant King, 

We come Thy name to sing, 

Hither our children bring 
To shout Thy praise. 

The last stanza of Dr. Dexter's version repre- 
sents the sacred song spirit of both the earliest and 
the latest Christian centuries: 
So now, and till we die 
Sound we Thy praises high, 

And joyful sing; 
Infants, and the glad throng 
Who to Thy church belong 
Unite to swell the song 
To Christ our King. 



I 



SUNDAY-SCHOOL HYMNS. 295 

While they give us the sentiment and the rehgious 
tone of the old hymn, these verses, however, 
recognize the extreme difficulty of anything like 
verbal fidelity in translating a Greek hymn, and 
in this instance there are metaphors to avoid as 
being strange to modern taste. The first stanza, 
literally rendered and construed, is as follov^s: 

Bridle of untaught foals, 
Wing of unwandering birds, 
Helm and Girdle of babes, 
Shepherd of royal lambs! 
Assemble Thy simple children 
To praise holily, 
To hymn guilelessly 
With innocent mouths 
Christ, the Guide of children. 

Figures like — 

Catching the chaste fishes. 
Heavenly milk, etc., 

— are necessarily avoided in making good English 
of the lines, and the profusion of adoring epithets in 
the ancient poem (no less than twenty-one different 
titles of Christ) v^ould embarrass a modern song. 
Dr. Dexter might have chosen an easier metre 
for his version, if (which is improbable) he intended 
it to be sung, since a tune written to sixes and 
fours takes naturally a more decided lyrical move- 
ment and emphasis than the hymn reveals in his 
stanzas, though the second and fifth possess much 
of the hymn quality and would sound well in 
Giardini's "Italian Hymn.'' 



296 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

More nearly a translation, and more in the 
cantabile style, is the version of a Scotch Presby- 
terian minister. Rev. Hamilton M. Macgill, D.D., 
two of v^hose stanzas are these: 

Thyself, Lord, be the Bridle 

These wayward wills to stay; 
Be Thine the Wing unwand'ring. 

To speed their upward way. 

:(: :4c :^ :(c 4: % 

Let them with songs adoring 

Their artless homage bring 
To Christ the Lord, and crown Him 

The children's Guide and King. 

The Dexter version is set to Monk's slow har- 
mony of *'St. Ambrose" in the Plymouth Hymnal 
(Ed. Dr. Lyman Abbott, 1894) without the 
writer's name — which is curious, inasmuch as the 
hymn was published in the Congregationalist in 
1849, ^" Hedge and Huntington s (Unitarian) 
Hymn-book in 1853, in the Hymnal of the Presby- 
terian Church in 1866, and in Dr. Schaff's Christ 
in Song in 1869. 

Clement died about A.D. 220. 

Rev. Henry Martyn Dexter, D.D., for twenty- 
three years the editor of the Congregationalist, was 
born in Plymouth, Mass., Aug. 13, 1821. He was 
a graduate of Yale (1840) and Andover Divinity 
School (1844), a well-known antiquarian writer 
and church historian. Died Nov. 13, 1890. 



SUNDAY-SCHOOL HYMNS. ^97 

" HOW HAPPY IS THE CHILD WHO HEARS. " 

This hymn was quite commonly heard in Sunday- 
schools during the eighteen-thirties and forties, 
and, though retained in few modern collections, 
its Sabbath echo lingers in the memory of the 
living generation. It was written by Michael 
Bruce, born at Kinneswood, Kinross-shire, Scot- 
land, March 27, 1746. He was the son of a weaver, 
but obtained a good education, taught school, and 
studied for the ministry. He died, however, while in 
preparation for his expected work, July 5, 1 767, at the 
age of twenty-one years, three months and eight days. 

Young Bruce wrote hymns, and several poems, 
but another person wore the honors of his work. 
John Logan, who was his literary executor, ap- 
propriated the youthful poet's Mss. verses, and 
the hymn above indicated — as well as the beautiful 
poem, "To the Cuckoo,''* still a classic in English 
literature, — bore the name of Logan for more than 
a hundred years. In Julian s Dictionary of Hym- 
nology is told at length the story of the inquiry and 
discussion which finally exposed the long fraud 
upon the fame of the rising genius who sank, like 
Henry Kirke White, in his morning of promise. 

THE TUNE. 

Old "Balerma" was so long the musical mouth- 
piece of the pious boy-schoolmaster's verses that 

♦Hail, beauteous stranger of the wood, 
Attendant on the Spring; 
Now Heaven repairs thy rural seat, 
And woods thy welcome ring. 



298 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

the two became one expression, and one could 
not be named without suggesting the other. 

"Balerma" (Palermo) was ages away in style 
and sound from the later type of Sunday-school 
tunes, resembling rather one of Palestrina's chorals 
than the tripping melodies that took its place; but 
in its day juvenile voices enjoyed it, and it suited 
very well the grave but winning words. 

How happy Is the child who hears 

Instruction's warning voice, 
And who celestial Wisdom makes 

His early, only choice! 
For she hath treasures greater far 

Than East and West unfold. 
And her rewards more precious are 

Than all their stores of gold. 
She guides the young with innocence 

In pleasure's path to tread, 
A crown of glory she bestows 

Upon the hoary head. 

Robert Simpson, author of the old tune,* was a 
Scottish composer of psalmody; born, about 1722, 
in Glasgow; and died, in Greenock, June, 1838. 

" O DO NOT BE DISCOURAGED. " 

Written about 1803, by the Rev. John A. Gre- 
nade, born in 1770; died 1806. 

O do not be discouraged, 1 , . 

ror Jesus is your rriend; J 
He will give you grace to conquer, 

And keep you to the end. 



*The tune was evidently reduced from the still older "Sardius" (or 
"Autumn")— Hubert P. Main. 



SUNDAY-SCHOOL HYMNS. 299 

Fight on, ye little soldiers, 

The battle you shall win,. 
For the Saviour is your Captain, 

And He has vanquished sin. 

And when the conflict's over, 1 

Before Him you shall stand, J 
You shall sing His praise forever 

In Canaan's happy land. 

THE TUNE. 

The hymn was made popular thirty or more 
years ago in a musical arrangement by Hubert P. 
Main, with a chorus, — 

I'm glad I'm in this army. 
And I'll battle for the school. 

Children took to the little song with a keen relish, 
and put their whole souls — and bodies — into it. 

" LITTLE TRAVELLERS ZIONWARD " 

Belongs to a generation long past. Its writer was 
an architect by occupation, and a man whose piety 
equalled his industry. He was born in London 
1 791, and his name was James Edmeston. He 
loved to compose religious verses — so well, in fact, 
that he is said to have prepared a new piece every 
week for Sunday morning devotions in his family 
and in this way accumulated a collection which 
he published and called Cottager's Hymns. Be- 
sides these he is credited with a hundred Sunday- 
school hymns. 



300 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Little travellers Zionward, 

Each one entering into rest 
In the Kingdom of your Lord, 

In the mansions of the blest, 

There to welcome Jesus waits, 

Gives the crown His followers win, 

Lift your heads, ye golden gates, 
Let the little travellers in. 

The original tune is lost — and the hymn is 
vanishing with it; but the felicity of its rhyme and 
rhythm show how easily it adapted itself to music. 

"I'M BUT A STRANGER HERE." 



The simple beauty of this hymn, and the 
sympathetic sweetness of its tune made children 
love to sing it, and it found its way into a few Sun- 
day-school collections, though not composed for 
such use. 

A young Congregational minister. Rev. Thomas 
Rawson Taylor, wrote it on the approach of his 
early end. He was born at Osset, near Wakefield, 
Yorkshire, Eng., May 9, 1807, and studied in 
Bradford, where his father had taken charge of a 
large church, and at Manchester Academy and 
Airesdale College. Sensible of a growing ailment 
that might shorten his days, he hastened to the 
work on which his heart was set, preaching in 
surrounding towns and villages while a student, 
and finally quitting college to be ordained to his 
sacred profession. He was installed as pastor of 
Howard St. Chapel, Sheffield, July, 1830, when 



SUNDAY-SCHOOL HYMNS. 3OI 

only twenty-three. But In less than three years 
his strength failed, and he went back to Bradford, 
where he occasionally preached for his father, when 
able to do so, during his last days. He died there 
March 15, 1835. Taylor was a brave and lovely 
Christian — and his hymn is as sweet as his life. 

I'm but a stranger here, 

Heaven is my home; 
Earth is a desert drear, 

Heaven is my home. 

Dangers and sorrows stand 

Round me on every hand; 
Heaven is my Fatherland — 

Heaven is my home. 

What though the tempest rage, 

Heaven is my home; 
Short is my pilgrimage. 

Heaven is my home. 

And time's wild, wintry blast 

Soon will be overpast; 
I shall reach home at last — 

Heaven is my home. 

In his last attempt to preach, young Taylor 
uttered the words, "I want to die like a soldier, 
sword in hand.'' On the evening of the same 
Sabbath day he breathed his last. His words were 
memorable, and Montgomery, who loved and ad- 
mired the man, made them the text of a poem, 
part of which is the familiar hymn "Servant of 
God, well done."* 

♦See page 498 



302 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

THE TUNE. 

Sir Arthur Sullivan put the words into classic 
expression, but, to American ears at least, the tune 
of **Oak," by Lowell Mason, is the hymn's true 
sister. It was composed in 1854. 

"DEAR JESUS, EVER AT MY SIDE . " 

One of Frederick William Faber's sweet and 
simple lyrics. It voices that temper and spirit in 
the human heart which the Saviour first looks for 
and loves best. None better than Faber could feel 
and utter the real artlessness of Christian love and 
faith. 

Dear Jesus, ever at my side, 

How loving must Thou be 
To leave Thy home in heaven to guard 

A sinful child like me. 
Thy beautiful and shining face 

I see not, tho' so near; 
The sweetness of Thy soft low voice 

I am too deaf to hear. 

I cannot feel Thee touch my hand 

With pressure light and mild. 
To check me as my mother did 

When I was but a child; 
But I have felt Thee in my thoughts 

Fighting with sin for me, 
And when my heart loves God I know 

The sweetness is from Thee. 



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Fanny J, Crosby 

{Mrs. Va7i Alstyjie) 




SUNDAY-SCHOOL HYMNS. 303 

THE TUNE. 

"Audientes'' by Sir Arthur Sullivan is a gentle, 
erriotional piece, rendering the first quatrain of 
each Stanza in E flat unison, and the second in C 
harmony. 

^ TIS RELIGION THAT CAN GIVE. " 

This simple rhyme, which has been sung 
perhaps in every Sunday-school in England and 
the United States, is from a small English book 
by Mary Masters. In the preface to the w^ork, we 
read, "The author of the following poems never 
read a treatise of rhetoric or an art of poetry, nor 
was ever taught her English grammar. Her educa- 
tion rose no higher than the spelling-book or her 
writing-master." 

'TIs religion that can give 
Sweetest pleasure while we live; 
'Tis religion can supply 
Solid comfort when we die. 
After death its joys shall be 
Lasting as eternity. 

Save the two sentences about herself, quoted 
above, there is no biography of the writer. That 
she was good is taken for granted. 

The tune-sister of the little hymn is as scant of 
date or history as itself. No. 422 points it out in 
The Revivalist, where the name and initial seem to 
ascribe the authorship to Horace Waters.* 

♦From his Sahhath Bell. Horace Waters, a prominent Baptist layman, 
was born in JeflFerson, Lincoln Co., Me., Nov. i, 1812, and died in New 
York City, April 22, 1893. He was a piano-dealer and publisher. 



304 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

" THERE IS A HAPPY LAND FAR, FAR AWAY. " 

This child's hymn was written by a lover of 
children, Mr. Andrew Young, head master of 
Niddrey St. School, Edinburgh, and subsequently 
English instructor at Madras College, E. I. He 
was born April 23, 180.7, and died Nov. 30, 1899, 
and long before the end of the century which his 
life-time so nearly covered his little carol had 
become one of the universal hymns. 

THE TUNE. 

A Hindoo, air or natural chanson, that may 
have been hummed in a pagan temple in the hear- 
ing of Mr. Young, was the basis of the little mel- 
ody since made familiar to millions of prattling 
tongues. 

Such running tone-rhythms create themselves in 
the instinct of the ruder nations and tribes, and 
even the South African savages have their in- 
cantations with the provincial "clicks" that mark 
the singers' time. With an ear for native chirrups 
and trills, the author of our pretty infant-school 
song succeeded in capturing one, and making a 
Christian tune of it. 

The musician, Samuel Sebastian Wesley, some- 
time in the eighteen-forties, tried to substitute 
another melody for the lines, but "There is a happy 
land" needs its own birth-music. 



SUNDAY-SCHOOL HYMNS. 305 

'' I HAVE A FATHER IN THE PROMISED LAND." 

Another cazonet for the infant class. Instead of a 
hymn, however, it is only a refrain, and — like the 
ring-chant of the *' Hebrew Children,'' and even 
more simple — owes its only variety to the change 
of one word. The third and fourth lines, — 

My father calls me, I must go 

To meet Him in the Promised Land, 

— take their cue from the first, which may sing, — ■ 

I have a Saviour 

I have a mother 

I have a brother 

— and so on ad libitum. But the little ones love 
every sound and syllable of the lisping song, for 
it is plain and pleasing, and when a pinafore school 
grows restless nothing will sooner charm them into 
quiet than to chime its innocent unison. 

Both words and tune are nameless and storyless. 

"I THINK WHEN I READ THAT SWEET STORY " 

While riding in a stage-coach, after a visit to a 
mission school for poor children, this hymn camie 
to the mind of Mrs. Jemima Thompson Luke, of 
Islington, England. It speaks its own purpose 
plainly enough, to awaken religious feeling in 
young hearts, and guide and sanctify the natural 
childlike interest in the sweetest incident of the 
Saviour's life. 



306 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

I think when I read that sweet story of old 
When Jesus was here among men, 
How He called little children as lambs to His fold, 
I should like to have been with them then. 

I wish that His hands had been laid on my head, 
And I had been placed on His knee, 
And that I might have seen His kind look when He said, 
*'Let the little ones come unto me." 

This is not poetry, but it phrases a wish in a 
child's own way, to be melodized and fixed in a 
child's reverent and sensitive memory. 

Mrs. Luke was born at Colebrook Terrace, near 
London, Aug. 19, 1813. She was an accomplished 
and benevolent lady who did much for the edu- 
cation and welfare of the poor. Her hymn — of 
five stanzas — was first sung in a village school 
at Poundford Park, and was not published until 
1841. 

THE TUNE. 

It is interesting, not to say curious, testimony to 
the vital quality of this meek production that so 
many composers have set it to music, or that 
successive hymn-book editors have kept it, and 
printed it to so many different harmonies. All the 
chorals that carry it have substantially the same 
movement — for the spondaic accent of the long 
lines is compulsory — but their offerings sing "to 
one clear harp in divers tones." 

The appearance of the words in one hymnal 
with Sir William Davenant's air (full scored) to 
Moore's love-song, "Believe me, if all those en- 



SUNDAY-SCHOOL HYMNS. 307 

dearlng young charms," now known as the tune 
of **Fair Harvard/' is rather startHng at first, but 
the adoption is quite in keeping with the policy of 
Luther and Wesley. 

"St. Kevin," written to it forty years ago by 
John Henry Cornell, organist of St. Paul's, New 
York City, is sweet and sympathetic. 

The newest church collection (1905) gives the 
beautiful air and harmony of "Athens" to the 
hymn, and notes the music as a "Greek Melody." 

But the nameless English tune, of uncertain 
authorship* that accompanies the words in the 
smaller old manuals, and which delighted Sunday- 
schools for a generation, is still the favorite in the 
memory of thousands, and may be the very music 
first written. 

" WE SPEAK OF THE REALMS OF THE BLEST. " 

Mrs. Elizabeth Mills, wife of the Hon. Thomas 
Mills, M.P., was born at Stoke Newington, Eng., 
1805. She was one of the brief voices that sing one 
song and die. This hymn was the only note of her 
minstrelsy, and it has outlived her by more than 
three-quarters of a century. She wrote it about 
three weeks before her decease in Finsbury Place, 
London, April 21, 1839, at the age of twenty-four. 
We speak of the land of the blest, 
A country so bright and so fair, 
And oft are its glories confest, 
But what must it be to be there! 

* :»: * ;(: % % 



♦Harmonized by Hubert P. Main. 



308 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

We speak of its freedom from sin, 
From sorrow, temptation and care, 

From trials without and within. 
But what must it be to be there! 

THE TUNE. 

The hymn, Hke several of the Gospel hymns 
besides, was carried into the Sunday-schools by 
its music. Mr. Stebbins' popular duet-and-chorus 
is fluent and easily learned and rendered by rote; 
and while it captures the ear and compels the voice 
of the youngest, it expresses both the pathos and 
the exaltation of the words. 

George Coles Stebbins was born in East Carle- 
ton, Orleans Co., N. Y., Feb. 26, 1846. Educated 
at common school, and an academy in Albany, 
he turned his attention to music and studied in 
Rochester, Chicago, and Boston. It was in Chicago 
that his musical career began, while chorister 
at the First Baptist Church; and while holding 
the same position at Clarendon St. Church, Boston, 
(1874-6), he entered on a course of evangelistic 
work with D. L. Moody as gospel singer and com- 
poser. He was co-editor with Sankey and McGran- 
ahan of Gospel Hymns. 

** ONLY REMEMBERED. *' 

This hymn, beginning originally with the lines, — 

Up and away like the dew of the morning, 
Soaring from earth to its home in the sun, 



SUNDAY-SCHOOL HYMNS. 3O9 

— has been repeatedly altered since it left Dr. Bo- 
nar's hands. Besides the change of metaphors, the 
first personal pronoun singular is changed to the 
plural. There was strength, and a natural vivacity 
in — 

So let me steal away gently and lovingly, 
Only remembered for what / have done. 

As at present sung the first stanza reads — , 

Fading away like the stars of the morning 

Losing their light in the glorious sun, 
Thus would we pass from the earth and its toiling 

Only remembered for what we have done. 

The idea voiced in the refrain is true and beauti- 
ful, and the very euphony of its words helps to 
enforce its meaning and make the song pleasant 
and suggestive for young and old. It has passed 
into popular quotation, and become almost a pro- 
verb. 

THE TUNE. 

The tune (in Gospel Hymns No. 6) is Mr. 
Sankey's. 

Ira David Sankey was born in Edinburgh, Law- 
rence Co., Pa., Aug. 28, 1840. He united with 
the Methodist Church at the age of fifteen, and 
became choir leader, Sunday-school superintendent 
and president of the Y. M. C. A., all in his native 
town. Hearing Philip Phillips sing impressed him 
deeply, when a young man, with the power of a 
gifted solo vocalist over assembled multitudes, but 
he did not fully realize his own capability till Dwight 



310 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

L. Moody heard his remarkable voice and con- 
vinced him of his divine mission to be a gospel 
singer. 

The success of his revival tours with Mr. Moody 
in America and England is history. 

Mr. Sankey has compiled at least five singing 
books, and has written the Story of the Gospel 
Hymns. Until overtaken by blindness, in his later 
years he frequently appeared as a lecturer on sacred 
music. The manuscript of his story of the Gos- 
pel Hymns was destroyed by accident, but, un- 
dismayed by the ruin of his work, and the loss 
of his eye-sight, like Sir Isaac Newton and Thomas 
Carlyle, he began his task again. With the 
help of an amanuensis the book was restored 
and, in 1905, given to the public. (See page 258.) 

"SA VIOUR, LIKE A SHEPHERD LEAD US. '* 

Mrs. Dorothy Ann Thrupp, of Paddington 
Green, London, the author of this hymn, was born 
June 20, 1799, and died, in London, Dec. 14, 1847. 
Her hymns first appeared in Mrs. Herbert Mayo's 

Selection of Poetry and Hymns for the Use of 
Infant and Juvenile Schools,'^ (1838.) 

We are Thine, do Thou befriend us, 

Be the Guardian of our way: 
Keep Thy flock, from sin defend us, 

Seek us when we go astray; 
Blessed Jesus, 

Hear, O hear us when we pray. 



SUNDAY-SCHOOL HYMNS. 3II 

The tune everywhere accepted and loved is W. 
B. Bradbury's; w^ritten in 1856. 

"YIELD NOT TO TEMPTATION." 



A much used and valued hymn, with a captiva- 
ting tune and chorus for young assemblies. Both 
words and music are by H. R. Palmer, composed 
in 1868. 

Yield not to temptation, 
For yielding is sin; 
Each vict'ry will help you 
Some other to win. 

Fight manfully onward, 
Dark passions subdue; 
Look ever to Jesus, 
He will carry you through. 

Horatio Richmond Palmer was born in Sher- 
burne, N.Y., April 26, 1834, of a musical family, 
and sang alto in his father's choir when only nine. 
He studied music unremittingly, and taught music at 
fifteen. Brought up in a Christian home, his relig- 
ious life began in his youth, and he consecrated his 
art to the good of man and the glory of God. 

He became well-known as a composer of sacred 
music, and as a publisher — the sales of his Song 
Queen amounting to 200,000 copies. As a leader 
of musical conventions and in the Church Choral 
Union, his influence in elevating the standard of 
song-worship has been widely felt. 



312 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

" THERE ARE LONELY HEARTS TO CHERISH ." 

** While the days are going by'' is the refrain 
of the song, and the Hne by which it is recognized. 
The hymn or poem was written by George Cooper. 
He was born in New York City, May 14, 1840 — 
a writer of poems and magazine articles, — com- 
posed "While the days are going by" in 1870. 

There are lonely hearts to cherish 

While the days are going by. 
There are weary souls who perish 

While the days are going by. 

Up! then, trusty hearts and true, 
Though the day comes, night comes, too: 

Oh, the good we all may do 

While the days are going by! 

There are few more practical and always- 
timely verses than this three-stanza poem. 

THE TUNE. 

A very musical tune, with spirited chorus, (in 
Gospel Hymns) bears the name of the refrain, and 
was composed by Mr. Sankey. 

A sweet and quieter harmony (uncredited) is 
mated with the hymn in the old Baptist Praise 
Book (p. 507) and this was long the fixture to the 
words, in both Sunday-school and week-day school 
song-books. 

'* JESUS THE WATER OF LIFE WILL GIVE. " 

This Sunday-school lyric is the work of Fanny 
J. Crosby (Mrs. Van Alstyne). Like her other and 



I 



SUNDAY-SCHOOL HYMNS. 313 

greater hymn, "Jesus keep me near the Cross," 
(noted on p. 156,) it reveals the habitual attitude of 
the pious author's mind, and the simple earnest- 
ness of her own faith as well as her desire to win 
others. 

Jesus the water of life will give 

Freely, freely, freely; 
Jesus the water of life will give 

Freely to those who love Him. 

The Spirit and the Bride say "Come 

Freely, freely, freely. 
And he that is thirsty let him come 

And drink the water of life." 

Full chorus, — 

The Fountain of life is flowing, 

Flowing, freely flowing; 
The Fountain of life is flowing, 

Is flowing for you and for me. 

THIS TUNE. 

The hymn must be sung as it was made to be 
sung, and the composer being many years en 
rapport with the writer, knew how to put all her 
metrical rhythms into sweet sound. The tune — 
in Mr. Bradbury^s Fresh Laurels (1867) — ^s one of 
his sympathetic interpretations, and, with the duet 
sung by two of the best singers of the middle class 
Sunday-school girls, is a melodious and impressive 
piece. 



314 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES 

" WHEN HE COMETH, WHEN HE COMETH. " 

The Rev. W. O. Gushing, with the beautiful 
thought in Malachi 3:17 singing in his soul, com- 
posed this favorite Sunday-school hymn, which has 
gone round the world. 

When He cometh, when He cometh . 

To make up His jewels, 
All the jewels, precious jewels, 

His loved and His own. 
Like the stars of the morning, 

His bright brow adorning 
They shall shine in their beauty 

Bright gems for His crown. 

He will gather. He will gather 

The gems for His Kingdom, 
All the pure ones, all the bright ones, 

His loved and His own. 
Like the stars, etc. 

Little children, little children 

Who love their Redeemer, 
Are the jewels, precious jewels 

His loved and His own. 
Like the stars, etc. 

Rev. WilHam Orcutt Gushing of Hingham, 
Mass., born Dec. 31, 1823, wrote this little hymn 
when a young man (1856), probably with no idea 
of achieving a literary performance. But it rings; 
and even if it is a "ringing of changes" on pretty 
syllables, that is not all. There is a thought in it 
that sings. Its glory came to it, however, when it 



SUNDAY-SCHOOL HYMNS. 315 

got its tune — and he must have had a subcon- 
sciousness of the tune he wanted when he made 
the Hnes for his Sunday-school. He died Oct. 19, 
1902. 

THE TUNE. 

The composer of the music for the "Jewel 
Hymn"* was George F. Root, then living in Read- 
ing, Mass. 

A minister returning from Europe on an English 
steamer visited the steerage, and after some 
friendly talk proposed a singing service — if some- 
thing could be started that "everybody" knew — 
for there were hundreds of emigrants there from 
nearly every part of Europe. 

"It will have to be an American tune, then," 
said the steerage-master; "try *His jewels.'" 

The minister struck out at once with the melody 
and words, — 

When He cometh, when He cometh, 

— and scores of the poor half-fare multitude joined 
voices with him. Many probably recognized the 
music of the old glee, and some had heard the sweet 
air played in the church-steeples at home. Other 
voices chimed in, male and female, catching the 
air, and sometimes the words — they were so easy 
and so many times repeated — and the volume of 

♦Comparison of the "Jewel Hymn" tune with the old glee of "Johnny 
Schmoker" gives color to the assertion that Mr. Root caught up and adapted a 
popular ditty for his Christian melody — as was so often done in Wales, and 
in the Lutheran and Wesleyan reformations. He baptized the comic fugue, 
and promoted it from the vaudeville stage to the Sunday School. 



3l6 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

song increased, till the singing minister stood in 
the midst of an international concert, the most 
novel that he ever led. 

He tried other songs in similar visits during the rest 
of the voyage with some success, but the " Jewel 
Hymn" was the favorite; and by the time port 
was in sight the whole crowd of emigrants had it by 
heart. 

The steamer landed at Quebec, and when the 
trains, filled with the new arrivals, rolled away, the 
song was swelling from nearly every car, — 

When He cometh, when He cometh, 
To make up His jewels. 

The composer of the tune — with all the patri- 
otic and sacred master-pieces standing to his 
credit — never reaped a richer triumph than he 
shared with his poet-partner that day, when 
** Precious Jewels" came back to them from over 
the sea. More than this, there was missionary joy 
for them both that their tuneful work had done 
something to hallow the homes of alien settlers 
with an American Christian psalm. 

George Frederick Root, Doctor of Music, was 
born in Sheffield, Mass., 1820, eldest of a family of 
eight children, and spent his youth on a farm. His 
genius for music drew him to Boston, where he 
became a pupil of Lowell Mason, and soon advanced 
so far as to teach music himself and lead the choir 
in Park St. church. Afterwards he went to New York 
as director of music in Dr. Deems's Church of the 



SUNDAY-SCHOOL HYMNS. 317 

Strangers. In i852,arter a jear's absence and study 
in Europe, he returned to New York, and founded 
the Normal Musical Institute. In i860, he removed 
to Chicago where he spent the remainder of his hfe 
writing and publishing music. He died Aug. 6, 
1895, in Maine. 

In the truly popular sense Dr. Root was the best- 
known American composer; not excepting Stephen 
C. Foster. Root's "Hazel Dell," "There's Music 
in the Air," and " Rosalie the Prairie Flower" were 
universal tunes — (words by Fanny Crosby,) — as 
also his music to Henry Washburn's "Vacant 
Chair." The songs in his cantata, "The Hay- 
makers," were sung in the shops and factories 
everywhere, and his war-time music, in such melo- 
dies as "Shouting the Battle-cry of Freedom" and 
"Tramp, Tramp, Tramp, the Boys are Marching" 
took the country by storm. 

"SCATTER SEEDS OF KINDNESS." 



This amiable and tuneful poem, suggested by 
Rom. 12:10, is from the pen of Mary Louise Riley 
(Mrs. Albert Smith) of New York City. She was 
born in Brighton, Monroe Co., N. Y. May 27, 

1843- 

Let us gather up the sunbeams 

Lying all along our path; 
Let us keep the wheat and roses 

Casting out the thorns and chafF. 



3l8 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Chorus. 

Then scatter seeds of kindness (ter) 
For our reaping by and by. 

Silas Jones Vail, the tune-writer, for this hymn, 
was born Oct. 1818, and died May 20, 1883. For 
years he worked at the hatter's trade, with Beebe 
on Broadway, N.Y. and afterwards in an establish- 
ment of his own. His taste and talent led him into 
musical connections, and from time to time, after 
relinquishing his trade, he was with Horace 
Waters, PhiHp PhilHps, W. B. Bradbury, and F. J. 
Smith, the piano dealer. He was a choir leader 
and a good composer. 

" BY COOL SILOAM^S SHADY RILL. " 

This hymn of Bp. Heber inculcates the same 
lesson as that in the stanzas of Michael Bruce be- 
fore noted, with added emphasis for the young on 
the briefness of time and opportunity even for them. 

How fair the lily grows, 

— is answered by — 

The lily must decay, 

— but, owing to the sweetness of the favorite melody, 
it was never a saddening hymn for children. 

THE TUNE. 

Though George Kingsley's ** Heber" has in some 
books done service for the Bishop's lines, "Siloam," 



SUNDAY-SCHOOL HYMNS. 319 

easy-flowing and finely harmonized, is knit to the 
words as no other tune can be. It was composed 
by Isaac Baker Woodbury on shipboard during a 
storm at sea. A stronger illustration of tranquil 
thought in terrible tumult was never drawn. 

O Galilee, Sweet Galilee," whose history has 
been given at the end of chapter six, was not only 
often sung in Sunday-schools, but chimed (in the 
cities) on steeple-bells — nor is it by any means for- 
gotten today — on the Sabbath and in social singing 
assemblies. Like "Precious Jewels," it has been, 
in many places, taken up by street boys with a 
relish, and often displaced the play-house ditties in 
the lips of little newsboys and bootblacks during a 
leisure hour or a happy mood. 

"I AM SO GLAD." 



This lively little melody is still a welcome choice 
to many a lady teacher of fluttering five-year-olds, 
when both vocal indulgence and good gospel are 
needed for the prattlers in her class. It has been 
as widely sung in Scotland as in America. Mr. 
Philip P. Bliss, hearing one day the words of the 
familiar chorus — 

O, how I love Jesus, 

— suddenly thought to himself, — 

"I have sung long enough of my poor love to 
Christ, and now I will sing of His love for me." 
Under the inspiration of this thought, he wrote — 



320 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

I am so glad that our Father in heaven 
Tells of His love in the book He has given* 
Wonderful things in the Bible I see, 
This is the dearest — that Jesus loves me. 

Both words and music are by Mr. Bliss. 

The history of modern Sunday-school hymnody 
— or much of it — is so nearly identified with that of 
the Gospel Hymns that other selections like the 
last, which might be appropriate here, may be con- 
sidered in a later chapter, where that eventful 
series of sacred songs receives special notice. 



CHAPTER IX. 



PATRIOTIC HYMNS, 



The ethnic anthologies growing out of love of 
country are a mingled literature of filial and re- 
ligious piety, ranging from war-Hke paeans to 
lyric prayers. They become the cherished inheri- 
tance of a nation, and, once fixed in the common 
memory and common heart, the people rarely let 
them die. The "Songs of the Fathers" have per- 
ennial breath, and in every generation — 

The green woods of their native land 

Shall whisper in the strain; 
The voices of their household band 

Shall sweetly speak again. 

— Felicia Hemans, 

ULTIMA THULE. 



American pride has often gloried in Seneca's 
"Vision of the West," more than eighteen hundred 
years ago. 

Venient annis 
Saecula seris, quibus Oceanus 
Vincula rerum laxet, et ingens 
(321) 



322 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Pateat tellus, Typhisque novos 
Detegat orbes, nee sit terris 
Ultima Thule. 

A time will come in future ages far 

When Ocean will his circling bounds unbar, 

And, opening vaster to the Pilot's hand, 

New worlds shall rise, where mightier kingdoms are, 

Nor Thule longer be the utmost land. 

This poetic forecast, of which Washington Irving 
wrote ''the predictions of the ancient oracles were 
rarely so unequivocal," is part of the "chorus" at 
the end of the second act of Seneca's "Medea," writ- 
ten near the date of St. PauFs first Epistle to the 
Thessalonians. 

Seneca, the celebrated Roman (Stoic) philoso- 
pher, was born at or very near the time of our Sav- 
iour's birth. There are legends of his acquaintance 
with Paul, at Rome, but though he wrote able and 
quotable treatises On Consolation, On Providence, 
On Calmness of Soul, and On the Blessed Life, there 
is no direct evidence that the savor of Christian 
faith ever qualified his works or his personal 
principles. He was a man of grand ideas and 
inspirations,but he was a time server and a flatterer 
of the Emperor Nero, who, nevertheless, caused 
his death when he had no further use for him. 

His compulsory suicide occurred A. D. 65, the 
year in which St. Paul is supposed to have suffered 
martyrdom. 



PATRIOTIC HYMNS. 323 

"THE BREAKING WAVES DASHED HIGH." 

Sitting at the tea-table one evening, near a 
century ago, Mrs. Hemans read an old account 
of the '' Landing of the Pilgrims," and was inspired 
to write this poem, which became a favorite in 
America — Hke herself, and all her other works. 

The ballad is inaccurate in details, but presents 
the spirit of the scene with true poet insight. Mr. 
James T. Fields, the noted Boston publisher, visited 
the lady in her old age, and received an auto- 
graph copy of the poem, which is seen in Pilgrim 
Hall, Plymouth, Mass. 

The breaking waves dashed high, on a stern and rock-bound 
coast, 

And the woods against a stormy sky, their giant branches 
tossed. 

And the heavy night hung dark, the hills and waters o'er. 

When a band of exiles moored their bark on the wild New Eng- 
land shore. 

Not as the conqueror comes, they, the true-hearted, came; 
Not with the roll of stirring drums, and the trumpet that sings 

of fame; 
Not as the flying come, in silence and in fear, — 
They shook the depths of the desert's gloom with their hymns 

of lofty cheer. 

Amidst the storm they sang, and the stars heard, and the sea! 

And the sounding aisles of the dim woods rang to the anthem of 
the free! 

The ocean eagle soared from his nest by the white waves' foam, 

And the rocking pines of the forest roared, — this was their wel- 
come home! 



324 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

There were men with hoary hair amidst that pilgrim band, — 
Why had they come to wither there, away from their childhood's 

land ? 
There was woman's fearless eye, lit by her deep love's truth; 
There was manhood's brow, serenely high, and the fiery heart 

of youth. 

What sought they thus afar ? bright jewels of the mine ? 

The wealth of seas ? the spoils of war ? — They sought a faith's 
pure shrine! 

Ay, call it holy ground, the soil where first they trod; 

They left unstained what there they found, — freedom to wor- 
ship God! 

Felicia Dorothea Browne (Mrs. Hemans) was 
born in Liverpool, Eng., 1766, and died 1845. 

THE TUNE. 

The original tune is not now accessible. It was 
composed by Mrs. Mary E. (Browne) Arkwright, 
Mrs. Hemans' sister, and published in England 
about 1835. But the words have been sung in 
this country to "Silver St.,'* a choral not entirely 
forgotten, credited to an English composer, Isaac 
Smith, born, in London, about 1735, and died there 
in 1800. 

" WESTWARD THE COURSE OF EMPIRE. " 

Usually misquoted "Westward the Star of Em- 
pire," etc. This poem of Bishop Berkeley pos- 
sesses no lyrical quality but, like the ancient 
Roman's words, partakes of the prophetic spirit, 
and has always been dear to the American heart 



PATRIOTIC HYMNS. 325 

by reason of the above line. It seems to formulate 
the "manifest destiny" of a great colonizing race 
that has already absorbed a continent, and ex- 
tended its sway across the Pacific ocean. 

Not such as Europe breeds in her decay; 

Such as she bred when fresh and young, 
When heavenly flame did animate her clay, 

By future poets shall be sung. 

Westward the course of empire takes its way; 

The four first acts already past, 
The fifth shall close the drama of the day: 

Time's noblest offspring is the last. 

George Berkeley was born March 12, 1684, and 
educated at Trinity College, Dublin. A remarkable 
student, he became a remarkable man, as priest, 
prelate, and philosopher. High honors awaited 
him at home, but the missionary passion seized him. 
Inheriting a small fortune, he sailed to the West, 
intending to evangelize and educate the Indians of 
the " Summer Islands," but the ship lost her course, 
and landed him at Newport, R.L, instead of the 
Bermudas. Here he was warmly welcomed, but 
was disappointed in his plans and hopes of founding 
a native college by the failure of friends in England 
to forward funds, and after a residence of six years 
he returned home. He died at Cloyne, Ireland, 

1753. 

The house which Bishop Berkeley built is still 
shown (or was until very recently) at Newport 
after one hundred and seventy-eight years. He 
wrote the ^^ Principles of Human Knowledge, 



326 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

the Minute Philosopher^ and many other works 
of celebrity in their time, and a scholarship in Yale 
bears his name; but he is best loved in this country 
for his Ode to America. 

Pope in his list of great men ascribes — 
To Berkeley every virtue under heaven. 

"SOUND THE LOUD TIMBREL." 



One would scarcely guess that this bravura 
hymn of victory and ** Come, ye disconsolate, " were 
written by the same person, but both are by 
Thomas Moore. The song has all the vigor and 
vivacity of his " Harp That Once Through Tara's 
Halls," without its pathos. The Irish poet chose 
the song of Miriam instead of the song of Deborah 
doubtless because the sentiment and strain of the 
first of these two great female patriots lent them- 
selves more musically to his lyric verse — and his 
poem is certainly martial enough to convey the 
spirit of both. 

Sound the loud timbrel o'er Egypt's dark sea! 

Jehovah hath triumphed, His people are free! 
Sing, for the pride of the tyrant is broken; 

His chariots, his horsemen, all splendid and brave — 
How vain was their boasting, the Lord hath but spoken, 

And chariots and horsernen are sunk in the wave. 

THE TUNE. 

Of all the different composers to whose music 
Moore's "sacred songs" were sung — Beethoven, 



PATRIOTIC HYMNS. 327 

Mozart, Stevenson, and the rest — Avison seems to 
be the only one whose name and tune have clung 
to the poet's words; and we have the man and the 
melody sent to us, as it were, by the lyrist himself. 
The tune is now rarely sung except at church 
festivals and village entertainments, but the life 
and clamor of the scene at the Red Sea are in it, 
and it is somethino^ more than a mere musical 
curiosity. Its style, however, is antiquated — with 
its timbrel beat and its canorous harmony and 
"coda fortis'' — and modern choirs have little use 
in religious service for the sonata written for viols 
and horns. 

It was Moore's splendid hymn that gave it 
vogue in England and Ireland, and sent it across 
the sea to find itself in the house of its friends with 
the psalmody of BiUings and Swan. Moore was 
the man of all men to take a fancy to it and make 
language to its string-and-trumpet concert. He 
was a musician himself, and equally able to adapt 
a tune and to create one. As a festival perform- 
ance, replete with patriotic noise, let Avison's old 
"Sound the Timbrel" live. 

Charles Avison was born at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
1 710. He studied in Italy, wrote works on music, 
and composed sonatas and concertos for stringed 
orchestras. For many years he was organist of 
St. Nicholas' Kirk in his native town. 

The tune to "Sound the Loud Timbrel" is a 
chorus from one of his longer compositions. He 
died in 1770. 



328 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

*T HE HARPTHATONCE THROUGH TARA'S HALLS ." 

This IS the only one of Moore's patriotic "Irish 
Melodies" that lives wherever sweet tones are 
loved and poetic feeling finds answering hearts. 
The exquisite sadness of its music and its text is 
strangely captivating, and its untold story beckons 
from its lines. 

Tara was the ancient home of the Irish kings. 
King Dermid, who had apostatized from the faith 
of St. Patrick and his followers, in A. D., 554, 
violated the Christian right of sanctuary by taking 
an escaped prisoner from the altar of refuge in 
Temple Ruadan (Tipperary) and putting him to 
death. The patron priest and his clergy marched 
to Tara and solemnly pronounced a curse upon 
the King. Not long afterwards Dermid was 
assassinated, and superstition shunned the place 
"as a castle under ban." The last human resident 
of "Tara's Hall" was the King's bard, who 
lingered there, forsaken and ostracized, till he 
starved to death. Years later one daring visitor 
found his skeleton and his broken harp. 

Moore utilized this story of tragic pathos as a 
figure in his song for "fallen Erin" lamenting her 
lost royalty — under a curse that had lasted thirteen 
hundred years. 

The harp that once through Tara's halls 

The soul of music shed, 
Now hangs as mute on Tara's walls 

As if that soul were fled. 



PATRIOTIC HYMNS. 32$ 

So sleeps the pride of former days, 

So glory's thrill is o'er, 
And hearts that once beat high for praise 

Now feel that pulse no more. 

No one can read the words without "thinking" 
the tune. It is supposed that Moore composed 
them both. 

THE MARSEILLAISE HYMN. 



Ye sons of France, awake to glory! 
Hark! hark! what millions bid you rise! 

The "Marseillaise Hymn" so long supposed to be 
the musical as well as verbal composition of 
Roget de Lisle, an army engineer, was proved to 
be only his words set to an air in the "Credo" of a 
German mass, which was the work of one Holz- 
man in 1726. De Lisle was known to be a poet 
and musician as well as a soldier, and, as he is said to 
have played or sung at times in the churches and 
convents, it is probable that he found and copied 
the manuscript of Holzman's melody. His haste 
to rush his fiery "Hymn" before the public in the 
fever of the Revolution allowed him no time to 
make his own music, and he adapted the German's 
notes to his words and launched the song in the 
streets of Strasburg. It was first sung in Paris by 
a band of chanters from Marseilles, and, like the 
trumpets blown around Jericho, it shattered the 
walls of the French monarchy to their foundations. 

The "Marseillaise Hymn" is mentioned here for 
its patriotic birth and associations. An attempt to 



330 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

make a religious use of it is recorded in the Fourth 
Chapter. 

ODE ON SCIENCE. 

This is a "patriotic hymn," though a queer pro- 
duction with a queer name, considering its con- 
tents; and its author was no intimate of the Muses. 
Liberty is supposed to be somehow the corollary 
of learning, or vice versa — whichever the reader 
thinks. 

The morning sun shines from the East 
And spreads his glories to the West. 

****** 

So Science spreads her lucid ray 
O'er lands that long in darkness lay; 
She visits fair Columbia, 
And sets her sons among the stars. 
Fair Freedom, her attendant, waits, etc. 

THE TUNE 

Was the really notable part of this old-time " Ode," 
the favorite of village assemblies, and the inevitable 
practice-piece for amateur violinists. The author 
of the crude symphony was Deacon Janaziah (or 
Jazariah) Summer, of Taunton, Mass., who pre- 
pared it — music and probably words — for the 
semi-centennial of Simeon Dagget's Academy in 
1798. The "Ode" was subsequently published 
in Philadelphia, and also in Albany. It was a song 
of the people, and sang itself through the country 



PATRIOTIC HYMNS. 33 1 

for fifty or sixty years, always culminating in the 
swift crescendo chorus and repeat — 

The British yoke and Gallic chain 
Were urged upon our necks in vain; 
All haughty tyrants we disdain, 
And shout "Long live America!" 

The average patriot did not mind it if " Colum- 
h'l-ay" and "Ameri-^<2y" were not exactly classic 
orthoepy. 

" HAIL COLUMBIA. " 

This was written (1798) by Judge Joseph Hop- 
kinson,born,in Philadelphia, 1770, and died there, 
1843. He wrote it for a friend in that city who 
was a theatre singer, and wanted a song for In- 
dependence Day. The music (to which it is still 
sung) was "The President's March," by a com- 
poser named Fyles, near the end of the i8th 
century. 

There is nothing hymn-like in the words, which 
are largely a glorification of Gen. Washington, but 
the tune, a concerted piece better for band than 
voices, has the drum-and-anvil chorus quality suit- 
able for vociferous mass singing — and a zealous 
Salvation Army corps on field nights could even fit 
a processional song to it with gospel words. 

OLD "CHESTER." 



Let tyrants shake their iron rod, 

And slavery clank her galling chains: 

We'll fear them not; we trust in God; 
New England's God forever reigns. 



332 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES 

Old "Chester/' both words and tune the work 
of WilHam Billings, is another of the provincial 
freedom songs of the Revolutionary period, and of 
the days when the Republic was young. Billings 
was a zealous patriot, and (says a writer in Moore's 
Cyclopedia of Music) "one secret, no doubt, of the 
vast popularity his works obtained was the patri- 
otic ardor they breathed. The words above quoted 
are an example, and * Chester,' it is said, was 
frequently heard from every fife in the New Eng- 
land ranks. The spirit of the Revolution was also 
manifest in his * Lamentation over Boston,' his 
'Retrospect,' his 'Independence,' his 'Columbia,' 
and many other pieces." 

William Billings was born, in Boston, Oct. 7, 1 746. 
He was a man of little education, but his genius for 
music spurred him to study the tuneful art, and en- 
abled him to learn all that could be learned with- 
out a master. He began to make tunes and pub- 
lish them, and his first book, the New England 
Psalm-singer W2is a curiosity of youthful crudity and 
confidence, but in considerable numbers it was sold, 
and sung — and laughed at. He went on studying 
and composing, and compiled another work, which 
was so much of an improvement that it got the name 
o£ Billings* Best. A third singing-book followed, and 
finally a fourth entitled the Psalm Singer s Amuse- 
ment, both of which were popular in their day. His 
"Majesty" has tremendous capabilities of sound, 
and its movement is fully up to the requirements of 
Nahum Tate's verses, — 



PATRIOTIC HYMNS. ^^^ 

And on the wings of mighty winds 
Came flying all abroad. 

William Billings died in 1800, and his remains 
lie in an unmarked grave in the old *' Granary" 
Burying Ground in the city of his birth. 

National feeling has taken maturer speech and 
finer melody, but it was these ruder voices that set 
the pitch. They v^ere sung w^ith native pride and 
affection at fireside vespers and rural feasts with 
the adopted songs of Burns and Moore and Mrs. 
Hemans, and, like the lays of Scotland and Pro- 
vence, they breathed the flavor of the country air 
and soil, and taught the generation of home-born 
minstrelsy that gave us the Hutchinson family, 
Ossian E. Dodge, Covert with his "Sword of 
Bunker Hill," and Philip PhiUips, the "Singing 
Pilgrim." 

THE STAR SPANGLED BANNER. 

Near the close of the last war with England, 
Francis Scott Key, of Baltimore, the author of this 
splendid national hymn, was detained under guard 
on the British flag-ship at the mouth of the Petap- 
sco, where he had gone under a flag of truce to 
procure the release of a captured friend. Dr. Wil- 
liam Beanes of Upper Marlboro, Md. 

The enemy's fleet was preparing to bombard 
Fort McHenry, and Mr. Key's return with his 
friend was forbidden lest their plans should be 
disclosed. Forced to stay and witness the attack 
on his country's flag, he walked the deck through 



334 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

the whole night of the bombardment until the 
break of day showed the brave standard still flying 
at full mast over the fort. Relieved of his patriotic 
anxiety, he pencilled the exultant lines and chorus 
of his song on the back of a letter, and, as soon as he 
was released, carried it to the city, where within 
twenty-four hours it was printed on flyers, circu- 
lated and sung in the streets to the air of " Anacreon 
in Heaven" — which has been the "Star Spangled 
Banner" tune ever since. 

O say, can you see by the dawn's early light 
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming ? 
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight 
O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming, 
And the rockets red glare, the bombs bursting in air 
Gave proof through the night that the flag was still there: 
O say, does the star-spangled banner yet wave, 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave ? 

O thus be it ever when freemen shall stand. 
Between their loved homes and the war's desolation; 
Blessed with victory and peace, may the heaven- 
rescued land 
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a 

nation. 
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just. 
And this be our motto, ''In God is our trust" 
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave, 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave. 

The original star-spangled banner that waved 
over Fort McHenry in sight of the poet when he 
wrote the famous hymn was made and presented 
to the garrison by a girl of fifteen, afterwards Mrs. 





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PATRIOTIC HYMNS. 335 

Sanderson, and is still preserved in the Sanderson 
family at Baltimore. 

The additional stanza to the *'Star-Spangled 
Banner" — 

When our land is illumined with Liberty's smile, etc., 

— was composed by Dr. O. W. Holmes, in 1861. 
The tune "Anacreon in Heaven" was an old 
English hunting air composed by John Stafford 
Smith, born at, Gloucester, Eng. 1750. He was 
composer for Covent Garden Theater, and con- 
ductor of the Academy of Ancient Music. Died 
Sep. 20, 1836. The melody was first used in 
America to Robert Treat Paine's song, "Adams 
and Liberty." Paine, born 1778 — died 181 1, was 
the son of Robert Treat Paine, signer of the Declar- 
ation of Independence. 

" STAND! THEGROUND^SYOUROWN,MY BRAVES. " 

Sympathetic admiration for the air, " Scots wha 
hae wi' Wallace bled," (or "Bruce's address," as it 
was commonly called), with the syllables of Robert 
Burns' silvery verse, lingered long in the land after 
the wars were ended. It spoke in the poem of 
John Pierpont, who caught its pibroch thrill, and 
built the metre of "Warren's Address at the Battle 
of Bunker Hill" on the model of " Scots wha hae." 

Stand! the ground's your own, my braves; 

Will ye give it up to slaves ? 
Will ye look for greener graves ? 

:i: ;ic 4: % * >(c 



336 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

In the God of battles trust: 
Die we may, or die we must, 
But O where can dust to dust 
Be consigned so well, 

As where Heaven its dews shall shed. 
On the martyred patriot's bed, 
And the rocks shall raise their head 
Of his deeds to tell ? 

This poem, written about 1823, held a place 
many years in school-books, and was one of the 
favorite school-boy declamations. Whenever sung 
on patriotic occasions, the music was sure to be 
" Bruce's Address." That typical Scotch tune was 
played on the Highland bag-pipes long before 
Burns was born, and known as "Hey tuttie taite." 
** Heard on Fraser's hautboy, it used to fill my 
eyes with tears," Burns himself once wrote. 

Rev. John Pierpont was born in Litchfield, Ct., 
April 6, 1785. He was graduated at Yale, 1804, 
taught school, studied law, engaged in trade, and 
finally took a course in theology ancj became a 
Unitarian minister, holding the pastorate of Hollis 
St. Church, Boston, thirty-six years. He travelled 
in the East, and wrote **Airs of Palestine.*' His 
poem, "The Yankee Boy," has been much quoted. 
Died in Medford, Mass., Aug. 26, 1866. 

"MY COUNTRY, TIS OF THEE. " 

This simple lyric, honored so long with the name 
"America," and the title "Our National Hymn," 



PATRIOTIC HYMNS. 337 

was written by Samuel Francis Smith, while a 
theological student at Andover, Feb. 2, 1832. He 
had before him several hymn and song tunes which 
Lowell Mason had received from Germany, and, 
knowing young Smith to be a good linguist, had 
sent to him for translation. One of the songs, of 
national character, struck Smith as adaptable to 
home use if turned into American words, and he 
wrote four stanzas of his own to fit the tune. 

Mason printed them with the music, and under 
his magical management the hymn made its debut 
on a public occasion in Park St. Church, Boston, 
July 4, 1832. Its very simplicity, with its rever- 
ent spirit and easy-flowing language, was sure to 
catch the ear of the multitude and grow into fami- 
liar use with any suitable music, but it was the 
foreign tune that, under Mason's happy pilotage, 
winged it for the western world and launched it 
on its long flight. 

My country, 'tis of thee, 
Sweet land of liberty, 

Of thee I sing; 
Land where my fathers died, 
Land of the pilgrims' pride, 
From every mountain-side 

Let freedom ring. 

3|c He He 4: :k 4: 

Let music swell the breeze. 
And ring from all the trees 

Sweet Freedom's song; 
Let mortal tongues awake, 



338 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Let all that breathe partake, 
Let rocks their silence break, 
The sound prolong. 

Our fathers' God, to Thee, 
Author of liberty, 

To Thee we sing; 

Long may our land be bright 
With Freedom's holy light; 
Protect us by Thy might, 

Great God, our King. 

THE TUNE. 

Pages, and at least two volumes, have been writ- 
ten to prove the origin of that cosmopolitan, half- 
Gregorian descant known here as "America," and 
in England as "God Save the King." William C. 
Woodbridge of Boston brought it home with him 
from Germany. The Germans had been singing 
it for years (and are singing it now, more or less) 
to the words, "Heil Dir Im Siegel Kranz," and the 
Swiss to "Rufst Du mein Vaterland." It was 
sung in Sweden, also, and till 1833 it was in public 
use in Russia commonly enough to give it a nat- 
ional character. Von Weber introduced it in his 
"Jubel" overture, and Beethoven, in 18 14, copied 
it in C Major and wrote piano variations on it. 
It has been ascribed to Henry Purcell (1696), to 
Lulli, a French composer (1670), to Dr. John Bull 
(16 19), and to Thomas Ravenscroft and an old 
Scotch carol as old as 1609. One might fancy that 
the biography of the famous air resembled Melchi- 
zedek's. 



PATRIOTIC HYMNS. 339 

The truth appears to be that certain bars of 
music which might easily happen to be similar, 
or even identical, when plain-song was the common 
style, were produced at different times and places, 
and one man finally harmonized the wandering 
strains into a complete tune. It is now generally 
conceded that the man was Henry Carey, a popular 
English composer and dramatist of the first half 
of the 1 8th century, who sang the melody as it now 
is, in 1740, at a public dinner given in honor of 
Admiral Vernon after his capture of Porto Bello 
(Brazil). This antedates any authenticated use 
of the tune ipsissima forma in England or conti- 
nental Europe. 

The American history of it simply is that Wood- 
bridge gave it to Mason and Mason gave it to 
Smith — and Smith gave it "My Country 'Tis of 
Thee." 

"BY THE RUDE BRIDGE." 



This genuinely American poem, written by 
Ralph Waldo Emerson and called usually the 
"Concord Hymn," was prepared for the dedication 
of the Battle-monument in Concord, April 19, 1836, 
and sung there to the time of "Old Hundred." 
Apparently no change has been made in the 
original except of a single word in the first line. 

By the rude bridge that arched the flood, 

Their flag to April's breeze unfurled, 
Here once the embattled farmers stood, 

And fired the shot heard round the world. 



340 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

The foe long since in silence slept; 

Alike the conqueror silent sleeps; 
And Time the ruined bridge has swept 

Down the dark stream which seaward creeps. 

On this green bank, by this soft stream, 

We set today a votive stone; 
That memory may their deed redeem. 

When, like our sires, our sons are gone. 

Spirit, that made those heroes dare 

To die, and leave their children free, 
Bid Time and Nature gently spare 

The shaft we raise to them and Thee. 

This does not appear in the hymnals and owns 
no special tune. Its niche of honor is in the temple 
of anthology, but it will always be called the "Con- 
cord Hymn" — and the fourth line of its first stanza 
is a perennial quotation. 

Ralph Waldo Emerson, LL.D., the renowned 
American essayist and poet, was born in Boston, 
1803. He graduated at Harvard in 1821, and was 
ordained to the Unitarian ministr}% but turned his 
attention to literature, writing and lecturing on 
ethical and philosophical themes, and winning 
universal fame by his original and suggestive prose 
and verse. He died April 27, 1882. 

BATTLE HYIVIN OF THE REPUBLIC. 

After a visit to the Federal camps on the Poto- 
mac in 1 861, Mrs. Julia Ward Howe returned to 
her lodgings in Washington, fatigued, as she says, 
by her "long, cold drive," and slept soundly. 



PATRIOTIC HYMNS. 34 1 

Awakening at early daybreak, she began "to twine 
the long Hnes of a hymn which promised to suit the 
measure of the *John Brown' melody." 

This hymn was written out after a fashion in the 
dark, by Mrs. Howe, and she then went back to sleep. 

Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord ; 
He is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are 

stored; 
He hath loosed the fateful lightning of His terrible swift sword; 
His truth is marching on. 

I have seen Him in the watch-fires of a hundred circling camps. 
They have builded Him an altar in the evening dews and damps; 
I can read His righteous sentence by the dim and flaring lamps; 
His day is marching on. 

I have read a fiery gospel writ in burnished rows of steel; 
"As ye deal with my contemners, so with you my grace shall deal ;" 
Let the Hero, born of woman, crush the serpent with His heel, 
Since God is marching on. 

He has sounded forth the trumpet that shall never call retreat; 
He is sifting out the hearts of men before His judgment seat; 
Oh, be swift, my soul, to answer Him! be jubilant my feet! 
Our God is marching on. 

In the beauty of the lilies Christ was bom across the sea, 
With a glory in His bosom that transfigures you and me; 
As He died to make men holy, let us die to make men free, 
While God is marching on. 

THE TUNE. 

The music of the old camp-meeting refrain, — 

Say, brothers will you meet us ? 
O brother, will you meet me, 



342 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

(No. 173 in the Revivalist,) was written in 1855, by 
John William Steffe, of Richmond, Va., for a fire 
company, and was afterwards arranged by Frank- 
Hn H. Lummis. The air of the "John Brown 
Song'* was caught from this reHgious melody. The 
old hymn-tune had the "Glory, Hallelujah" coda, 
cadenced off with, "For ever, ever more.'* 

In 1860-61 the garrison of soldiers at work on 
the half-dismantled defenses of Fort Warren in 
Boston Harbor, were fain to lighten labor and mock 
fatigue with any species of fun suggested by cir- 
cumstances or accident, and, as for music, they sang 
everything they could remember or make up. 
John Brown's memory and fate were fresh in the 
Northern mind, and the jollity of the not very 
reverent army men did not exclude frequent allu- 
sions to the rash old Harper's Ferry hero. 

A wag conj ured his spirit into the camp with a witti- 
cism as to what he was doing, and a comrade retorted, 

"Marchin' on, of course." 

A third cried, "Pooh, John Brown's under- 
ground." 

A serio-comic debate added more words, and in 
the midst of the banter, a musical fellow strung a 
rhythmic sentence and trolled it to the Methodist 
tune. "John Brown's body lies a mould'rin' in the 
ground" was taken up by others who knew the air, 
the following line was improvised almost instantly, 
and soon, to the accompaniment of pick, shovel, 
and crowbar, — 

His soul goes marching on, 



PATRIOTIC HYMNS. 343 

— rounded the couplet with full lung power through 
all the repetitions, till the inevitable "glory, glory 
hallelujah" had the voice of every soldier in the 
fort. The song "took," and the marching chorus 
of the Federal armies of the Civil War was started 
on its way. Mrs. Howe gave it a poem that made 
its rusticity sublime, and the " Battle Hymn of the 
Republic" began a career that promises to run till 
battle hymns cease to be sung. 

Julia Ward was born in New York city. May 27, 
18 19. In 1843 she became the wife of Samuel 
Gridley Howe, the far-famed philanthropist and 
champion of liberty, and with him edited an anti- 
slavery paper, the Boston Commonwealth, until the 
Civil War closed its mission. During the war she 
was active and influential — and has never ceased 
to be so — in the cause of peace and justice, and in 
every philanthropic movement. Her great hymn 
first brought her prominently before the public, but 
her many other writings would have made a literary 
reputation. Her four surviving children are all emi- 
nent in the scientific and literary world. 

KELLER ^S AMERICAN HYMN. 

Naturally the title suggests the authorship of the 
ode, but fate made Keller a musician rather than 
a poet and hymnist, and the honors of the fine 
anthem are divided. At the grand performance 
which created its reputation, the hymn of Dr. O. W. 
Holmes was substituted for the composer's words. 
This is Keller's first stanza: 



344 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Speed our republic, O Father on high! 

Lead us in pathways of justice and right, 
Rulers, as well as the ruled, one and all. 

Girdle with virtue the armor of might. 
Hail! three times hail, to our country and flag! 

Rulers, as well as the ruled, one and all. 
Girdle with virtue the armor of might; 

Hail! three times hail, to our country and flag! 

**Flag" was the unhappy word at the end of 
every one of the four stanzas. To match a short 
vowel to an orotund concert note for two beats and 
a "hold'* was impossible. When the great Peace 
Jubilee of 1872, in Boston, was projected, Dr. 
Holmes was applied to, and responded with a lyric 
that gave each stanza the rondeau effect designed 
by the composer, but replaced the flat final with a 
climax syllable of breadth and music: 

Angel of Peace, thou hast wandered too long! 

Spread thy white wings to the sunshine of love! 
Come while our voices are blended in song. 

Fly to our ark like the storm-beaten dove! 
Fly to our ark on the wings of the dove. 

Speed o'er the far-sounding billows of song, 
Crown'd with thine olive-leaf garland of love. 

Angel of Peace, thou hast waited too long! 

^ :ic :^ :^ ^ ^ 

Angels of Bethlehem, answer the strain! 

Hark! a new birth-song is filling the sky! 
Loud as the storm-wind that tumbles the main. 

Bid the full breath of the organ reply. 
Let the loud tempest of voices reply. 

Roll its long surge like the earth-shaking main! 
Swell the vast song till it mounts to the sky! 

Angels of Bethlehem, echo the strain! 



PATRIOTIC HYMNS. 345 

But the glory of the tune was Keller's own. 

Soon after the close of the war a prize of ^500 had 
been offered by a committee of American gentlemen 
for the best "national hymn" (meaning words and 
music). Mr. Keller, though a foreigner, was a 
naturalized citizen and patriot and entered the lists 
as a competitor with the zeal of a native and the 
ambition of an artist. Sometime in 1866 he finished 
and copyrighted the noble anthem that bears his 
name, and then began the struggle to get it before 
the public and test its merit. To enable him to 
bring it out before the New York Academy of 
Music, w^here (unfortunately) he determined to 
make his first trial, his brother kindly lent him four 
hundred dollars (which he had laid by to purchase 
a little home), and he borrowed two hundred more 
elsewhere. 

The performance proved a failure, the total 
receipts being only forty-two dollars. Keller was 
;S500 in debt, and his brother's house-money was 
gone. But he refused to accept his failure as final. 
Boston (where he should have begun) was intro- 
duced to his masterpiece at every opportunity, and 
gradually, with the help of the city bands and a few 
public concerts, a decided liking for it was worked 
up. It was entered on the program of the Peace Ju- 
bilee and sung by a chorus of ten thousand voices. 
The effect was magnificent. "Keller's American 
Hymn" became a recognized star number in the 
repertoire of "best" national tunes; and now few 



346 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

public occasions where patriotic music is demanded 
omit it in their menu of song.* 

It is pathetic to know that the composer's one 
great success brought him only a barren renown. 
The prize committee, on the ground that none of 
the competing pieces reached the high standard of 
excellence contemplated, withheld the $500, and 
Keller's work received merely the compliment of 
being judged worth presentation. The artist had 
his copyright, but he remained a poor man. 

Matthias Keller w^as born at Ulm, Wurtemberg, 
March 20, 1813. In his youth he was both a musi- 

*In Butterworth's "Story of the Tunes y'''* under the account of Keller's 
grand motet, the following sacred hymn is inserted as "often sung to it:" — 

Father Almighty, we bow at thy feet; 

Humbly thy grace and thy goodness we own. 
Answer in love when thy children entreat, 

Hear our thanksgiving ascend to thy throne. 
Seeking thy blessing, in worship we meet. 

Trusting our souls on thy mercy alone; 
Father Almighty, we bow at thy feet. 

Breathe, Holy Spirit, thy comfort divine, 
Tune every voice to thy music of peace; 

Hushed in our hearts, with one whisper of thine, 
Pride and the tumult of passion will cease. 

Joy of the watchful, who wait for thy sign, 
Hope of the sinful, who long for release. 

Breathe, Holy Spirit, thy comfort divine. 

God of salvation, thy glory we sing, 

Honors to thee in thy temple belong; 
Welcome the tribute of gladness we bring, 

Loud-pealing organ and chorus of song. 
While our high praises, Redeemer and King, 

Blend with the notes of the angelic throng, 
God of salvation, thy glory we sing. 

— T heron Brown. 



PATRIOTIC HYMNS. 347 

cian and a painter. Coming to this country, he 
chose the calHng that promised the better and 
quicker wages, playing in bands and theatre 
orchestras, but never accumulating money. He 
could make fine harmonies as well as play them, 
but English was not his mother-tongue, and though 
he wrote a hundred and fifty songs, only one made 
him well-known. When fame came to him it did 
not bring him wealth, and in his latter days, crippled 
by partial paralysis, he went back to his early art 
and earned a living by painting flowers and re- 
touching portraits and landscapes. He died in 
1875, only three years after his Coliseum triumph. 

"GOD BLESS OUR NATIVE LAND." 



This familiar patriotic hymn is notable — though 
not entirely singular — for having two authors. 
The older singing-books signed the name of J. S. 
Dwight to it, until inquiring correspondence 
brought out the testimony and the joint claim of 
Dwight and C. T. Brooks, and it appeared that 
both these scholars and writers translated it from 
the German. Later hymnals attach both their 
names to the hymn.* 

John Sullivan Dwight, born, in Boston, May 13, 
18 13, was a virtuoso in music, and an enthusiastic 
student of the art and science of tonal harmony. 
He joined a Harvard musical club known as "The 

♦For a full account of this disputed hymn, and the curious trick of memory 
which confused jour names in the question of its authorship, see Dr. Benson's 
Studies of Familiar Hymns, pp. 179—190 



34^ STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Pierian Sodality'* while a student at the University, 
and after his graduation became a prolific writer 
on musical subjects. Six years of his life were 
passed in the "Brook Farm Community." He 
was best known by his serial magazine, Dwight's 
Journal of Music, which was continued from 1852 
to 1 88 1. His death occurred in 1893. 

Rev. Charles Timothy Brooks, the translator of 
Faust, was born, in Salem, Mass., June 20, 1813, 
being only about a month younger than his friend 
Dwight. Was a student at Harvard University 
and Divinity School 1829-1835, and was ordained 
to the Unitarian ministry and settled at Newport, 
R.I. He resigned his charge there ( 1871) on account 
of ill health, and occupied himself with literary 
work until his death, Jan. 14, 1883. 

God bless our native land I 
Firm may she ever stand 

Through storm and night! 
When the wild tempests rave, 
Ruler of wind and wave, 
Do Thou our country save 

By Thy great might! 

For her our prayer shall rise 
To God above the skies; 

On Him we wait. 
Thou who art ever nigh, 
Guarding with watchful eye, 
To Thee aloud we cry, 

God save the State! 

The tune of "Dort," by Lowell Mason, has long 
been the popular melody for this hymn. Indeed 



PATRIOTIC HYMNS. 349 

the two were united by Mason himself. It is 
braver music than "America," and would have 
carried Dr. Smith's hymn nobly, but the borrowed 
tune, on the whole, better suits "My Country 'tis 
of thee," — and besides, it has the advantage of a 
middle-register harmony easy for a multitude of 
voices. 

" THOU, TOO, SAIL ON, O SHIP OF STATE, " 

The closing canto of Longfellow's "Launch- 
ing of the Ship," almost deserves a patriotic hymn- 
tune, though its place and use are commonly with 
school recitations. 

" GOD OF OUR FATHERS, KNOWN OF OLD. " 

Rudyard Kipling, in a moment of serious re- 
flection on the flamboyant militarism of British 
sentiment during the South African War, wrote 
this remarkable "Recessional," so strikingly un- 
like his other war-time poems. It is to be hoped 
he did not suddenly repent his Christian impulse, 
but with the chauvinistic cry around him, "Our 
Country, right or wrong!" he seems to have felt 
the contrast of his prayer — and flung it into the 
waste-basket. His watchful wife rescued it (the 
story says) and bravely sent it to the London 
Times. The world owes her a debt. The hymn 
is not only an anthem for Peace Societies, but a 
tonic for true patriotism. When Freedom fights 
in self-defense, she need not force herself to "for- 
get" the Lord of Hosts. 



350 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

God of our fathers, known of old, 

Lord of our far-flung battle-line, 
Beneath whose awful hand we hold 

Dominion over palm and pine; 
Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet. 

Lest we forget, lest we forget. 

The tumult and the shouting dies. 

The captains and the kings depart, 
Still stands Thine ancient sacrifice, 

An humble and a contrite heart. 
Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet. 

Lest we forget, lest we forget. 

Far-called, our navies melt away, 

On dune and headland sinks the fire; 

Lo all our pomp of yesterday 
Is one with Nineveh and Tyre. 

Judge of the nations, spare us yet. 
Lest we forget, lest we forget. 

If, drunk with sight of power, we loose 
Wild tongues that have not Thee in awe. 

Such boasting as the Gentiles use 
Or lesser breeds without the law, 

Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet. 
Lest we forget, lest we forget. 

For heathen heart that puts her trust, 

In reeking tube and iron shard. 
All valiant dust that builds on dust 

And guarding, calls not Thee to guard. 
For frantic boast and foolish word 

Thy mercy on thy people. Lord! 

Had Kipling cared more for his poem, and kept 
it longer in hand, he might have revised a line or 
two that would possibly seem commonplace to 



PATRIOTIC HYMNS. 35 1 

him — and corrected the grammar In the first line 
of the second stanza. But of so fine a composition 
there is no call for finical criticism. The "Reces- 
sional" is a product of the poet's holiest mood. 
"The Spirit of the Lord came upon him" — as the 
old Hebrew phrase is, and for the time he was a 
rapt prophet, with a backward and a forward 
vision. Providence saved the hymn, and it touched 
and sank Into the better mind of the nation. It is 
already learned b)^ heart — and sung — wherever 
English is the common speech, and will be heard 
In numerous translations, with the wish that there 
were more patriotic hymns of the same Christian 
temper and strength. 

Rudyard Kipling was born in HIndostan In 1865. 
Even with his first youthful experiments In the field 
of literature he was hailed as the coming apostle of 
muscular poetry and prose. For a time he made 
America his home, and it was while here that he 
faced death through a fearful and protracted sickness 
that brought him very near to God. He has visited 
many countries and described them all, and, though 
sometimes his imagination drives a reckless pen, 
the Christian world hopes much from a man whose 
genius can make the dullest souls listen. 

THE TUNE, 

The music set to Kipling's hymn Is Stalner's 
"Magdalen" — (not his "Magdahna," which is a 
common-metre tune) — and bears the marks of hav- 



352 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

ing been written to the words, con amore. It is a 
grave and earnest melody in D flat, with two bars 
in unison at " Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,'* 
making the utterance of the prayer a deep and pow- 
erful finale. 

John Stainer, Doctor of Music, born June 6, 1840, 
was nine years the chorister of St. Paul's, London, 
and afterwards organist to the University of Oxford. 
He is a member of the various musical societies of 
the Kingdom, and a Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honor. His talent for sacred music is rare and ver- 
satile, and beseems to have consecrated himself as a 
musician and composer to the service of the church. 

Every civilized nation has its patriotic hymns. In 
fact what makes a nation a nation is largely the uni- 
fying influences of its common song. Even the 
homeless Hebrew nation is kept together by its 
patriotic Psalms. The ethnic melodies would fill 
a volume with their story. The few presented in 
this chapter represent their range of quaHty and 
character — defiant as the Marseillaise, thrilling as 
"Scots' wha hae," joyful as "The Star-spangled 
Banner," breezy and bold as the "Ranz de 
Vaches," or sweet as the "Switzers' Song of Home." 



CHAPTER X. 



SAILORS' HYMNS. 



The oldest sailors' hymn is found in the 107th 
Psalm, vss. 23-30: 

They that go down to the sea in ships, 
To do business in great waters, 
These see the works of the Lord, 
And His wonders in the deep, etc. 

Montgomery has made this metrical rendering 
of these verses : 

They that toil upon the deep. 

And in vessels light and frail 
O'er the mighty waters sweep 
With the billows and the gale, 

Mark what wonders God performs 
When He speaks, and, unconfined, 

Rush to battle all His storms 
In the chariots of the wind. 

The hymn is not in the collections, and has no tune. 
Addison paraphrased the succeeding verses of the 
Psalm in his hymn, "How are thy servants blessed 
O Lord," sung to Hugh Wilson's* tune of "Avon": 

♦Hugh Wilson was a Scotch weaver of Kflmamock, born 1764; died 1824. 
C353) 



354 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

When by the dreadful tempest borne 

High on the broken wave, 
They know Thou art not slow to hear, 

Nor impotent to save. 

The storm is laid, the winds retire, 

Obedient to Thy will; 
The sea that roars at Thy command. 

At Thy command is still. 

" FIERCE WAS THE WILD BILLOW. " 

(Zo^epaq TptxujJLta?) 

The ancient writer, Anatolius, who composed 
this hymn has for centuries been confounded with 
"St" AnatoHus, patriarch of Constantinople, who 
died A. D. 458. The author of the hymn Hved in 
the seventh century, and except that he wrote sev- 
eral hymns, and also poems in praise of the martyrs, 
nothing or next to nothing, is known of him. The 
"Wild Billow" song was the principle seaman's 
hymn of the early church. It is being introduced into 
modern psalmody, the translation in use ranking 
among the most successful of Dr. John Mason 
Neale's renderings from the Greek. 

Fierce was the wild billow, 

Dark was the night; 
Oars labored heavily, 

Foam glimmered white; 
Trembled the mariners; 

Peril was nigh; 
Then said the God of God, 

"Peace! It is II" 



sailors' hymns. 355 

Ridge of the mountain wave, 

Lower thy crest! 
Wail of Euroclydon, 

Be thou at rest! 
Sorrow can never be, 

Darkness must fly, 
When saith the Light of Light, 

"Peace! It is I!" 

THE TUNE. 

The desire to represent the antiquity of the hymn 
and the musical style of its age, and on the other 
hand the wish to utilize it in the tune-manuals for 
Mariners' Homes and Seamen's Bethels, makes a 
difficulty for composers to study — and the task is 
still open to competition. Considering the peculiar 
tone that sailors' singing instinctively takes — and 
has taken doubtless from time immemorial — per- 
haps the plaintive melody of "Neale," by J. H. 
Cornell, comes as near to a vocal success as could 
be hoped. The music is of middle register and less 
than octave range, natural scale, minor, and the 
triple time lightens a little the dirge-like harmony 
while the weird sea-song effect is kept. A chorus 
of singing tars must create uncommon emotion, 
chanting this coronach of the storm. 

John Henry Cornell was born in New York city. 
May 8, 1838, and was for many years organist at 
St. Paul's Chapel, Trinity Church. He is the author 
of numerous educational works on the theory and 
practice of music. He composed the above tune in 
1872. Died March i, 1894. 



356 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 
" AVE, MARIS STELLA ." 

One of the titles which the Roman Catholic world 
applied to the Mother of Jesus, in the Middle Ages, 
was " Stella Maris, " " Star of the Sea. " Columbus, 
being a Catholic, sang this hymn, or caused it to be 
sung, every evening, it is said, during his perilous 
voyage to an unknown land. The marine epithet 
by which the Virgin Mary is addressed is admir- 
able as a stroke of poetry, and the hymn — of six 
stanzas — is a prayer which, though oflFered to her 
as to a divine being, was no doubt sincere in the 
simple sailor hearts of 1492. 

The two following quatrains finish the voyagers' 
petition, and point it with a doxology — • 

Vitam praesta puram. 
Iter para tutum, 
Ut videntes Jesum 
Semper collaetemur. 

Sit laus Deo Patri, 
Summo Christo decus, 
Spfritui Sancto, 
Tribus honor unusi 

A free translation is — 

Guide us safe, unspotted 
Through hfe's long endeavor 
Till with Thee and Jesus 
We rejoice forever. 

Praise to God the Father, 
Son and Spirit be; 
One and equal honor 
To the Holy Three. 



SAILORS HYMNS. 357 

Inasmuch as this ancient hymn did not attain the 
height of its popularity and appear in all the brev- 
iaries until the loth century, its assumed age has 
been doubted, but its reputed author, Venantius 
Fortunatus, Bishop of Poitiers, was born about 531, 
at Treviso, Italy, and died about 609. Though a 
religious teacher, he was a man of romantic and con- 
vivial instincts — a strange compound of priest, poet 
and beau chevalier. Duffield calls him "the last 
of the classics and first of the troubadours," and 
states that he was the " first of the Christian poets 
to begin that worship of the Virgin Mary which 
rose to a passion and sank to an idolatry. " 

TUNES 

To this ancient rogation poem have been composed 
by Aiblinger (Johann Caspar), Bavarian, {lyjg- 
1867,) by Proch (Heinrich), Austrian, (1809-1878,) 
by Tadolini (Giovanni), Italian, (1803-1872,) and by 
many others. The "Ave, Maris Stella" is in con- 
stant use in the Romish church, and Its English 
translation by Caswall is a favorite hymn in the 
Lyra Caiholica. 

"AVE, SANCTISSIMA 1 " 

This beautiful hymn is not Introduced here in 
order of time, but because It seems akin to the 
foregoing, and born of its faith and traditions — 
though it sounds rather too fine for a sailor song, on 



35^ STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

ship or shore. Like the other, the tuneful prayer is 
the voice of ultramontane piety accustomed to deify 
Mary, and is entitled the "Evening Song to the 
Virgin." 

Ave Sanctissima! we lift our souls to Thee 

Ora pro nobis! 'tis nightfall on the sea. 

Watch us while shadows lie 

Far o'er the waters spread; 

Hear the heart's lonely sigh; 
Thine, too, hath bled. 

Thou that hast looked on death. 
Aid us when death is near; 
Whisper of heaven to faith; 
Sweet Mother, hear! 

Ora pro nobis! the wave must rock our sleep; 
Ora, Mater, ora! Star of the Deep! 

This v^as first written in four separate quatrains, 
" 'Tis nightfall on the sea" being part of the first 
instead of the second line, and "We lift our souls," 
etc., was " Our souls rise to Thee," while the apostro- 
phe at the end read, "Thou Star of the Deep." 

The fact of the modern origin of the hymn does 
not make it less probable that the earlier one of 
Fortunatus suggested it. It was written by Mrs. 
Hemans, and occurs between the forty-third and 
forty-fourth stanzas of her long poem, "The 
Forest Sanctuary." 

A Spanish Christian who had embraced the 
Protestant faith fled to America (such is the story 
of the poem) to escape the cruelties of the In- 
quisition, and took with him his Catholic wife and 
his child. During the voyage the wife pined away 



SAILORS HYMNS. 359 

and died, a martyr to her conjugal loyalty and 
love. The hymn to the Virgin purports to have 
been her daily evening song at sea, plaintively 
remembered by the broken-hearted husband and 
father in his forest retreat on the American shore 
with his motherless boy. 

The music v^as composed by a sister of Mrs. 
Hemans, Mrs. Hughes, who probably arranged 
the Hues as they now stand in the tune. 

The song, though its words appear in the Paro- 
chial Hymn-hook, seems to be in use rather as 
parlor music than as a part of the liturgy. 

" JESUS, LOVER OF MY SOUL. " 

The golden quality of this best-known and loved 
of Charles Wesley's hymns is attested by two in- 
dorsements that cannot be impeached; its peren- 
nial life, and the blessings of millions who needed 
it. 

Jesus, Lover of my soul 

Let me to Thy bosom fly. 
While the billows near me roll, 

While the tempest still is high. 

Hide me, O my Saviour, hide, 

Till the storm of life is past, 
Safe into the haven guide, 

O receive my soul at last! 

Wesley is believed to have written it when a 
young man, and story and legend have been busy 
with the circumstances of its birth. The most 
poetical account alleges that a dove chased by a 



360 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

hawk dashed through his open window into his 
bosom, and the inspiration to write the line — 

Let me to Thy bosom fly, 

— was the genesis of the poem. Another report has it 
that one day Mr. Wesley, being pursued by in- 
furiated persecutors at Killalee, County Down, 
Ireland, took refuge in a milk-house on the home- 
stead of the Island Band Farm. When the mob 
came up the farmer's wife, Mrs. Jane Lowrie 
Moore, offered them refreshments and secretly 
let out the fugitive through a window to the back 
garden, where he concealed himself under a hedge 
till his enemies went away. When they had gone 
he had the hymn in his mind and partly jotted 
down. This tale is circumstantial, and came 
through Mrs. Mary E. Hoover, Jane Moore's 
granddaughter, who told it many years ago to her 
pastor, Dr. William Laurie of Bellefonte, Pa. So 
careful a narrative deserves all the respect due to 
a family tradition. Whether this or still another 
theory of the incidental cause of the wonderful 
hymn shall have the last word may never be decided 
nor is it important. 

There is "antecedent probability," at least, in 
the statement that Wesley wrote the first two 
Stanzas soon after his perilous experience in a 
storm at sea during his return voyage from America 
to England in 1736. In a letter dated Oct. 28 of 
that year, he describes the storm that washed away 
a large part of the ship's cargo, strained her seams 



sailors' hymns. 361 

so that the hardest pumping could not keep pace 
with the inrushing water, and finally forced the 
captain to cut the mizzen-mast away. Young 
Wesley was ill and sorely alarmed, but knew, he 
says, that he "abode under the shadow of the Al- 
mighty,'' and finally, "in this dreadful moment," 
he was able to encourage his fellow-passengers who 
were "in an agony of fear," and to pray with and 
for them. 

It was his awful hazard and bare escape in that 
tempest that prompted the following stanzas — 

O Thou who didst prepare 
The ocean's caverned cell, 
And teach the gathering waters there 
To meet and dwell; 
Toss'd in our reeling bark 
Upon this briny sea, 
Thy wondrous ways, O Lord, we mark. 
And sing to Thee. 

:(c 4: * % % :<: 

Borne on the dark'ning wave. 
In measured sweep we go. 
Nor dread th' unfathomable grave. 
Which yawns below; 
For He is nigh who trod 
Amid the foaming spray. 
Whose billows own'd th' Incarnate God, 
And died away. 

And naturally the memory of his almost ship- 
wreck on the wild Atlantic colored more or less the 
visions of his muse, and influenced the metaphors 
of his verse for years. 



362 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

The popularity of " Jesus, Lover of my Soul '* not 
only procured it, at home, the name of "England's 
song of the sea," but carried it with "the course of 
Empire" to the West, where it has reigned with 
"Rock of Ages," for more than a hundred and 
fifty years, joint primate of inspired human songs. 

Compiled incidents of its heavenly service would 
fill a chapter. A venerable minister tells of the 
supernal comfort that lightened his after years of 
sorrow from the dying bed of his wife who whis- 
pered with her last breath, "Hide me, O my 
Saviour, hide." 

A childless and widowed father in Washington 
remembers with a more than earthly peace, the wife 
and mother's last request for Wesley's hymn, and 
her departure to the sound of its music to join the 
spirit of her babe. 

A summer visitor in Philadelphia, waiting on a 
hot street-corner for a car to Fairmount Park, over- 
heard a quavering voice singing the same hymn 
and saw an emaciated hand caressing a little plant 
in an open window — and carried away the picture 
of a fading life, and the words — 
Other refuge have I none, 
Hangs my helpless soul on Thee. 

On one of the fields of the Civil War, just after 
a bloody battle, the Rev. James Rankin of the 
United Presbyterian Church bent over a dying 
soldier. Asked if he had any special request to 
make, the brave fellow replied, "Yes, sing * Jesus, 
Lover of my Soul.' " 



sailors' hymns. 363 

The clergyman belonged to a church that sang 
only Psalms. But what a tribute to that ubiqui- 
tous hymn that such a man knew it by heart! A 
moment's hesitation and he recalled the words, and, 
for the first time in his life, sang a sacred song that 
was not a Psalm. When he reached the lines, — 

Safe into the haven guide, 
O receive my soul at last, 

— his hand was in the frozen grip of a dead man, 
whose face wore "the light that never was on sea 
or land." The minister went away saying to him- 
self, " If this hymn is good to die by, it is good to live 
by." 

THE TUNE. 

Of all the tone-masters who have studied and 
felt this matchless hymn, and given it vocal wings — 
Marsh, Zundel, Bradbury, Dykes, Mason — none 
has so exquisitely uttered its melting prayer, 
syllable by syllable, as Joseph P. Holbrook in his 
"Refuge." Unfortunately for congregational use, 
it is a duo and quartet score for select voices; but 
the four-voice portion can be a chorus, and is often 
so sung. Its form excludes it from some hymnals 
or places it as an optional beside a congregational 
tune. But when rendered by the choir on special 
occasions its success in conveying the feeling 
and soul of the words is complete. There is a 
prayer in the swell of every semitone and the touch 
of every accidental, and the sweet concord of the 



364 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

duet — soprano with tenor or bass — pleads on to 
the end of the fourth Hne, where the full harmony 
reinforces it like an organ with every stop in play. 
The tune is a rill of melody ending in a river of 
song.* 

For general congregational use, Mason's "Whit- 
man" has wedded itself to the hymn perhaps 
closer than any other. It has revival associations 
reaching back more than sixty years. 

" WHEN MARSHALLED ON THE NIGHTLY PLAIN. " 

Perhaps no line in all familiar hymnology more 
readily suggests the name of its author than this. 
In the galaxy of poets Henry Kirke White was a 
brief luminary whose briUiancy and whose early 
end have appealed to the hearts of three gener- 
ations. He was born at Nottingham, Eng., in the 
year 1795. His father was a butcher, but the son, 
disliking the trade, was apprenticed to a weaver 
at the age of fourteen. Two years later he entered 
an attorney's office as copyist and student. 

The boy imbibed sceptical notions from some 
source, and might have continued to scofF at 
religion to the last but for the experience of his 
intimate friend, a youth named Almond, whose life 
was changed by witnessing one day the happy 
death of a Christian believer. Decided to be a 



♦Holbrook has also an arrangement of Franz Abt's, "When the Swallows 
Homeward Fly" written to "Jesus, Lover of my Soul," but with Wesley ''s 
words it is far less effective than his original work. "Refuge" is not a manufac- 
ture but an inspiration. 



sailors' hymns. 365 

Christian himself, it was some time before he 
mustered courage to face White's ridicule and 
resentment. He simply drew away from him. 
When White demanded the reason he was obliged 
to tell him that they two must henceforth walk 
diflFerent paths. 

"Good God!" exclaimed White, "you surely 
think worse of me than I deserve!" 

The separation was a severe shock to Henry, 
and the real grief of it sobered his anger to reflec- 
tion and remorse. The light of a better life came 
to him when his heart melted — and from that time 
he and Almond were fellows in faith as well as 
friendship. 

In his hymn the young poet tells the stormy 
experience of his soul, and the vision that guided 
him to peace. 

When, marshalled on the nightly plain, 

The glittering host bestud the sky, 
One star alone of all the train 

Can fix the sinner's wandering eye. 
Hark, hark! to God the chorus breaks, 

From every host, from every gem. 
But one alone the Saviour speaks; 

It is the Star of Bethlehem. 

Once on the raging seas I rode: 

The storm was loud, the night was dark; 
The ocean yawned, and rudely blowed 

The wind that tossed my foundering bark. 
Deep horror then my vitals froze. 

Death-struck, I ceased the tide to stem. 
When suddenly a star arose; 

It was the Star of Bethlehem. 



366 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

It was my guide, my light, my all. 

It bade my dark forebodings cease; 
And through the storm and danger's thrall. 

It led me to the port of peace. 
Now, safely moored, my perils o'er, 

I'll sing, first in night's diadem, 
For ever and for evermore, 

The Star, the Star of Bethlehem! 

Besides this delightful hymn, with its graphic 
sea-faring metaphors, two others, at least, of the 
same boy-poet hold their place in many of the 
church and chapel collections: 

The Lord our God is clothed with might, 

The winds obey His will; 
He speaks, and in his heavenly height 

The roUing sun stands still. 

And— 

Oft in danger, oft in woe. 
Onward, Christians, onward go. 

Henry Kirke White died in the autumn of 1806, 
when he was scarcely twenty years old. His "Ode 
to Disappointment," and the miscellaneous flowers 
and fragments of his genius, make up a touching 
volume. The fire of a pure, strong spirit burning 
through a consumptive frame is in them all. 

THE TUNE. 

"When, marshalled on the mighty plain** has 
a choral set to it in the Methodist Hymnal — credi- 
ted to Thos. Harris, and entitled "Crimea" — 
which divides the three stanzas into six, and 



I 




SAILORS* HYMNS. 36/ 

breaks the continuity of the hymn. Better sing it 
in its original form — long metre double — to the 
dear old melody of " Bonny Doon." The voices 
of Scotland, England and America are blended in it. 
The origin of this Caledonian air, though some- 
times fancifully traced to an Irish harper and 
sometimes to a wandering piper of the Isle of Man, 
is probably lost in antiquity. Burns, however, 
whose name is linked with it, tells this whimsical 
story of it, though giving no date save "a good 
many years ago," — (apparently about 1753). A 
virtuoso, Mr. James Millar, he writes, wishing he 
were able to compose a Scottish tune, was told by a 
musical friend to sit down to his harpsichord and 
make a rhythm of some kind solely on the black 
keys, and he would surely turn out a Scotch tune. 
The musical friend, pleased at the result of his 
jest, caught the string of plaintive sounds made by 
Millar, and fashioned it into " Bonny Doon." 

' TAND AHEAPr 

The burden of this hymn was suggested by the 
dying words of John Adams, one of the crew of 
the English ship Bounty who in 1789 mutinied, 
set the captain and officers adrift, and ran the 
vessel to a tropical island, where they burned her. 
In a few years vice and violence had decimated 
the wicked crew, who had exempted themselves 
from all divine and human restraint, until the last 
man alive was left with only native women and 



368 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

half-breed children for company. His true name 
was Alexander Smith, but he had changed it to John 
Adams. 

The situation forced the lonely Englishman to 
a sense of solemn responsibility, and in bitter re- 
morse, he sought to retrieve his wasted life, and 
spend the rest of his exile in repentance and repen- 
tant works. He found a Bible in one of the dead 
seamen's chests, studied it, and organized a com- 
munity on the Christian plan. A new generation 
grew up around him, reverencing him as governor, 
teacher, preacher and judge, and speaking his 
language — and he was wise enough to exercise his 
authority for the common good, and never abuse it. 
Pitcairn's Island became "the Paradise of the 
Pacific." It has not yet belied its name. Besides 
its opulence of rural beauty and natural products, 
its inhabitants, now the third generation from the 
" mutineer missionary," are a civilized community 
without the vices of civilization. There is no 
licentiousness, no profanity, no Sabbath-breaking, 
no rum or tobacco — and no sickness. 

John Adams died in 1829 — ^f^er an island resi- 
dence of forty years. In his extreme age, while he 
lay waiting for the end, he was asked how he felt in 
view of the final voyage. 

"Land ahead!" murmured the old sailor — and 
his last words were, " Rounding the Cape — into 
the harbor." 

That the veteran's death-song should be per- 
petuated in sacred music is not strange. 



SAILORS* HYMNS. 369 

Land ahead! its fruits are waving 

O'er the hills of fadeless green; 
And the living waters laving 

Shores where heavenly forms are seen. 

Chorus. 

Rocks and storms I'll fear no more, 
When on that eternal shore; 
Drop the anchor! furl the sail! 
I am safe within the veil. 

Onward, bark! the cape I'm rounding; 

See, the blessed wave their hands; 
Hear the harps of God resounding 

From the bright immortal bands. 

The authorship of the hymn is credited to Rev. 
E. Adams — whether or not a descendent of the 
Island Patriarch we have no information. It was 
written about 1869. 

The ringing melody that bears the words was 
composed by John Miller Evans, born Nov. 30, 
1825; ^^^^ J^'^- ^y 1892. The original air — with a 
simple accompaniment — was harmonized by Hu- 
bert P. Main, and published in Winnowed Hymns 
in 1873. 

" ETERNAL FATHER, STRONG TO SAVE/ ' 

This is sung almost universally on English ships. 
It is said to have been one of Sir Evelyn Wood's 
favorites. The late William Whiting wrote it in 
i860, and it was incorporated with some altera- 
tions in the standard English Church collection 



370 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

entitled Hymns Ancient and Modern. It is a 
translation from a Latin hymn, a triune litany ad- 
dressing a stanza each to Father, Son and Holy 
Spirit. The whole four stanzas have the same 
refrain, and the appeal to the Father, who bids — 

— the mighty ocean deep 

Its own appointed limits keep, 

— varies in the appeal to Christ, who — 

— walked upon the foaming deep. 

The third and fourth stanzas are the following: 

O Holy Spirit, Who didst brood 
Upon the waters dark and rude, 
And bid their angry tumult cease, 
And give, for wild confusion, peace; 
Oh, hear us when we cry to Thee 
For those in peril on the sea. 

O Trinity of love and power. 
Our brethren shield in danger's hour; 
From rock and tempest, fire and foe, 
Protect them wheresoe'er they go: 

Thus evermore shall rise to Thee 
Glad hymns of praise from land to sea. 

William Whiting was born at Kensington, Lon- 
don, Nov. I, 1825. H^ ^'^s Master of Winchester 
College Chorister's School. Died in 1878. 

THE TUNE. 

The choral named "Melita" (in memory of St. 
Paul's shipwreck) was composed by Dr. Dykes 
in 1861, and its strong and easy chords and mod- 



SAILORS HYMNS. 371 

erate note range are nobly suited to the devout 
hymn. 

" THE OCEAN HATH NO DANGER. " 

This charming sailors' lyric is the work of the 
Rev. Godfrey Thring. Its probable date is 1862, 
and it appeared in Morell and Howe's collection 
and in Hymns Congregational and Others, pub- 
lished in 1866, which contained a number from 
his pen. Rector Thring was born at Alford, Som- 
ersetshire, Eng., March 25, 1823, and educated at 
Shrewsbury School and Baliol College, Oxford. 
In 1858 he succeeded his father as Rector of Alford. 

He compiled A Church of England Hymnhook 
in 1880. 

The ocean hath no danger 

For those whose prayers are made 
To Him who in a manger 

A helpless Babe was laid. 
Who, bom to tribulation 

And every human ill, 
The Lord of His creation. 

The wildest waves can still. 

:tc He t He :(c * 

Though life itself be waning 

And waves shall o'er us sweep. 
The wild winds sad complaining 

Shall lull us still to sleep, 
For as a gentle slumber 

E'en death itself shall prove 
To those whom Christ doth number 

As worthy of His love. 



372 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

The tune "Morlalx/* given to the hymn by Dr. 
Dykes, is simple, but a very sweet and appropriate 
harmony. 

"FIERCE RAGED THE TEMPEST ON THE DEEP." 

■ ■ ■ ' .III 

This fine lyric, based on the incident in the storm 
on the Sea of Galilee, is the work of the same writer 
and owes its tune "St. Aelred" to the same com- 
poser. 

The melody has an impressive rallentando of 
dotted semibreves to the refrain, "Peace, be still," 
after the more rapid notes of the three-line stanzas. 

The wild winds hushed, the angry deep 
Sank hke a Httle child to sleep, 
The sullen waters ceased to leap. 

4: :|e 4: He :4c 4: 

So when our life is clouded o'er 
And storm-winds drift us from the shore 
Say, lest we sink to rise no more, 
"Peace! be still." 

"PULL FOR THE SHORE.'' 



When a shipwrecked crew off a rocky coast were 
hurrying to the long-boat, a sailor begged leave to 
run back to the ship's forecastle and save some of 
his belongings. 

"No sir," shouted the Captain, "she's sinking! 
There's nothing to do but to pull for the shore." 
Philip P. Bliss caught up the words, and wrought 
them into a hymn and tune. 



SAILORS HYMNS. ^73 

Light In the darkness, sailor, day is at hand! 
See o'er the foaming billows fair Haven's land; 
Drear was the voyage, sailor, now almost o'er; 
Safe in the life-boat, sailor, pull for the shore! 

Chorus. 

Pull for the shore, sailor, pull for the shore! 
Heed not the rolling waves, but bend to the oar; 
Safe in the life-boat, sailor, cling to self no more; 
Leave the poor old stranded wreck and pull for the shore! 

The hymn-tune is a buoyant allegro — solo and 
chorus — full of hope and courage, and both imagery 
and harmony appeal to the hearts of seamen. It is 
popular, and has long been one of the song numbers 
in demand at religious services both on sea and land. 

" JESUS, SAVIOUR, PILOT ME. " 

The Rev. Edward Hopper, D.D. wrote this 
hymn while pastor of Mariner's Church at New 
York harbor, "The Church of the Sea and Land." 
He was born in 1818, and graduated at Union 
Theological Seminary in 1843. 

Jesus, Saviour, pilot me 
Over life's tempestuous sea, 
Unknown waves before me roll. 
Hiding rock and treacherous shoal; 
Chart and compass come from Thee, 
Jesus, Saviour, pilot me! 

Only three stanzas of this rather lengthy hymn 
are in common use. 



374 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

THE TUNE. 

Without title except "Savior, pilot me." A simple 
and pleasing melody composed by John Edgar 
Gould, late of the firm of Gould and Fischer, piano 
dealers, Phila., Pa. He was born in Bangor, Me., 
April 9, 1822. Conductor of music and composer of 
psalm and hymn tunes and glees, he also compiled 
and published no less than eight books of church, 
Sunday-school, and secular songs. Died in Algiers, 
Africa, Feb. 13, 1875. 

^ THROW OUT THE LIFE-LINE ." 

This is one of the popular refrains that need but 
a single hearing to fix themselves in common 
memory and insure their ov^n currency and eclat. 

The Rev. E. S. UflFord, v^ell-knov^n as a Baptist 
preacher, lecturer, and evangelist, v^as witnessing 
a drill at the life-saving station on Point Allerton, 
Nantasket Beach, when the order to "throw out 
the life-line" and the sight of the apparatus in 
action, combined with the story of a shipwreck on 
the spot, left an echo in his mind till it took the 
form of a song-sermon. Returning home, he 
pencilled the words of this rousing hymn, and, 
being himself a singer and player, sat down to his 
instrument to match the lines with a suitable air. 
It came to him almost as spontaneously as the 
music of "The Ninety and Nine" came to Mr. 
Sankey. In fifteen minutes the hymn-tune was 



SAILORS HYMNS. 375 

made — so far as the melody went. It was pub- 
lished in sheet form in 1888, and afterwards pur- 
chased by Mr. Sankey, harmonized by Mr. Steb- 
bins, and published in Winnowed Songs, 1890. 
Included in Gospel Hymns, Nov. 6, 1891. 

Ever since it has been a favorite with singing 
seamen, and has done active service as one of our 
most stirring field-songs in revival work. 

Throw out the Life-line across the dark wave, 
There is a brother whom some one should save; 
Somebody's brother! oh, who, then, will dare 
To throw out the Life-line, his peril to share ? 

Throw out the Life-line with hand quick and strong! 

Why do you tarry, why linger so long .? 

See! he is sinking; oh, hasten today — 

And out with the Life-boat! away, then away I 

Chorus. 

Throw out the Life-line! 

Throw out the Life-line! 
Some one is drifting away; 

Throw out the Life-line! 

Throw out the Life-line! 
Some one is sinking today. 

One evening, in the midst of their hilarity at 
their card-tables, a convivial club in one of the large 
Pennsylvania cities heard a sweet, clear female 
voice singing this solo hymn, followed by a chime 
of mingled voices in the chorus. A room in the 
building had been hired for religious meetings, and 
tonight was the first of the series. A strange cool- 
ness dampened the merriment in the club-room, 



376 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

as the singing went on, and the gradual silence 
became a hush, till finally one member threw down 
his cards and declared, "If what they're saying is 
right, then we're wrong." 

Others followed his example, then another, and 
another. 

There is a brother whom some one should save. 

Quietly the revellers left their cards, cigars and 
half-emptied glasses and went home. 

Said the ex-member who told the story years 
after to Mr. Ufford, "Throw Out the Life-line' 
broke up that club." 

He is today one of the responsible editors of a 
great city daily — and his old club-mates are all 
holding positions of trust. 

A Christian man, a prosperous manufacturer in 
a city of Eastern Massachusetts, dates his first 
religious impressions from hearing this hymn when 
sung in public for the first time, twenty years ago. 

Visiting California recently, Mr. UfFord sang his 
hymn at a watch-meeting and told the story of the 
loss of the Elsie Smith on Cape Cod in 1902, ex- 
hibiting also the very life-line that had saved sixteen 
lives from the wreck. By chance one of those six- 
teen was in the audience. 

An English clergyman who was on duty at Gib- 
raltar when an emigrant ship went on the rocks 
in a storm, tells with what pathetic power and 
effect "Throw out the Life-line" was sung at a 
special Sunday service for the survivors. 



SAILORS HYMNS. 'l^^'] 

At one of Evan Roberts' meetings in Laughor, 
Wales, one speaker related the story of a "vision," 
when in his room alone, and a Voice that bade him 
pray, and when he knelt but could not pray, com- 
manded him to "Throw out the Life-line/' He 
had scarcely uttered these words in his story when 
the whole great congregation sprang to its feet and 
shouted the hymn together like the sound of many 
waters. 

"There is more electricity in that song than in 
any other I ever heard," Dr. Cuyler said to Mr. 
Sankey when he heard him sing it. Its electricity 
has carried it nearly round the world. 

The Rev. Edward Smith Ufford was born in 
Newark, N. J., 185 1, and educated at Stratford 
Academy (Ct.) and Bates Theological Seminary, 
Me. He held several pastorates in Maine and 
Massachusetts, but a preference for evangelistic 
work led him to employ his talent for object-teach- 
ing in illustrated religious lectures through his own 
and foreign lands, singing his hymn and enforcing 
it with realistic representation. He is the author 
and compiler of several Sunday-school and chapel 
song-manuals, as Converts^ Praisey Life-long SongSy 
Wonderful Love and Gathered Gems, 



CHAPTER XI. 



HYMNS OF WALES, 



In writing this chapter the task of identifying 
the tune^ and its author, in the case of every hymn, 
would have required more time and labor than, 
perhaps, the importance of the facts would justify. 

Peculiar interest, however, attaches to Welsh 
hymns, even apart from the airs which accompany 
them, and a general idea of Welsh music may be 
gathered from the tone and metre of the lyrics in- 
troduced. More particular information would 
necessitate printing the music itself. 

From the days of the Druids, Wales has been a 
land of song. From the later but yet ancient time 
when the people learned the Christian faith, it has 
had its Christian psalms. The "March of the 
White Monks of Bangor" (7th centur)^-) is an epic 
of bravery and death celebrating the advance of 
Christian martyrs to their bloody fate at the hands 
of the Saxon savages. " Its very rhythm pictures 
the long procession of w^hite-cowled patriots bear- 
ing peaceful banners and in faith taking their way 
to Chester to stimulate the valor of their country- 

(378) 



HYMNS OF WALES. 379 

men." And ever since the " Battle of the Hallelu- 
jahs" — near Chirk on the border, nine miles from 
Wrexham — when the invading Danes were driven 
from the field in fright by the rush of the Cymric 
army shouting that mighty cry, every Christian 
poet in Wales has had a hallelujah In his verse. 

Through the centuries, while chased and hunted 
by their conquerors among the Cambrian hills, but 
clinging to their independent faith, or even when 
paralyzed into spiritual apathy under tribute to a 
foreign church, the heavenly song still murmured 
In a few true hearts amidst the vain and vicious 
lays of carnal mirth. It survived even when people 
and priest alike seemed utterly degenerate and god- 
less. The voice of Walter Bute (1372) rang true for 
the religion of Jesus in its purity. Brave John 
Oldcastle, the martyr, (141 7,) clung to the gospel 
he learned at the foot of the cross. William Wroth, 
clergyman, saved from fiddling at a drunken dance 
by a disaster that turned a house of revelry Into a 
house of death, confessed his sins to God and be- 
came the "Apostle of South Wales." The young 
vicar, Rhys Pritchard (1579) rose from the sunken 
level of his profession, rescued through an Incident 
less tragic. Accustomed to drink himself to in- 
ebriety at a public-house — a socially winked-at in- 
dulgence then — he one day took his pet goat with 
him, and poured liquor down the creature's throat. 
The refusal of the poor goat to go there again forced 
the reckless priest to reflect on his own ways. He 
forsook the ale-house and became a changed man. 



380 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Among his writings — later than this — is found 
the following plain, blunt statement of what con- 
tinued long to be true of Welsh society, as repre- 
sented in the common use of Sunday time. 

Of all the days throughout the rolling year 
There's not a day we pass so much amiss, 
There's not a day wherein we all appear 
So irreligious, so profaned as this. 

A day for drunkenness, a day for sport, 
A day to dance, a day to lounge away, 
A day for riot and excess, too short 
Amongst the Welshmen is the Sabbath day. 

A day to sit, a day to chat and spend, 
A day when fighting 'mongst us most prevails, 
A day to do the errands of the Fiend — 
Such is the Sabbath in most parts of Wales. 

Meantime some who could read the language — 
and the better educated (like the author of the 
above rhymes) knew English as well as Welsh — 
had seen a rescued copy of Wycliffs New Testa- 
ment, a precious publication seized and burnt (like 
the bones of its translator) by hostile ecclesiastics, 
and suppressed for nearly two hundred years. 
Walter Bute, like Obadiah who hid the hundred 
prophets, may well be credited with such secret 
salvage out of the general destruction. And there 
were doubtless others equally alert for the same 
quiet service. We can imagine how far the stealthy 
taste of that priceless book would help to strengthen 
a better religion than the one doled out profession- 
ally to the multitude by a Civil church; and how 



HYMNS OF WALES 38 1 

it kept the hallelujah alive in silent but constant souls ; 
and in how many cases it awoke a conscience long 
hypnotized under corrupt custom, and showed a 
renegade Christian how morally untuned he was. 

Daylight came slowly after the morning star, 
but when the dawn reddened it was in welcome to 
Pritchard's and Penry's gospel song; and sunrise 
hastened at the call of Caradoc, and Powell, and 
Erbury, and Maurice, the holy men who followed 
them, some with the trumpet of Sinai and some 
with the harp of Calvary. 

Cambria was being prepared for its first great 
revival of religion. 

There was no rich portfolio of Christian hymns 
such as exists to-day, but surely there were not 
wanting pious words to the old chants of Bangor 
and the airs of " Wild Wales." When time brought 
Howell Harris and Daniel Rowland, and the great 
** Reformation" of the eighteenth century, the 
renowned William Williams, "the Watts of Wales," 
appeared, and began his tuneful work. The 
province soon became a land of hymns. The 
candles lit and left burning here and there by 
Penry, Maurice, and the Owens, blazed up to 
beacon-fires through all the twelve counties when 
Harris, at the head of the mighty movement, carried 
with him the sacred songs of Williams, kindling 
more lights everywhere between the Dee and the 
British Channel. 

William Williams of Pantycelyn was born in 
1 71 7, at Cefncoed Farm, near Llandovery. Three 



382 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

years younger than Harris, (an Oxford graduate,) 
and educated only at a village school and an 
academy at Llwynllwyd, he was the song prota- 
gonist of the holy campaign as the other was its 
champion preacher. From first to last Williams 
wrote nine hundred and sixteen hymns, some of 
which are still heard throughout the church mili- 
tant, and others survive in local use and affection. 
He died Jan. 11, 1 791, at Pantycelyn, where he had 
made his home after his marriage. One of the 
hymns in his Gloria, his second publication, may 
well have been his last. It was dear to him above 
others, and has been dear to devout souls in many 
lands. 

My God, my portion and my love; 

My all on earth, my all above, 
My all within the tomb; 

The treasures of this world below 

Are but a vain, delusive show, 
Thy bosom is my home. 

It was fitting that Williams should name the 
first collection of his hymns (all in his native Welsh) 
The Hallelujah. Its lyrics are full of adoration 
for the Redeemer, and thanksgivings for His work. 

" ONWARD RIDE IN TRIUMPH, JESUS , " 

Marchog, Jesu, yn llwyddi annus. 

Has been sung in Wales for a century and a half, 
and is still a favorite. 

Onward ride in triumph, Jesus, 
Gird thy sword upon thy thigh; 



HYMNS OF WALES. 383 

Neither earth nor Hell's own vastness 

Can Thy mighty power defy. 
In Thy Name such glory dwelleth 

Every foe withdraws in fear, 
All the wide creation trembleth 

Whensoever Thou art near.* 

The unusual militant strain in this paean of 
conquest soon disappears, and the gentler aspects 
of Christ's atoning sacrifice occupy the writer's 
mind and pen. 

* 'IN EDEN— O THE MEMORY! '* 

Tn Eden cofiaf hyny hyth! 

The text, "He was wounded for our trans- 
gressions," is amplified in this hymn, and the 
Saviour is shown bruising Himself while bruising 
the serpent. 

The first stanza gives the key-note, — 

In Eden — O the memory! 

What countless gifts were lost to me! 

My crown, my glory fell; 
But Calvary's great victory 
Restored that vanished crown to me; 

On this my songs shall dwell; 

— and the multitude of Williams' succeeding "songs" 
that chant the same theme shows how well he kept 

*The following shows the style of Rev. Elvet Lewis' translation: 
Blessed Jesus, march victorious 

With Thy sword fixed at Thy side; 
Neither death nor hell can hinder 

The God-Warrior in His ride. 



384 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

his promise. The following hymn in Welsh 
(Cymmer, Jesu fi feVr ydwyf) antedates the ad- 
vice of Dr. Malan to Charlotte Elliott, "Come just 
as you are" — . 

Take me as I am, O Saviour, 

Better I can never be; 
Thou alone canst bring me nearer, 

Self but draws me far from Thee. 
I can never 
But within Thy wounds be saved; 

— and another {Mi Jafla match oddi ar fy ngwar) 
reminds us of Bunyan's Pilgrim in sight of the 
Cross : 

I'll cast my heavy burden down, 

Remembering Jesus* pains; 
Guilt high as towering mountain tops 

Here Kims to joyful strains. 

4c :|e t 4c 4c ^k 

He stretched His pure white hands abroad, 

A crown of thorns He wore. 
That so the vilest sinner might 

Be cleansed forevermore; 

Williams was called "The Sweet Singer of 
Wales" and "The Watts of Wales" because he was 
the chief poet and hymn-writer of his time, but 
the lady he married, Miss Mary Francis, was 
literally a singer, with a voice so full and melo- 
dious that the people to whom he preached during 
his itineraries, which she sometimes shared with 
him, were often more moved by her sweet hym- 
nody than by his exhortations. On one occasion 



HYMNS OF WALES. 385 

the good man, accompanied by his wife, put up at 
Bridgend Tavern in Llangefin, Anglesea, and a 
mischievous crowd, wishing to plague the "Metho- 
dists,'* planned to make night hideous in the house 
with a boisterous merry-making. The fiddler, fol- 
lowed by a gang of roughs, pushed his way to the 
parlor, and mockingly asked the two guests if they 
would "have a tune.'* 

"Yes," replied Williams, falling in with his 
banter, "anything you like, my lad; * Nancy Jig' 
or anything else." 

And at a sign from her husband, as soon as the 
fellow began the jig, Mrs. Williams struck in with 
one of the poet-minister's well-known Welsh hymns 
in the same metre, — 

Gwaed Dy groes sy^n c* odi fyny. 

Calvary's blood the weak exalteth 
More than conquerors to be,* 

— and followed the player note for note, singing the 
sacred words in her sweet, clear voice, till he 
stopped ashamed, and took himself off with all his 
gang. 

♦A less literal but more hymn-like translation is: 

Jesu's blood can raise the feeble 

As a conqueror to stand; 
Jesu's blood is all-prevailing 
O'er the mighty of the land: 

Let the breezes 
Blow from Calvary on me. 
Says the author of Stveet Singers of Wales, "This refrain has been the pass- 
word of many powerful revivals." 



386 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Another hymn — 

0' Lie jar a! addfwyn JesUy 

Speak, O speak, thou gentle Jesus, 

— recalls the well-known verse of Newton, "How 
sweet the name of Jesus sounds." Like many 
of Williams* hymns, it was prompted by occasion. 
Some converts suffered for lack of a "clear ex- 
perience," and complained to him. They were 
like the disciples in the ship, "It was dark, and 
Jesus had not yet come unto them." The poet- 
preacher immediately made this hymn-prayer for 
all souls similarly tried. Edward Griffiths trans- 
lates it thus: 

Speak, I pray Thee, gentle Jesus, 

O how passing sweet Thy words, 
Breathing o'er my troubled spirit. 

Peace which never earth affords, 
All the world's distracting voices. 

All th' enticing tones of ill. 
At Thy accents, mild, melodious 

Are subdued, and all is still. 

Tell me Thou art mine, O Saviour 

Grant me an assurance clear. 
Banish all my dark misgivings. 

Still my doubting, calm my fear. 

Besides his Welsh hymns, published in the first 
and in the second and larger editions of his 
Hallelujah, and in two or three other collections, 
William Williams wrote and published two books 



HYMNS OF WALES. 387 

of English hymns,* the Hosanna (1759) and the 
Gloria (1772). He fills so large a space in the 
hymnology and religious history of Wales that he 
will necessarily reappear in other pages of this 
chapter. 

From the days of the early religious awakenings 
under the i6th century preachers, and after the 
ecclesiastical dynasty of Rome had been replaced 
by that of the Church of England, there were 
periods when the independent conscience of a few 
pious Welshmen rose against religious formalism, 
and the credal constraints of "established" teach- 
ing — and suffered for it. Burning heretics at the 
stake had ceased to be a church practice before 
the 1740's, but Howell Harris, Daniel Rowlands, 
and the rest of the "Methodist Fathers," with 
their followers, were not only ostracised by society 
and haled before magistrates to be fined for preach- 
ing, and sometimes imprisoned, but they were 
chased and beaten by mobs, ducked in ponds and 
rivers, and pelted with mud and garbage when they 
tried to speak or sing. But they kept on talking 
and singing. Harris (who had joined the army in 
1760) owned a commission, and once he saved 
himself from the fury of a mob while preaching — 
with cloak over his ordinary dress — by lifting his 
cape and showing the star on his breast. No one 
dared molest an officer of His Britannic Majesty. 

♦Possibly they were written in Welsh, and translated into English by hig 
friend and neighbor, Peter Williams. 



388 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

But all were not able to use St. Paul's expedient in 
critical moments.* 

William Williams often found immunity in his 
hymns, for like Luther — and like Charles Wesley 
among the Cornwall sea-robbers — he caught up the 
popular glees and ballad-refrains of the street and 
market and his wife sang their music to his words. 
It is true many of these old Welsh airs were minors, 
like "Elvy" and "Babel" (a significant name in 
English) and would not be classed as "glees" in 
any other country — always excepting Scotland — 
but they had the swing, and their mode and style 
were catchy to a Welsh multitude. In fact many of 
these uncopyrighted bits of musical vernacular 
were appropriated by the hymnbook makers, and 
christened with such titles as "Pembroke," "Ara- 
bia," "Brymgfryd," "Cwyfan," "Thydian," and 
the two mentioned above. 

It was the time when Whitefield and the Wes- 
leys were sweeping the kingdom with their con- 
quering eloquence, and Howell Harris (their fellow- 
student at Oxford) had sided with the conservative 
wing of the Gospel Reformation workers, and be- 
come a "Whitfield Methodist." The Welsh 
Methodists, aJ exemplum, marched with this Cal- 
vinistic branch — as they do today. Each division 
had its Christian bard. Charles Wesley could put 
regenerating power into sweet, poetic hymns, and 
William Williams' lyrical preaching made the Bible 
a travelling pulpit. The great " Beibl Peter Wil- 

♦Acts 22: 25. 



HYMNS OF WALES. 389 

liams" with its commentaries in Welsh, since so 
long reverenced and cherished in provincial fami- 
lies, was not published till 1770, and for many the 
printed Word was far to seek.* But the gospel 
minstrels carried the Word with them. Some of the 
long hymns contained nearly a whole body of 
divinity. 

The Welsh learn their hymns by heart, as they 
do the Bible — a habit inherited from those old days 
of scarcity, when memory served pious people in- 
stead of print — so that a Welsh prayer-meeting is 
never embarrassed by a lack of books. An anec- 
dote illustrates this characteristic readiness. In 
February, 1797, when Napoleon's name was a 
terror to England, the French landed some troops 
near Fishguard, Pembrokeshire. Mounted heralds 
spread the news through Wales, and in the village 
of Rhydybont, Cardiganshire, the fright nearly 
broke up a religious meeting; but one brave 
woman, Nancy Jones, stopped a panic by singing 
this stanza of one of Thomas Williams' hymns, — 

Diuw OS wyt am ddyhenur bya. 

If Thou wouldst end the world, O Lord, 
Accomplish first Thy promised Word, 
And gather home with one accord 
From every part Thine own, 



*As an incident contributory to the formation of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society, the story has been often repeated of the little girl who wept when she 
missed her Catechism appointment, and told Thomas Charles of Bala that the 
bad weather was the cause of it, for she had to walk seven miles to find a Bible 
every time she prepared her lessons. See page 380. 



390 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Send out Thy Word from pole to pole, 
And with Thy blood make thousands whole, 
And, after that come down. 

Nancy Jones would have been a useful member of 
the "Singing Sisters" band, so efficient a century 
or more afterwards. 

The tunes of the Reformation under the "Metho- 
dist Fathers" continued far down the century to be 
the country airs of the nation, and reverberations 
of the great spiritual movement were heard in their 
rude music in the mountain-born revival led by 
Jack Edward Watkin in 1779 and in the local 
awakenings of 1791 and 1817. Later in the 19th 
century new hymns, and many of the old, found 
new tunes, made for their sake or imported from 
England and America. 

The sanctified gift of song helped to make 1829 
a year of jubilee in South Wales, nor was the same 
aid wanting during the plague in 1831, when the 
famous Presbyterian preacher, John Elias,* won 
nearly a whole county to Christ. 

An accession of temperance hymns in Wales 
followed the spread of the " Washingtonian" 

♦Those who read his biography will call him the "Seraphic John Elias." 

His name was John Jones when he was admitted a member of the presby- 
tery. What followed is a commentary on the embarrassing frequency of a 
common name, nowhere realized so universally as it is in Wales. 

"What is his father's name?" asked the moderator when John Jones was 
announced. 

"Elias Jones," was the answer. 

"Then call the young man John Elias," said the sp>eaker, "otherwise we 
shall by and by have nobody but John Joneses." 

And "John Elias" it remained. 



HYMNS OF WALES. 39I 

movement on the other side of the Atlantic in 1840, 
and began a moral reformation in the county of 
Merioneth that resulted in a spiritual one, and 
added to the churches several thousand converts, 
scarcely any of whom fell away. 

The revival of 185 1-2 was a local one, but was 
believed by many to have been inspired by a 
celestial antiphony. The remarkable sounds were 
either a miracle or a psychic wonder born of the 
intense imagination of a sensitive race. A few 
pious people in a small village of Montgomery- 
shire had been making special prayer for an out- 
pouring of the spirit, but after a week of meet- 
ings with no sign of the result hoped for, they were 
returning to their homes, discouraged, when they 
heard strains of sweet music in the sky. They 
stopped in amazement, but the beautiful singing 
went on — voices as of a choir invisible, indistinct but 
melodious, in the air far above the roof of the chapel 
they had just left. Next day, when the astonished 
worshippers told the story, numbers in the district 
said they had heard the same sounds. Some had 
gone out at eleven o'clock to listen, and thought that 
angels must be singing. Whatever the music meant, 
the good brethren's and sisters' little meetings be- 
came crowded very soon after, and the longed-for 
out-pouring came mightily upon the neighborhood. 
Hundreds from all parts flocked to the churches, all 
ages joining in the prayers and hymns and testi- 
monies, and a harvest of glad believers followed 
a series of meetings " led by the Holy Ghost." 



392 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

The sounds in the sky were never explained; 
but the beHef that God sent His angels to sing an 
answer to the anxious prayers of those pious 
brethren and sisters did no one any harm. 

Whether this event in Montgomeryshire was a 
preparation for what took place six or seven years 
later is a suggestive question only, but when the 
wave of spiritual power from the great American 
revival of 1857-8 reached England, its first mes- 
senger to Wales, Rev. H. R. Jones, a Wesleyan, had 
only to drop the spark that "lit a prairie fire." 
The reformation, chiefly under the leadership of 
Mr. Jones and Rev. David Morgan, a Presby- 
terian, with their singing bands, was general and 
lasting, hundreds of still robust and active Christ- 
ians today dating their new birth from the Pente- 
cost of 1859 and its ingathering of eighty thousand 
souls. 

A favorite hymn of that revival was the peni- 
tential cry, — 

0*th flaem, Dduw! 'r wy^n dyfoJ, 

— in the seven-six metre so much loved in Wales. 

Unto Thy presence coming, 
O God, far off I stand: 
"A sinner" is my title, 
No other I demand. 

For mercy I am seeking 

For mercy still shall cry; 
Deny me not Thy mercy; 

O grant it or I die! 
4: t t * =f t 



HYMNS OF WALES. 393 

I heard of old that Jesus, 

Who still abides the same, 
To publicans gave welcome, 

And sinners deep in shame. 

Oh God! receive me with them, 

Me also welcome in. 
And pardon my transgression, 

Forgetting all my sin. 

The author of the hymn was Thomas Williams of 
Glamorganshire, born 1761; died 1844. He pub- 
lished a volume of hymns, Waters of Bethesdam 1823. 

The Welsh minor tune of "Clwyd" may appro- 
priately have been the music to express the contrite 
prayer of the words. The living composer, John 
Jones, has several tunes in the Welsh revival 
manual of melodies. Ail Attodiad. 

The unparalled religious movement of 1904-5 
was a praying and singing revival. The apostle 
and spiritual prompter of that unbroken cam- 
paign of Christian victories — so far as any single 
human agency counted — was Evan Roberts, of 
Laughor,a humble young worker in the mines, who 
had prayed thirteen years for a mighty descent of 
the heavenly blessing on his country and for a clear 
indication of his own mission. His convictions 
naturally led him to the ministry, and he went to 
Newcastle Emlyn to study. Evangelical work had 
been done by two societies, made up of earnest 
Christians, and known as the "Forward Move- 
ment" and the "Simultaneous Mission." Begin- 
nings of a special season of interest as a result of 



394 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

their efforts, appeared in the young people's prayer 
meetings in February, 1904, at New Quay, Cardi- 
ganshire. The interest increased, and when branch- 
work was organized a young praying and singing 
band visited Newcastle Emlyn in the course of 
one of their tours, and held a rally meeting. Evan 
Roberts went to the meeting and found his own 
mission. He left his studies and consecrated him- 
self, soul and body, to revival work. In every 
spiritual and mental quality he was surpassingly 
well-equipped. To the quick sensibility of his 
poetic nature he added the inspiration of a seer 
and the zeal of a devotee. Like Moses, Elijah, 
and Paul in Arabian solitudes, and John in the 
Dead Sea wilds, he had prepared himself in 
silence and alone with God; and though, on 
occasion, he could use effectively his gift of words, 
he stood distinct in a land of matchless pulpit 
orators as "the silent leader." Without preaching 
he dominated the mood of his meetings, and with- 
out dictating he could change the trend of a service 
and shape the next song or prayer on the intuition 
of a moment. In fact, judged by its results, it 
was God Himself who directed the revival, only 
He endowed His minister with the power of div- 
ination to watch its progress and take the stum- 
bling-blocks out of the way. By a kind of hallowed 
psychomancy, that humble man would detect a 
discordant presence, and hush the voices of a con- 
gregation till the stubborn soul felt God in the 
stillness, and penitently surrendered. 



HYMNS OF WALES. 395 

Many tones of the great awakening of 1859 were 
heard again in 1904-5, — the harvest season with- 
out a precedent, when men, women and children 
numbering ten per cent of the whole population of 
a province were gathered into the membership of 
the church of Christ But there were tones a cen- 
tury older heard in the devotions of that harvest- 
home in Wales. A New England Christian would 
have felt at home, with the tuneful assemblies at 
Laughor,Trencynon, Bangor, Bethesda, Wrexham, 
Cardiff, or Liverpool, singing Lowell Mason's 
**Meribah'' or the clarion melody of Edson's 
"Lenox" to Wesley's — 

Blow ye the trumpet, blow, 
The gladly solemn sound; 

— or to his other well-known — 

Arise my soul, arise. 

Shake off thy guilty fears, 
The bleeding Sacrifice 

In thy behalf appear. 

In short, the flood tide of 1904 and 1905 brought 
in very little new music and very few new hymns. 
"Aberystwyth" and "Tanymarian," the minor 
harmonies of Joseph Parry and Stephens; E. M. 
Price's "St. Garmon;" R. M. Pritchard's, "Hy- 
frydol," and a few others, were choral favorites, 
but their composers were all dead, and the con- 
gregations loved the still older singers who had 
found familiar welcome at their altars and firesides. 
The most cherished and oftenest chosen hymns 



396 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

were those of William Williams and Ann Griffiths, 
of Charles Wesley, of Isaac Watts — indeed the 
very tongues of fire that appeared at Jerusalem 
took on the Cymric speech, and sang the burning 
lyrics of the poet-saints. And in their revival joy 
Calvinistic Wales sang the Nev^ Testament with 
more of its Johannic than of its Pauline texts. The 
covenant of peace — Christ and His Cross — is the 
theme of all their hymns. 

" HERE BEHOLD THE TENT OF MEETING ." 

Dyma Bahell y cyfarfod. 

This hymn, written by Ann Griffiths, is entitled 
"Love Eternal,'* and praises the Divine plan to 
satisfy the Law and at the same time save the 
sinner. The first stanza gives an idea of the 
thought:. 

Here behold the tent of meeting, 

In the blood a peace with heaven, 
Refuge from the blood-avengers, 

For the sick a Healer given. 
Here the sinner nestles safely 

At the very Throne divine. 
And Heaven's righteous law, all holy, 

Still on him shall smile and shine. 

"HOW SWEET THE COVENANT TO REMEMBER. " 

Bydd melus gofio y cyfammod. 

This, entitled "Mysteries of Grace," is also 
from the pen of Ann Griffiths. It has the literal- 



HYMNS OF WALES. 397 

ness noticeable in much of the Welsh rehgious 
poetry, and there is a note of pietism in it. The 
two last stanzas are these: 

He Is the great Propitiation 

Who with the thieves that anguish bare; 
He nerved the arms of His tormentors 

To drive the nails that fixed Him there. 
While He discharged the sinner's ransom, 

And made the Law in honor be, 
Righteousness shone undimmed, resplendent. 

And me the Covenant set free. 

My soul, behold Him laid so lowly. 

Of peace the Fount, of Kings the Head, 
The vast creation in Him moving 

And He low-lying with the dead! 
The Life and portion of lost sinners. 

The marvel of heaven's seraphim. 
To sea and land the God Incarnate 

The choir of heaven cries, **Unto Him I" 

Ann Griffiths* earliest hymn will be called her 
sweetest. Fortunately, too, it is more poetically 
translated. It was before the vivid consciousness 
and intensity of her religious experience had given 
her spiritual writings a more involved and mystical 
expression. 

My soul, behold the fitness 

Of this great Son of God, 
Trust Him for life eternal 

And cast on Him thy load, 
A man — touched with the pity 

Of every human woe, 



39^ STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

A God — to claim the kingdom 
And vanquish every foe. 

This stanza, the last of her Httle poem on the 
''Eternal Fitness of Jesus," came to her when, 
returning from an exciting service, filled with 
thoughts of her unw^orthiness and of the glorious 
beauty of her Saviour, she had turned down a 
sheltered lane to pray alone. There on her knees 
in communion with God her soul felt the spirit of 
the sacred song. By the time she reached home 
she had formed it into words. 

The first and second stanzas, written later, are 
these : 

Great Author of salvation 

And providence for man, 
Thou rulest earth and heaven 
With Thy far-reaching plan. 
Today or on the morrow, 

Whatever woe betide, 
Grant us Thy strong assistance. 
Within Thy hand to hide. 

What though the winds be angry, 

What though the waves be high 
While wisdom is the Ruler, 

The Lord of earth and sky ? 
What though the flood of evil 

Rise stormily and dark ? 
No soul can sink within it; 

God is Himself the ark. 

Mrs. Ann Griffiths, of Dolwar Fechan, Mont- 
gomery^shire, was born in 1776, and died in 1805. 
*'She remains," says Dr. Parr)% her fellow-countrj'- 



HYMNS OF WALES. 399 

man, "a romantic figure in the religious history of 
Wales. Her hymns leave upon the reader an un- 
definable impression both of sublimity and mysti- 
cism. Her brief life-history is most worthy of study 
both from a literary and a religious point of 
view.'* 

A suggestive chapter of her short earthly career 
is compressed in a sentence by the author of 
"Sweet Singers of Wales:" 

"She had a Christian life of eight years and a 
married life of ten months." 

She died at the age of twenty-nine. In 1904, 
near the centennial of her death, amid the echoes of 
her own hymns, and the rising waves of the great 
Refreshing over her native land, the people of 
Dolwar Fechan dedicated the new "Ann Griffiths 
Memorial Chapel" to her name and to the glory 
of God. 

Although the Welsh were not slow to adopt the 
revival tones of other lands, it was the native, and 
what might be called the national, lyrics of that 
emotional race that were sung with the richest 
unction and hwyl (as the Cymric word is) during 
the recent reformation, and that evinced the strong- 
est hold on the common heart. Needless to say 
that with them was the world-famous song of 
William Williams, — 

Guide me, O Thou Great Jehovah; 

Arglwydd ar warn truyW anialoch; 

— and that of Dr. Heber Evans, — 



400 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Keep me very near to Jesus, 

Though beneath His Cross it be, 

In this world of evil-doing 

'Tis the Cross that cleanseth me; 

— and also that native hymn of expectation, high 
and sweet, whose writer we have been unable to 
identify — 

The glory Is coming! God said it on high, 
When light in the evening will break from the sky; 
The North and South and the East and the West, 
With joy of salvation and peace will be bless'd. 

****** 

O summer of holiness, hasten along! 
The purpose of glory is constant and strong; 
The winter will vanish, the clouds pass away; 
O South wind of Heaven, breath softly today! 

Of the almost countless hymns that voiced the 
spirit of the great revival, the nine following are 
selected because they are representative, and all 
favorites — and because there is no room for a 
larger number. The first line of each is given in 
the original Welsh: 

"DWY ADEN COLOMEN PE CAWN." 



O had I the wings of a dove 

How soon would I wander away 
To gaze from Mount Nebo I'd love 

On realms that are fairer than day. 
My vision, not clouded nor dim. 

Beyond the dark river should run; 
I'd sing, with my thoughts upon Him, 

The sinless, the crucified one. 



HYMNS OF WALES. 4OI 

This is another of Thomas Williams' hymns. 
One of the tunes suitable to its feeling and its 
measure was " Edom/' by Thomas Evans. It was 
much sung in 1859, as well as in 1904. 

" CAELBQD YN FORSEC DAN YR IAN. " 

Early to bear the yoke excels 
By far the joy in sin that dwells; 
The paths of wisdom still are found 
In peace and solace to abound. 

The young who serve Him here below 
The wrath to come shall never know; 
Of such in heaven are pearls that shine 
Unnumbered in the crown divine. 

Written for children and youth by Rev. Thomas 
Jones, of Denbigh, born 1756; died 1820, — a 
Calvinistic Methodist preacher, author of a biog- 
raphy of Thomas Charles of Bala, and various 
theological works. 

"DYMA GARIAD PEL Y MOROEDD, 



TOSTURIASTHAN PEL Y LLI. " 

Love unfathomed as the ocean 

Mercies boundless as the wave! 
Lo the King of Life, the guiltless, 

Dies my guilty soul to save; 
Who can choose but think upon it. 

Who can choose but praise and sing ? 
Here is love, while heaven endureth, 

Nought can to oblivion bring. 



402 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

This is called "The great Welsh love-song." 
It was written by Rev. William Rees, D. D., 
eminent as a preacher, poet, politician and essayist. 
One of the greatest names of nineteenth century 
Wales. He died in 1883. 

The tune, "Cwynfan Prydian," sung to this 
hymn is one of the old Welsh minors that would 
sound almost weird to our ears, but Welsh voices 
can sing with strange sweetness the Saviour's pas- 
sion on which Christian hearts of that nation love so 
well to dwell, and the shadow of it, with His love 
shining through, creates the paradox of a joyful 
lament in many of their chorals. We cannot imi- 
tate it. 

"RHYFEDDODAU DYDD YR ADGYFODIDD. " 

Unnumbered are the marvels 

The Last Great Day shall see, 
With earth's poor storm-tossed children 

From tribulation free, 
All in their shining raiment 

Transfigured, bright and brave, 
Like to their Lord ascending 

In triumph from the grave. 

The author of this Easter hymn is unknown. 

The most popular Welsh hymns would be 
named variously by different witnesses according 
to the breadth and length of their observation. 
Two of them, as a Wrexham music publisher 
testifies, are certainly the following; "Heaven and 
Home," and "Lo, a Saviour for the Fallen." The 



I 



HYMNS OF WALES. 4O3 

first of these was sung in the late revival with 
** stormy rapture." 

** FRYNAU CAERSALEM CEIR GIVELED. " 

The heights of fair Salem ascended, 

Each wilderness path we shall see; 
Now thoughts of each difficult journey 

A sweet meditation shall be. 
On death, on the grave and its terrors 

And storms we shall gaze from above 
And freed from all cares we shall revel ( ?) 

In transports of heavenly love. 

According to the mood of the meeting this was 
pitched in three sharps to Evelyn Evans' tune of 
**Eirinwg'' or with equal Welsh enthusiasm in 
the C minor of old "Darby." 

The author of the hymn was the Rev. David 
Charles, of Carmarthen, born 1762; died 1834. 
He was a heavenly-minded man who loved to 
dwell on the divine and eternal wonders of re- 
demption. A volume of his sermons was spoken 
of as "Apples of gold in pictures of silver," and 
the beautiful piety of all his writings made them 
strings of pearls. He understood English as well 
as Welsh, and enjoyed the hymns not only of 
William and Thomas Williams but of Watts, 
Wesley, Cowper, and Newton*. 

*The following verses were written by him in English: 
Spirit of grace and love divine, 
Help me to sing that Christ is mine; 
And while the theme my tongue employs 
Fill Thou my soul with living joys. 



404 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

"DYMA GEIDW AD I R C OLLEDIG. " 

Lo! a Saviour for the fallen, 

Healer of the sick and sore, 
One whose love the vilest sinners 

Seeks to pardon and restore. 
Praise Him, praise Him 

Who has loved us evermore! 

The little now known of the Rev. Morgan 
Rhys, author of this hymn, is that he was a school- 
master and preacher, and that he was a contempo- 
rary and friend of William Williams. Several of 
his hymns remain in use of which the oftenest sung 
is one cited above, and "0 agor fy llygaid i weled:^* 

I open my eyes to this vision. 

The deeps of Thy purpose and word; 
The law of Thy lips is to thousands 

Of gold and of silver preferred; 
When earth is consumed, and its treasure, 

God's words will unchanging remain, 
And to know the God-man is my Saviour 

Is life everlasting to gain. 

" Lo ! a Saviour for the Fallen " finds an appropri- 
ate voice in W. M. Robert's tune of "Nesta," and 
also, like many others of the same measure, in the 
much-used minors "Llanietyn," "Catharine,*' and 
" Bryn Calfaria." 

Jesus is mine — surpassing thought! 
Well may I set the world at nought; 
Jesus is mine, O can it be 
That Jesus lived and died for me? 



HYMNS OF WALES. 405 

"O SANCTEIDDIA F'ENAID ARGLWYDD." 



Sanctify, O Lord my spirit, 
Every power and passion sway, 

Bid Thy holy law within me 
Dwell, my wearied soul to stay; 

Let me never 
Rove beyond Thy narrow way. 



This one more hymn of William Williams is 
from his" Song of a Cleansed Heart" and is 
amply provided with tunes, popular ones like 
"Tyddyn Llwyn," "Y Delyn Aur," or "Capel-Y- 
Ddol" lending their deep minors to its lines with a 
thrilling effect realized, perhaps, only in the land 
of Taliessin and the Druids. 

The singular history and inspiring cause of one 
old Welsh hymn which after various mutilations 
and vicissitudes survives as the key-note of a 
valued song of trust, seems to illustrate the Pro- 
vidence that will never let a good thing be lost. It 
is related of the Rev. David Williams, of Llandllo, 
an obscure but not entirely forgotten preacher, 
that he had a termagant wife, and one stormy 
night, when her bickerings became intolerable, he 
went out In the rain and standing by the river com- 
posed in his mind these lines of tender faith: 

In the waves and mighty waters 

No one will support my head 
But my Saviour, my Beloved, 

Who was stricken in my stead. 
In the cold and mortal river 



406 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

He would hold my head above; 
I shall through the waves go singing 
For one look of Him I love. 

Apparently the sentiment and substantially the 
expression of this humble hymn became the burden 
of more than one Christian lay. Altered and 
blended with a modern gospel hymn, it was sung 
at the crowded meetings of 1904 to Robert Lowry's 
air of "Jesus Only," and often rendered very 
impressively as a solo by a sweet female voice. 

In the deep and mighty waters 

There is none to hold my head 
But my loving Bridegroom, Jesus, 

Who upon the cross hath bled. 

If I've Jesus, Jesus only 

Then my sky will have a gem 
He's the Sun of brightest splendor, 

He's the Star of Bethlehem. 

He's the Friend in Death's dark river. 

He will lift me o'er the waves, 
I will sing in the deep waters 

If I only see His face. 
If I've Jesus, Jesus only, etc. 

A few of the revival tunes have living authors 
and are of recent date; and the minor harmony of 
"Ebenezer" (marked "Ton Y Botel"), which was 
copied in this country by the New York Examiner, 
with its hymn, is apparently a cotemporary piece. 
It was first sung at Bethany Chapel, Cardiff, Jan. 
8, 1905, the hymn bearing the name of Rev. W. 
E. Winks. 



HYMNS OF WALES. 4O7 

Send Thy Spirit, I beseech Thee, 

Gracious Lord, send while I pray; 
Send the Comforter to teach me, 

Guide me, help me in Thy way. 
Sinful, wretched, I have wandered 

Far from Thee in darkest night, 
Precious time and talents squandered, 

Lead, O lead me into light. 

Thou hast heard me; light is breaking — 

Light I never saw before. 
Now, my soul with joy awaking. 

Gropes in fearful gloom no more: 
O the bliss! my soul, declare it; 

Say what God hath done for thee; 
Tell it out, let others share it — 

Christ's salvation, full and free. 

One cannot help noticing the fondness of the 
Welsh for the 7-6, '^-J, and 8-7-4 metres. These 
are favorites since they lend themselves so natur- 
ally to the rhythms of their national music — 
though their newest hymnals by no means exclude 
exotic lyrics and melodies. Even "O mother dear, 
Jerusalem," one of the echoes of Bernard of 
Cluny's great hymn, is cherished in their tongue 
O, Frynian Caerselem) among the favorites of 
song. Old "Truro" by Dr. Burney appears 
among their tunes. Mason's "Ernan," "Lowell" 
and "Shawmut," I. B. Woodbury's "Nearer 
Home" (to Phebe Gary's hymn), and even George 
Hews' gently-flowing " Holley ." Most of these tunes 
retain their own hymns, but in Welsh translation. 
To find our Daniel Read's old "Windham" there 



408 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

is no surprise. The minor mode — a song-instinct 
of the Welsh, if not of the whole Celtic family of 
nations, is their rural inheritance. It is in the 
wind of their mountains and the semitones of their 
streams; and their nature can make it a gladness 
as the Anglo-Saxon cannot. So far from being a 
gloomy people, their capacity for joy in spiritual 
life is phenomenal. In psalmody their emotions 
mount on wings, and they find ecstacy in solemn 
sounds. 

''A temporary excitement" is the verdict of 
skepticism on the Reformation wave that for a 
twelvemonth swept over Wales with its ringing 
symphonies of hymn and tune. But such excite- 
ments are the May-blossom seasons of God's 
eternal husbandry. They pass because human 
vigor cannot last at flood-tide, but in spiritual 
economy they will always have their place. "If 
the blossoms had not come and gone there would 
be no fruit." 



CHAPTER XII. 



FIELD HYMNS, 



Hymns of the hortatory and persuasive tone are 
sufficiently numerous to make an "embarrassment 
of riches" in a compiler's hands. Not a few songs 
of invitation and awakening are either quoted or 
mentioned in the chapteron "Old Revival Hymns/' 
and many appear among those in the last chapter, 
(on the Hymns of Wales;) but the working songs of 
Christian hymnology deserve a special space as such. 

" COME HITHER, ALL YE WEARY SOULS," 

Sung to "Federal St.," is one of the older soul- 
winning calls from the great hymn-treasury of Dr. 
Watts; and another note of the same sacred bard, — 
Life is the time to serve the Lord, 

— is always coupled with the venerable tune of 
"Wells."* Aged Christians are still remembered 
who were wont to repeat or sing with quavering 
voices the second stanza, — 

♦One of Israel Holroyd's tunes. He was born in England, about 1690, and 
was both a composer and publisher of psalmody. His chief collection is dated 

1746. 

(409) 



410 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

The living know that they must die, 

But all the dead forgotten lie; 
Their memory and their sense are gone. 

Alike unknowing and unknown. 

And likewise from the fourth stanza, — 

There are no acts of pardon passed 

In the cold grave to which we haste. 

"AND WILL THE JUDGE DESCEND ? " 

Is one of Doddridge's monitory hymns, once sung 
to J. C. Woodman's tune of "State St.," with the 
voice of both the Old and New Testaments in the 
last verse: 

Ye sinners, seek His grace 

Whose wrath ye cannot bear; 
Fly to the shelter of His Cross, 

And find Salvation there. 

Jonathan Call Woodman was born in Newbury- 
port, Mass., July 12, 18 13, and was a teacher, com- 
poser, and compiler. Was organist of St. George's 
Chapel, in Flushing, L.I., and in 1858 published 
The Musical Casket, Died January, 1894. He 
wrote "State St." for William B. Bradbury, in 
August, 1844. 

'^ HASTEN SINNER, TO BE WISE '* 

Is one of the few unforgotten hymns of Thomas 
Scott, every second line repeating the solemn 
caution, — 

Stay not for tomorrow's sun. 



FIELD HYMNS. 4II 

— and every line enforcing Its exhortation with a 
new word. *'To be wise/' "to implore/' "to re- 
turn/' and "to be blest" were natural cumulatlves 
that summoned and wooed the sinner careless and 
astray. It Is a finished piece of work, but it owes Its 
longevity less to its structural form than to Its spirit. 
For generations it has been sung to "Pleyel's 
Hymn." 

The Rev. Thomas Scott (not Rev. Thomas Scott 
the Commentator) was born in Norwich, Eng., in 
1705, and died at Hupton, in Norfolk, 1776. He 
was a Dissenting minister, pastor for twenty-one 
years — until disabled by feeble health — at Lowe- 
stoft In Suffolk. He was the author of — 

Angels roll the rock away. 
" MUST JESUS BEAR THE CROSS ALONE ? " 

This emotional and appealing hymn still holds 
its own in the hearts of millions, though probably 
two hundred years old. It was written by a clergy- 
man of the Church of England, the Rev. Thomas 
Shepherd, Vicar of Tilbrook, born In 1665. Join- 
ing the Nonconformists In 1694, he settled first in 
Castle Hill, Nottingham, and afterward in Dock- 
ing, Essex, where he remained until his death, Jan- 
uary, 1 739. He published a selection of his sermons, 
and Penitential Cries, a book of sacred lyrics, some 
of which still appear in collections. 

The startling question in the above Ime is an- 
swered with emphasis in the third of the stanza, — • 



412 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

No! There's a cross for every one, 
And there's a cross for m/?, 

— and this is followed by the song of resolve and 
triumph, — 

The consecrated cross 1*11 bear, 

Till death shall set me free. 
And then go home my crown to wear. 

For there's a crown for me. 

t * :(e * % :4c 

O precious cross! O glorious crown! 

O Resurrection Day! 
Ye angels from the stars flash down 

And bear my soul away! 

The hymn is a personal New Testament. No 
one who analyzes it and feels its Christian vitality 
will wonder why it has lived so long. 

THE TUNE, 

For half a century George N. Allen, composer 
of "Maitland," the music inseparable from the 
hymn, was credited with the authorship of the 
words also, but his vocal aid to the heart-stirring 
poem earned him sufficient praise. The tune did 
not meet the hymn till the latter was so old that the 
real author was mostly forgotten, for Allen wrote 
the music in 1849; but if the fine stanzas needed 
any renewing it was his tune that made them new. 
Since it was published nobody has wanted another. 

George Nelson Allen was born in Mansfield, 
Mass., Sept. 7, 1812, and lived at Oberlin, O. It 



FIELD HYMNS. 4I3 

was there that he composed "Maitland," and com- 
piled the Social and Sabbath Hymn-book — besides 
songs for the fVestern Belly pubHshed by OHver 
Ditson and Co. He died in Cincinnati, Dec. 9, 

1877. 

*^ AWAKE MY SOUL, STRETCH EVERY NERVE! " 

This most popular of Dr. Doddridge's hymns 
is also the richest one of all in lyrical and spiritual 
life. It is a stadium song that sounds the starting- 
note for every young Christian at the outset of his 
career, and the slogan for every faint Christian on 
the w^ay. 

A heavenly race demands thy zeal, 
And an immortal crown. 

Like the "Coronation" hymn, it transports the 
devout singer till he feels only the momentum of 
the words and forgets whether it is common or 
hallelujah metre that carries him along. 

A cloud of witnesses around 

Hold thee in full survey; 
Forget the steps already trod, 

And onward urge thy way! 

'Tis God's all-animating voice 

That calls thee from on high, 
'Tis His own hand presents the prize 

To thine aspiring eye. 

In all persuasive hymnology there is no more 
kindling lyric that this. As a field-hymn it is 
indispensable. 



414 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

THE TUNE. 

Whenever and by whomsoever the brave pro- 
cessional known as "Christmas'' was picked from 
among the great Handel's Songs and mated with 
Doddridge's lines, the act gave both hymn and 
tune new reason to endure, and all posterity 
rejoices in the blend. Old "Christmas" was orig- 
inally one of the melodies in the great Composer's 
Opera of "Ciroe" (Cyrus) 1738. It was written 
to Latin words (Non vt ptacque), and afterwards 
adapted to an English versification of Job 29:15, 
"I was eyes to the blind." 

Handel, himself became blind at the age of sixty 
eight (1753). 

" THERE IS A GREEN HILL FAR AWAY ." 

Written in 1848 by Miss Cecil Frances Hum- 
phreys, an Irish lady, daughter of Major John 
Humphreys of Dublin. She was born in that city 
in 1823. ^^^ hest known name is Mrs. Cecil 
Frances Alexander, her husband being the Rt. Rev. 
William Alexander, Bishop of Derry. Among her 
works are Hymns for Little Children, Narrative 
Hymns, Hymns Descriptive and Devotional, and 
Moral Songs. Died 1895. 

"There is a green hill" is poetic license, but the 
hymn is sweet and sympathetic, and almost child- 
like in its simplicity. 

There is a green hill far away 
Without the city wall, 















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FIELD HYMNS. 415 

Where our dear Lord was crucified 
Who died to save us all. 

We may not know, we cannot tell 

What pains He had to bear; 
But we beheve it was for us 

He hung and suffered there. 

THE TUNES. 

There is no room here to describe them all. Airs 
and chorals by Berthold Tours, Pinsuti, John 
Henry Cornell, Richard Storrs Willis, George C. 
Stebbins and Hubert P. Main have been adapted 
to the words — one or two evidently composed for 
them. It is a hymn that attracts tune-makers — 
literally so commonplace and yet so quiet and 
tender, with such a theme and such natural melody 
of line — but most of the scores indicated are choir 
music rather than congregational. Mr. Stebbins' 
composition comes nearest to being the favorite, if 
one judges by the extent and frequency of its use. 
It can be either partly or wholly choral; and the 
third stanza makes the refrain — 

O dearly, dearly has He loved 

And we must love Him too, 
And trust in His redeeming blood, 

And try His works to do. 

"REJOICE AND BE GLAD! " 

This musical shout of joy, written by Dr. Hora- 
tius Bonar, scarcely needs a new song helper, as did 



4l6 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Bishop Heber's famous hymn — not because it is 
better than Heber*s but because it was wedded at 
once to a tune worthy of it. 

Rejoice and be glad! for our King is on high; 
He pleadeth for us on His throne in the sky. 
Rejoice and be glad! for He cometh again; 
He cometh in glory, the Lamb that was slain 

Hallelujah! Amen. 

The hymn was composed in 1874. 
THE TUNE. 

The author of the "English Melody" (as ascribed 
in Gospel Hymns) is said to have been John 
Jenkins Husband, born in Plymouth, Eng., about 
1760. He was clerk at Surrey Chapel and com- 
posed several anthems. Came to the United States 
in 1809. Settled in Philadelphia, where he taught 
music and was clerk of St. Paul's P. E. Church. 
Died there in 1825. 

His tune, exactly suited to the hymn, is a true 
Christian paean. It has few equals as a rouser to a 
sluggish prayer-meeting — ^whether sung to Bonar's 
words or those of Rev. William Paton Mackay 
(1866)— 

We praise Thee, O God, for the Son of Thy love, 
— with the refrain of similar spirit in both hymns — 

Hallelujah! Thine the glory, Hallelujah! Amen, 
Hallelujah! Thine the glory; revive us again; 



Sound His praises! tell the story of Him who was slain! 
Sound His praises! tell with gladness, "He liveth again.' 



FIELD HYMNS. 417 

Husband's tune is supposed to have been written 
very early in the last century. Another tune com- 
posed by him near the same date to the words — 

"We are on our journey home 
To the New Jerusalem," 

— is equally musical and animating, and with a vocal 
range that brings out the full strength of choir and 
congregation. 

" COME, SINNER, COME. " 

A singular case of the same tune originating in 
the brain of both author and composer is presented 
in the history of this hymn of Rev. William Ells- 
worth Witter, D.D., born in La Grange, N.Y., 
Dec. 9, 1854. He wrote the hymn in the autumn of 
1878, while teaching a district school near his home. 
The first line — 

While Jesus whispers to you, 

— came to him during a brief turn of outdoor work 
by the roadside and presently grew to twenty-four 
lines. Soon after, Prof. Horatio Palmer, knowing 
Witter to be a verse writer, invited him to contrib- 
ute a hymn to a book he had in preparation, and 
this hymn was sent. Dr. Palmer set it to music, it 
soon entered into several collections, and Mr. San- 
key sang it in England at the Moody meetings. 
Dr. Witter gives this curious testimony, 
*' While I cannot sing myself, though very fond of 
music, the hymn sang itself to me by the roadside 



4l8 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

in almost the exact tune given to it by Professor Pal- 
mer/* Which proves that Professor Palmer had 
the feeling of the hymn — and that the maker of a 
true hymn has at least a sub-consciousness of its 
right tune, though he may be neither a musician nor 
a poet. 

While Jesus whispers to you. 

Come, sinner, come! 
While we are praying for you. 

Come, sinner, come! 
Now is the time to own Him, 

Come, sinner, come! 
Now is the time to know Him, 
Come, sinner, come! 

" ONE MORE DAY'S WORK FOR JESUS. " 

The writer of this hymn was Miss Anna War- 
ner, one of the well-known "Wetherell Sisters," 
joint authors of The Wide World, Queechy, and a 
numerous succession of healthful romances very 
popular in the middle and later years of the last 
century. Her own pen name is ** Amy Lothrop," 
under which she has published many religious 
poems, hymns and other varieties of literary work. 
She was born in 1820, at Martlaer, West Point, 
N. Y., where she still resides. 

One more day's work for Jesus, 
One less of life for me: 

But heaven is nearer, 

And Christ is dearer 
Than yesterday to me. 



FIELD HYMNS. 4I9 

His love and light 
Fill all my soul tonight. 

Refrain: — 

One more day's work for Jesus, (ter) 
One less of life for me. 

The hymn has five stanzas all expressing the 
gentle fervor of an active piety loving service : 

THE TUNE. 

was composed by the Rev. Robert Lowry, and 
first pubhshed in Bright Jewels. 

THE GOSPEL HYMNS . 

These popular religious songs have been criti- 
cised as "degenerate psalmody" but those who so 
style them do not seem to consider the need that 
made them. 

The great majority of mankind can only be 
reached by missionary methods, and in these art 
and culture do not play a conspicuous part. The 
multitude could be supplied with technical preach- 
ing and technical music for their religious wants, 
but they would not rise to the bait, whereas nothing 
so soon kindles their better emotions or so surely 
appeals to their better nature as even the humblest 
sympathetic hymn sung to a simple and stirring 
tune. If the music is unclassical and the hymn 
crude there is no critical audience to be offended. 



420 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

The artless, almost colloquial, words "of a happily 
rhymed camp-meeting lyric and the wood-notes 
wild" of a new melody meet a situation. Moral 
and spiritual lapse makes it necessary at times for 
religion to put on again her primitive raiment, and 
be " a voice crying in the wilderness. " 

Between the slums and the boulevards live the 
masses that shape the generations, and make the 
state. They are w^age-earners who never hear the 
great composers nor have time to form fine musical 
and literary^ tastes. The spiritual influences that 
really reach them are of a very direct and simple 
kind; and for the good of the church — and the 
nation — it is important that at least this elementary 
education in the school of Christ should be sup- 
plied them. 

It is the popular hymn tunes that speed a ref- 
ormation. So say history and experience. Once in 
two hundred years a great revival movement may 
produce a Charles Wesley, but the humbler sing- 
ers carry the divine fire that quickens religious life 
in the years between. 

All this is not saying that the gospel hymns, as a 
whole, are or ever professed to be suitable for the 
stated service of the sanctuary. Their very style 
and movement show exactly what they were made 
for — to win the hearing of the multitude, and put 
the music of God's praise and Jesus' love into the 
mouths and hearts of thousands who had been 
strangers to both. They are the modern lay songs 
that go with the modern lay sermons. They give 



FIELD HYMNS. 42 1 

voice to the spirit and sentiment of the conference, 
prayer and inquiry meetings, the Epworth League 
and Christian Endeavor meetings, the temperance 
and other reform meetings, and of the mass-meet- 
ings in the cities or the seaside camps. 

During their evangeHstic mission in England 
and Scotland in 1873, Dwight L. Moody and Ira 
D. Sankey used the hymnbook of Philip Phillips, 
a compilation entitled Hallowed Songs, some of them 
his own. To these Mr. Sankey added others of his 
own composing from time to time which w^ere so 
enthusiastically received that he published them in 
a pamphlet. This, with the simultaneous publica- 
tion in America of the revival melodies of Philip 
P. Bliss, was the beginning of that series of popular 
hymn-and-tune books, which finally numbered six 
volumes. Sankey's Sacred Songs and Solos com- 
bined with Bliss's Gospel Songs were the founda- 
tion of the Gospel Hymns. 

Subjectively their utterances are indicative of 
ardent piety and unquestioning faith, and on the 
other hand their direct and intimate appeal and 
dramatic address are calculated to affect a throng 
as if each individual in it was the person meant by 
the words. The refrain or chorus feature is notable 
in nearly all. 

A selection of between thirty and forty of the 
most characteristic is here given. 



422 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

" HALLELUJAH! TIS DONE. " 

This is named from its chorus. The song is one 
of the spontaneous thanksgivings in revival meet- 
ings that break out at the announcement of a new 
conversion. 

*Tis the promise of God full salvation to give 
Unto him who on Jesus His Son will believe, 
Hallelujah! 'tis done; I believe on the Son; 
I am saved by the blood of the crucified One. 

Though the pathway be lonely and dangerous too, 
Surely Jesus is able to carry me through — 
Hallelujah! etc. 

The words and music are both by P. P. Bliss. 

THE NINETY AND NINE. 

The hymn was written by Mrs. Elizabeth Ce- 
cilia Clephane at Melrose, Scotland, early in 1868. 
She was born in Edinburgh, June 10, 1830, and 
died of consumption, Feb. 19, 1869. The little 
poem was seen by Mr. Sankey in the Christian Age, 
and thinking it might be useful, he cut it out. At an 
impressive moment in one of the great meetings in 
Edinburgh, Mr. Moody said to him in a quiet aside, 
" Sing something. " Precisely w hat was wanted for 
the hour and theme, and for the thought in the gen- 
eral mind, was in Mr. Sankey's vest pocket. But how 
could it be sung without a tune } With a silent prayer 
for help, the musician took out the slip containing 
Mrs. Clephane's poem, laid it on the little reed- 



FIELD HYMNS. 423 

organ and began playing, and singing. He had to 
read the unfamlhar words and at the same time 
make up the music. The tune came — and grew as 
he went along till he finished the first verse. He 
remembered it w^ell enough to repeat it with the sec- 
ond, and after that it was easy to finish the hymn. 
A new melody was born — in the presence of more 
than a thousand pairs of eyes and ears. It was a 
feat of invention, of memory, of concentration — 
and such was the elocution of the trained soloist 
that not a word was lost. He had a tearful audience 
at the close to reward him; but we can easily credit 
his testimony, 
"It was the most intense moment of my life." 
In a touching interview afterwards, a sister of 
Mrs. Clephane told Mr. Sankey the authoress had 
not lived to see her hymn in print and to know of 
its blessed mission. 

The first six lines give the situation of the lost 
sheep in the parable of that name — 

There were ninety and nine that safely lay 

In the shelter of the fold; 
But one was out on the hills away, 

Far off from the gates of gold. 
Away on the mountains wild and bare, 
Away from the tender Shepherd's care. 

And, after describing the Shepherd's arduous 
search, the joy at his return is sketched and spirit- 
ualized in the concluding stanza — 

But all through the mountains, thunder-riven, 
And up from the rocky steep. 



424 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

There arose a cry to the gate of heaven, 

* 'Rejoice! I have found my sheep." 
And the angels echoed around the Throne, 
**RejoiceI for the Lord brings back His own." 

" HOLD THE FORT! " 

This is named also from its chorus. The historic 
foundation of the hymn was the flag-signal waved 
to Gen. G. M. Corse by Gen. Sherman's order from 
Kenesaw Mountain to Altoona during the "March 
through Georgia," in October, 1863. The flag is 
still in the possession of A. D. Frankenberry, one of 
the Federal Signal-Corps whose message to the 
besieged General said, "Hold the fort! We are 
coming!" A visit to the scene of the incident in- 
spired P. P. Bliss to write both the words and the 
music. 

Ho! my comrades, see the signal 

Waving in the sky! 
Reinforcements now appearing. 
Victory is nigh. 
"Hold the fort, for I am coming!" 
Jesus signals still; 
Wave the answer back to heaven, 
"By Thy grace we will!" 

The popularity of the song (it has been trans- 
lated into several languages), made it the author's 
chief memento in many localities. On his monu- 
ment in Rome, Pennsylvania, is inscribed "P. P. 
Bliss— author of *Hold the Fort.'" 



FIELD HYMNS. 425 

" RESCUE THE PERISHING. " 

Few hymns, ancient or modern, have been more 
useful, or more variously used, than this little ser- 
mon in song from Luke 14:23, by the blind poet, 
Fanny J. Crosby, (Mrs. Van Alstyne). It is sung 
not only in the church prayer-meetings with its 
spiritual meaning and application, but in Salvation 
Army camps and marches, in mission-school 
devotions, in social settlement services, in King's 
Daughters and Sons of Temperance Meetings, and 
in the rallies of every reform organization that 
seeks the lost and fallen. 

Rescue the perishing, care for the dying, 

Snatch them in pity from sin and the grave; 

Weep o'er the erring ones, hft up the fallen, 
Tell them of Jesus, the Mighty to Save. 

Down in the human heart crushed by the Tempter, 

Feelings lie buried that grace can restore. 
Touched by a loving heart, wakened by kindness, 
Chords that were broken will vibrate once more. 

The tune is by W. H. Doane, Mus. D., composed 
in 1870. 

" WHAT A FRIEND WE HAVE IN JESUS ." 

The author was a pious gentleman of DubHn, 
Ireland, who came to Canada when he was twenty- 
five. His name was Joseph Scriven, born in Dub- 
lin, 1820, and graduated at Trinity College. The 
accidental death by drowning of his intended bride 



426 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

on the eve of their wedding day, led him to con- 
secrate his Hfe and fortune to the service of Christ. 
He died in Canada, Oct. 10, 1886, (Sankey's Story 
of the Gospel Hymns, pp. 245-6.) 

THE TUNE. 

The music was composed by Charles Crozat 
Converse, LL.D., musician, lawyer, and writer. 
He was born in Warren, Mass., 1832; a descend- 
ant of Edward Converse, the friend of Gov. Win- 
throp and founder of Woburn, Mass. He pursued 
musical and other studies in Leipsic and Berlin. 
His compositions are numerous including concert 
overtures, symphonies and many sacred and secular 
pieces. Residence at Highwood, Bergen Co., N. J. 
The hymn is one of the most helpful of the 
Gospel Collections, and the words and music have 
strengthened many a weak and failing soul to "try 
again." 

Have we trials and temptations ? 

Is there trouble anywhere f 
We should never be discouraged: 
Take it to the Lord in prayer. 

"I HEAR THE SAVIOUR SAY." 



This is classed with the Gospel Hymns, but it 
was a much-used and much-loved revival hymn — 
especially in the Methodist churches — several years 
before Mr. Moody's great evangelical movement. 
It was written by Mrs. Elvina M. Hall (since Mrs. 



FIELD HYMNS. 427 

Myers) who was born in Alexandria, Va., in 18 18. 
She composed it in the spring of 1865, while sitting 
in the choir of the M. E. Church, Baltimore, and 
the first draft was pencilled on a fly-leaf of a singing 
book, The Mew Lute of Z ion. 

I hear the Saviour say, 

Thy strength indeed is small; 
Child of weakness, watch and pray, 

Find in me thine all in all. 

The music of the chorus helped to fix its words 
in the common mind, and some idea of the Atone- 
ment acceptable, apparently, to both Arminians 
and Calvinists; for Sunday-school children in the 
families of both, hummed the tune or sang the 
refrain when alone — 

Jesus paid it all, 
All to Him I owe, 
Sin had left a crimson stain; 
He washed it white as snow. 

THE TUNE. 

John Thomas Grape, who wrote the music, was 
born in Baltimore, Md., May 6, 1833. His modest 
estimate of his work appears in his remark that he 
*' dabbled'' in music for his own amusement. Few 
composers have amused themselves with better 
results. 

" TELL ME THE OLD, OLD STORY. " 
Miss Kate Hankey, born about 1846, the daugh- 



428 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

ter of an English banker, is the author of this very 
devout and tender Christian poem, written appar- 
ently in the eighteen-sixties. At least it is said that 
her little volume, Heart to Heart, was published in 
1865 or 1866, and this volume contains "Tell me 
the Old, Old Story," and its answer. 

We have been told that Miss Hankey was re- 
covering from a serious illness, and employed her 
days of convalescence in composing this song of 
devotion, beginning it in January and finishing it in 
the following November. 

The poem is very long — a thesaurus of evan- 
gelical thoughts, attitudes, and moods of faith — 
and also a magazine of hymns. Four quatrains of 
It, or two eight-line stanzas, are the usual length of 
a hymnal selection, and editors can pick and 
choose anywhere among its expressive verses. 

Tell me the old, old story 

Of unseen things above, 
Of Jesus and His glory. 

Of Jesus and His love. 

Tell me the story simply 

As to a little child. 
For I am v^eak and weary. 

And helpless and defiled. 

****** 

Tell me the story simply 

That I may take it in — 
That wonderful Redemption, 

God's remedy for sin. 



FIELD HYMNS. 429 

THE TUNE. 

Dr. W. H. Doane was present at the Inter- 
national Conference of the Y. M. C. A. at Montreal 
in 1867, and heard the poem read — with tears and 
in a broken voice — by the veteran Major-General 
Russell. It impressed him so much that he bor- 
rowed and copied it, and subsequently set it to 
music during a vacation in the White Mountains. 

The poem of fifty stanzas was entitled "The 
Story Wanted;" the sequel or answer to it, by 
Miss Hankey, was named "The Story Told." 
This second hymn, of the same metre but different 
accent, was supplied with a tune by William 
Gustavus Fischer. 

I love to tell the story 

Of unseen things above, 
Of Jesus and His glory, 

Of Jesus and His love. 

4: :(: ^ :): * 4: 

I love to tell the story 

Because I know its true; 
It satisfies my longings 

As nothing else can do. 

Chorus. 

I love to tell the story; 
'Twill be my theme in glory; 
To tell the old, old story 
Of Jesus and his love. 

William Gustavus Fischer was born in Baltimore, 
Md., Oct. 14, 1835. ^^ ^^s ^ piano-dealer in the 



430 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

firm (formerly) of Gould and Fischer. His melody 
to the above hymn was written in 1869,' and was 
harmonized the next year by Hubert P. Main. 

THE PRODIGAL CHILD. 

This is not only an impressive hymn as sung in 
sympathetic music, but a touching poem. 

Come home! come home! 
You are weary at heart, 
For the way has been dark 
And so lonely and wild — 
O prodigal child, 
Come home! 

Come home! Come home! 

For we watch and we wait, 
And we stand at the gate 

While the shadows are piled; 
O prodigal child, 
Come home! 

The author is Mrs. Ellen M. H. Gates, known 
to the English speaking world by her famous poem, 
*'Your Mission.'' 

THE TUNE 

To "The Prodigal Child" was composed by Dr. 
Doane in 1869 and no hymn ever had a fitter sing- 
ing ally. All a mother's yearning is in the refrain 
and cadence. 

Come home! Oh, come home! 



FIELD HYMNS. 43I 

" LET THE LOWER LIGHTS BE BURNING !" 

An illustration, recited in Mr. Moody's graphic 
fashion in one of his discourses, suggested this 
hymn to P. P. Bliss. 

"A stormy night on Lake Erie, and the sky pitch 
dark." 

* Pilot, are you sure this is Cleveland ? There's 
only one light.' 

* Quite sure, Cap'n.' 
'Where are the lower lights ?' 
*Gone out, sir.' 

*Can you run in .?' 

* Weve got to, Cap'n — or die.' 

"The brave old pilot did his best, but, alas, he 
missed the channel. The boat was wrecked, with 
a loss of many lives. The lower lights had gone 
out. 

" Brethren, the Master will take care of the great 
Lighthouse. It is our work to keep the lower lights 
burning!" 

Brightly beams our Father's mercy 

From His Hghthouse evermore; 
But to us He gives the keeping 
Of the lights along the shore. 

Chorus. 

Let the lower lights be burning! 

Send a gleam across the wave; 
Some poor fainting, struggling seaman 

You may rescue, you may save. 

Both words and music — composed in 1871 — 
are by Mr. Bliss. There are wakening chords in 



432 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

the tune — and especially the chorus — when the 
counterpoint is well vocalized; and the effect is 
more pronounced the greater the symphony of 
voices. Congregations find a zest in every note. 
**Hold the Fort" can be sung in the street. "Let 
the Lower Lights be Burning'* is at home between 
echoing walls. 

The use of the song in " Bethel" meetings classes 
it with sailors' hymns. 

"SWEET HOUR OF PRAYER." 



Included with the Gospel Hymns, but of older 
date. Rev. William W. Walford, a blind English 
minister, was the author, and it was probably 
written about the year 1842. It was recited to 
Rev. Thomas Salmon, Congregational pastor at 
Coleshill, Eng., who took it down and brought it 
to New York, where it was published in the New 
York Observer. 

Little is known of Mr. Walford save that in his 
blindness, besides preaching occasionally, he 
employed his mechanical skill in making small 
useful articles of bone and ivory. 

The tune was composed by W. B, Bradbury in 
1859, and first appeared with the hymn in Cottage 
Melodies. 

Sweet hour of prayer, sweet hour of prayer 
That calls me from a world of care, 
And bids me at my Father's throne 
Make all my wants and wishes known. 



FIELD HYMNS. 433 

In seasons of distress and grief 
My soul has often found relief, 
And oft escaped the tempter's snare 
By thy return, sweet hour of prayer. 

" O BLISS OF THE PURIFIED! BLISS OF THE FREE !" 

Rev. Francis Bottome, D.D., born in Belper, 
Derbyshire, Eng., May 26, 1823, removed to the 
United States in 1850, and entered the Methodist 
ministry. A man of sterling character and ex- 
emplary piety. He received the degree of Doctor 
of Divinity at Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa. 
Was assistant compiler of several singing books, 
and wrote original hymns. The above, entitled " O 
sing of His mighty love"v^as composed by him in 
1869. The last stanza reads, — 

O Jesus the Crucified! Thee will I sing, 

My blessed Redeemer, my God and my King! 

My soul, filled with rapture shall shout o'er the grave 

And triumph in death in the Mighty to save. 

Chorus. 

O sing of His mighty love (ter) 
Mighty to save! 

Dr. Bottome returned to England, and died at 
Tavistock June 29, 1894. 

THE TUNE. 

Bradbury's "Songs of the Beautiful" (in Fresh 
Laurels). The hymn was set to this chorus in 1871. 



434 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

"WHAT SHALL THE HARVEST BE? " 

Very popular in England. Mr. Sankey in his 
Story of the Gospel Hymns relates at length the 
experience of Rev. W. O. Lattimore, pastor of a 
large church in Evanston, 111., who was saved to 
Christian manhood and usefulness by this hymn. 
It has suffered some alterations, but its original 
composition was Mrs. Emily Oakey's work. The 
Parables of the Sower and of the Tares may have 
been in her mind when she wrote the lines in 1850, 
but more probably it was the text in Gal. 6:7 — 

Sowing the seed by the daylight fair, 
Sowing the seed by the noonday glare, 
Sowing the seed by the fading light, 
Sowing the seed in the solemn night. 
O, what shall the harvest be f 

Lattimore, the man whose history was so strange- 
ly linked with this hymn, entered the army in 1861, 
a youth of eighteen with no vices, but when pro- 
moted to first lieutenant he learned to drink in the 
officers' mess. The habit so contracted grew up- 
on him till when the war was over, though he mar- 
ried and tried to lead a sober life, he fell a victim 
to his appetite, and became a physical wreck. One 
day in the winter of 1876 he found himself in a half- 
drunken condition, in the gallery of Moody's Taber- 
nacle, Chicago. Discovering presently that he had 
made a m.istake, he rose to go out, but Mr. Sankey's 
voice chained him. He sat down and heard the 
whole of the thrilling hymn from beginning to end. 



FIELD HYMNS. 435 

Then he stumbled out with the words ringing in 
his ears. 

Sowing the seed of a lingering pain, 
Sowing the seed of a maddened brain. 
Sowing the seed of a tarnished name, 
Sowing the seed of Eternal shame. 
O, what shall the harvest be ? 

In the saloon, where he went to drown the awak- 
enings of remorse, those words stood in blazing 
letters on every bottle and glass. The voice of God 
in that terrible song of conviction forced him back 
to the Tabernacle, with his drink untasted. He 
went into the inquiry meeting where he found 
friends, and was led to Christ. His wife and child, 
from whom he had long been exiled, were sent for 
and work was found for him to do. A natural elo- 
quence made him an attractive and efficient helper 
in the meetings, and he was finally persuaded to 
study for the ministry. His faithful pastorate of 
twenty years in Evanston ended with his death in 
1899. 

Mrs. Emily Sullivan Oakey was an author and 
linguist by profession, and though in her life of 
nearly fifty-four years she "never enjoyed a day of 
good health,'' she earned a grateful memory. Born 
in Albany, N. Y., Oct. 8, 1829, ^^^ ^^^ educated at 
the Albany Female Academy, and fitted herself for 
the position of teacher of languages and English 
literature in the same school, w^hich she honored 
by her service while she lived. Her contributions 
to the daily press and to magazine literature were 



436 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

numerous, but she is best known by her remarkable 
hymn. Her death occurred on the nth of May, 
1883. 

THE TUNE, 

By P. P. Bliss, is one of that composer's tonal suc- 
cesses. The march of the verses with their re- 
current words is so automatic that it would in- 
evitably suggest to him the solo and its organ- 
chords; and the chorus with its sustained soprano 
note dominating the running concert adds the last 
emphasis to the solemn repetition. The song with 
its warning cry owes no little of its power to this 
choral appendix — 

Gathered in time or eternity, 
Sure, ah sure will the harvest be. 

" O THINK OF THE HOME OVER THERE. " 

A hymn of Rev. D. W. C. Huntington, suggested 
by Ps. 55 :6. It was a favorite from the first. 

Rev. DeWitt Clinton Huntington was bom at 
Townshend, Vt. Apr., 27,1830. He graduated at 
the Syracuse University, and received the degrees 
of D. D. and LL. D. from Genesee College . Preach- 
er, instructor and author — Removed to Lincoln, 
Nebraska. 

O think of the home over there. 

By the side of the river of light. 
Where the saints all immortal and fair 

Are robed in their garments of white. 

Over there, (rep) 



FIELD HYMNS. 437 

O think of the friends over there, 

Who before us the journey have trod, 

Of the songs that they breathe on the air. 
In their home in the palace of God. 

Over there, (rep) 

THE TUNE. 

The melody was composed by Tullius Clinton 
O'Kane, born in Delaware, O., March lo, 1830, a 
hymnist and musician. It is a flowing tune, with 
sweet chords, and something of the fugue feature 
in the chorus as an accessory. The ^^oices of a mul- 
titude in full concord make a building tremble with 
it. 

* ^HEN JESUS COMES. " 

DoM7n hfe's dark vale we wander 

Till Jesus comes; 
We watch and wait and wonder 

Till Jesus comes. 

Both words and music are by Mr. Bliss. A 
relative of his family, J. S. Ellsworth, says the song 
was written in Peoria, Illinois, in 1872, and was 
suggested by a conversation on the second coming 
of Christ, a subject very near his heart. The 
thought lingered in his mind, and as he came down 
from his room, soon after, the verses and notes 
came to him simultaneously on the stairs. Singing 
them over, he seized pencil and paper, and in a few 
minutes fixed hymn and tune in the familiar 
harmony so well known. 



43^ STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

No more heart-pangs nor sadness 

When Jesus comes; 

All peace and joy and gladness 

When Jesus comes. 

The choral abounds In repetition, and is half 
refrain, but among all Gospel Hymns remarkable 
for their tone-delivery this is unsurpassed in the 
swing of its rhythm. 

All joy his loved ones bringing 

When Jesus comes. 
All praise thro' heaven ringing 

When Jesus comes. 
All beauty bright and vernal 

\\Tien Jesus comes. 
All glory grand, eternal 
When Jesus comes. 

" TO THE WORK, TO THE W^ORK. " 

One of Fanny Crosby's most animating hymns — 
with Dr. W. H. Doane's full part harmony to re- 
enforce its musical accent. Mr. Sankey says, "I 
sang it for the first time in the home of IVIr. and 
Mrs. J. B. Cornell at Long Branch. The servants 
gathered from all parts of the house while I was sing- 
ing, and looked into the parlor where I was seated. 
When I was through one of them said, *That is 
the finest hymn I have heard for a long time.' I felt 
that this was a test case, and if the hymn had such 
power over those servants it would be useful in 
reaching other people as well; so I published it in 
the Gospel Hymns in 1875, where it became one of 



FIELD HYMNS. 439 

the best work-songs for our meetings that we had." 
(Story of the Gospel Hymns.) 

The hymn, written in 1870, was first pubHshed 
in 1871 in ''Pure Gold'' — a book that had a sale 
of one milHon two hundred thousand copies. 

To the work! to the work! there is labor for all, 
For the Kingdom of darkness and error shall fall, 
And the name of Jehovah exalted shall be. 
In the loud-swelling chorus, ''Salvation is free!'* 

Chorus. 

Toiling on, toiling on, toiling on, toiling on! {rep) 
Let us hope and trust, let us watch and pray, 
And labor till the Master comes. 

"O WHERE ARE THE REAPERS ?" 



Matt. 13:30 is the text of this lyric from the pen of 
Eben E. Rexford. 

Go out in the by-ways, and search them all. 
The wheat may be there though the weeds are tall; 
Then search in the highway, and pass none by. 
But gather them all for the home on high. 

Chorus. 

Where are the reapers ? O who will come. 
And share in the glory of the harvest home .? 
O who will help us to garner in 
The sheaves of good from the fields of sin ? 

THE TUNE. 

Hymn and tune are alike. The melody and har- 
mony by Dr. George F. Root have all the eager 



440 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

trip and tread of so many of the gospel hymns, and 
of so much of his music, and the Hnes respond at 
every step. Any other composer could not have 
escaped the compulsion of the final spondees, and 
much less the author of "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp," 
and all the best martial song-tunes of the great war. 
In this case neither words nor notes can say to the 
other, *'We have piped unto you and ye have not 
danced," but a little caution will guard too enthu- 
siastic singing against falling into the drum- 
rhythm, and travestying a sacred piece. 

Eben Eugene Rexford was born in Johnsburg, 
N. Y., July i6, 1 841, and has been a writer since he 
was fourteen years old. He is the author of several 
popular songs, as "Silver Threads Among the 
Gold," "Only a Pansy Blossom" etc., and many 
essays and treatises on flowers, of which he is pas- 
sionately fond. 

*' IT IS WELL WITH MY SOUL. " 

Horatio Gates Spafford, the writer of this hymn, 
was a lawyer, a native of New York state, born 
Oct. 30, 1828. While connected with an institution 
in Chicago, as professor of medical jurisprudence, 
he lost a great part of his fortune by the great fire 
in that city. This disaster was followed by the loss 
of his children on the steamer, Ville de Havre, Nov. 
22, 1873. He seems to have been a devout Chris- 
tian, for he wrote his hymn of submissive faith to- 
wards the end of the same year — 



FIELD HYMNS. 44I 

When peace like a river attendeth my way, 
When sorrows Hke sea-billows roll — 
Whatever my lot, Thou hast taught me to say, 
"It is well, it is well with my soul." 

A friend of SpafFord who knew his history read 
this hymn while repining under an inferior afflic- 
tion of his own. "If he can feel like that after 
suffering what he has suffered," he said, *'I will 
cease my complaints.'' 

It may not have been the weight of Mr. Spaf- 
ford's sorrows wearing him down, but one would 
infer some mental disturbance in the man seven or 
eight years later. "In 1881" [writes Mr. Hubert 
P. Main] " he w^ent to Jerusalem underthe hallucin- 
ation that he was a second Messiah — and died there 
on the seventh anniversary of his landing in Pales- 
tine, Sept. 5, 1888." The aberrations of an over- 
wrought mind are beckonings to God's compassion. 
When reason wanders He takes the soul of His help- 
less child into his own keeping — and "it is well." 

The tune to SpafFord's hymn is by P. P. Bliss; a 
gentle, gliding melody that suits the mood of the 
words. 

" WAITING AND WATCHING FOR ME. " 

Written by Mrs. Marianne Farningham Hearn, 
born in Kent, Eng., Dec. 17, 1834. The hymn was 
first published in the fall of 1864 in the London 
Church World. Its unrythmical first line — 
When mysterious whispers are floating about, 

— was replaced by the one now familiar — 



442 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

When my final farewell to the world I have said, 

And gladly lain down to my rest, 
When softly the watchers shall say, "He is dead,'* 

And fold my pale hands on my breast, 
And when with my glorified vision at last 

The walls of that City I see. 
Will any one there at the Beautiful Gate 

Be waiting and watching for me ? 

Mrs. Hearn — a member of the Baptist denom- 
ination — has long been the editor of the (English) 
Sunday School Times, but her Hterary work has 
been more largely in connection with the Christian 
World newspaper of which she has been a staff- 
member since its foundation. 

THE TUNE. 

The long lines, not easily manageable for con- 
gregational singing, are wisely set by Mr. Bliss to 
duet music. There is a weighty thought in the 
hymn for every Christian, and experience has 
shown that a pair of good singers can make it very 
affecting, but the only use of the repeat, by way of 
a chorus, seems to be to give the miscellaneous 
voices a brief chance to sing. 

"HE WILL HIDE ME." 



(Isa. 49:2.) 

Miss Mary Elizabeth Servoss, the author of this 
trustful hymn, was born in Schenectady, N. Y., 
Aug. 22, 1849. When a very young girl her ad- 



I 



FIELD HYMNS. 443 

miration of Fann)^ Croshy's writings, and the great 
and good service they were doing in the world, 
inspired her with a longing to resemble her. 
Though her burden was as real, it was not like the 
other's, and her opportunities for religious medi- 
tation and literary work were fewer than those of 
the elder lady, but the limited number of hymns 
she has written have much of the spirit and beauty 
of their model. 

Providence decreed for her a life of domestic 
care and patient waiting. For eighteen years she 
was the constant attendant of a disabled grand- 
mother, and long afterwards love and duty made 
her the home nurse during her mother's protracted 
illness and the last sickness of her father, until both 
parents passed away. 

From her present home in Edeson, 111., some 
utterances of her chastened spirit have found their 
way to the public, and been a gospel of blessing. 
Besides " He Will Hide Me," other hymns of Miss 
Servoss are "Portals of Light," "He Careth," 
"Patiently Enduring," and "Gates of Praise," the 
last being the best known. 

When the storms of Hfe are raging. 

Tempests wild on sea and land, 
I will seek a place of refuge 

In the shadow of God's hand. 

Chorus. 

He will hide me, He will hide me, 
Where no harm can e'er betide me, 



444 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

He will hide me, safely hide me 
In the shadow of His hand. 

****** 

So while here the cross I'm bearing, 

Meeting storms and billows wild, 
Jesus for my soul is caring. 

Naught can harm His Father's child. 
He will hide me, etc. 

THE TUNE. 

An animating choral in nine-eight tempo, with a 
swinging movement and fugue chorus, is rather 
florid for the hymn, but undeniably musical. Mr. 
James McGranahan was the composer. He was 
born in Adamsville, Pa., July 4, 1840. His edu- 
cation was acquired mostly at the public schools, 
and both in general knowledge and in musical 
accomplishments it may be said of him that he is 
'* self-made." 

Music was born in him, and at the age of nine- 
teen, with some valuable help from men like 
Bassini, Webb, Root and Zerrahn, he had studied 
to so good purpose that he taught music classes 
himself. This talent, joined to the gift of a very 
sweet tenor voice, made him the natural successor 
of the lamented Bliss, and, with Major D. W. 
Whittle, he entered on a career of gospel work, 
making between 1881 and 1885 two successful 
tours of England, Scotland and Ireland, and 
through the chief American cities. 



FIELD HYMNS. 445 

Among his publications are the Male Chorus 
Book, Songs of the Gospel and the Gospel Male 
Choir. 

Resides at Kinsman, O. 

^• REVIVE THY WORK, O LORD/ * 

(Heb. 3:2.) 

The supposed date of the hymn is i860; the 
author, Albert Midlane. He was born at Newport 
on the Isle of Wight, Jan. 23, 1825 a business 
man, but, being a Sunday-school teacher, he was 
prompted to write verses for children. The habit 
grew upon him till he became a frequent and 
acceptable hymn-writer, both for juvenile and for 
general use. English collections have at least three 
hundred credited to him. 

Revive Thy work, O Lord, 

Thy mighty arm make bare, 
Speak with the voice that wakes the dead, 

And make Thy people hear. 

THE TUNE. 

Music and words together make a song-litany 
alive with all the old psalm-tune unction and the 
new vigor; and both were upon Mr. McGranahan 
when he wrote the choral. It is one of his suc- 
cesses. 

Revive thy work, O Lord, 
Exalt Thy precious name, 



44^ STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

And by the Holy Ghost our love 
For Thee and Thine inflame. 

Refrain. 

Revive Thy work, O Lord, 

And give refreshing shov^ers; 
The glory shall be all Thine own, 

The blessing shall be ours. 

* ^ WHERE IS MY WANDERING BOY TO-NIGHT ? " 

This remarkable composition — words and music 
by Rev. Robert Lowry — has a record among sacred 
songs like that of "The Prodigal Son" among 
parables. 

A widowed lady of culture, about forty years of 
age, who was an accomplished vocalist, had ceased 
to sing, though her sweet voice was still in its prime. 
The cause was her sorrow for her runaway boy. 
She had not heard from him for five years. While 
spending a week with friends in a city distant from 
home, her hidden talent was betrayed by the friends 
to the pastor of their church, where a revival was 
in progress, and persuasion that seemed to put a 
duty upon her finally procured her consent to sing 
a solo. 

The church was crowded. With a force and 
feeling that can easily be guessed she sang "Where 
Is My Boy Tonight .^" and finished the first stanza. 
She began the second, — 

Once he was pure as morning dew, 
As he knelt at his mother's knee. 



I 



FIELD HYMNS. 447 

No face was so bright, no heart more true, 
And none were so sweet as he; 

— and as the congregation caught up the refrain, — 

O where is my boy tonight ? 
O where is my boy tonight ? 
My heart o'erflows, for I love him he knows, 
O where is my boy tonight ? 

— a young man who had been sitting in a hack 
seat made his way up the aisle and sobbed, 
** Mother, Fm here ! " The embrace of that mother 
and her long-lost boy turned the service into a 
general hallelujah. At the inquiry meeting that 
night there were many souls at the Mercy Seat who 
never knelt there before — and the young wanderer 
was one. 

Mr. Sankey, when in California with Mr. Moody, 
sang this hymn in one of the meetings and told the 
story of a mother in the far east w^ho had commis- 
sioned him to search for her missing son. By a 
happy providence the son was in the house — 
and the story and the song sent him home 
repentant. 

At another time Mr. Sankey sang the same 
hymn from the steps of a snow-bound train, and 
a man between whose father and himself had been 
trouble and a separation, was touched, and re- 
turned to be reconciled after an absence of twenty 
years. 

At one evening service in Stanberry, Mo., the 
singing of the hymn by the leader of the choir led 



448 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

to the conversion of one boy who was present, and 
whose parents were that night praying for him in 
an eastern state, and inspired such earnest prayer 
in the hearts of two other runaway boys' parents 
that the same answer followed. 

There would not be room in a dozen pages to 
record all the similar saving incidents connected 
with the singing of "Where Is My Wandering Boy ?*' 
The rhetoric of love is strong in every note and 
syllable of the solo, and the tender chorus of voices 
swells the song to heaven like an antiphonal 
prayer. 

Strange to say, Dr. Lowry set lightly by his 
hymns and tunes, and deprecated much mention of 
them though he could not deny their success. An 
active Christian since seventeen years of age, 
through his early pulpit service, his six years' 
professorship, and the long pastorate in Plainfield, 
N. J., closed by his death, he considered preaching 
to be his supreme function as it certainly was his 
first love. Music was to him "a side-issue," an 
** efflorescence," and writing a hymn ranked far 
below making and delivering a sermon. "I felt a 
sort of meanness when I began to be known as a 
composer," he said. And yet he was the author 
of a hymn and tune which "has done more to 
bring back wandering boys than any other" ever 
written.* 



♦''WTiere Is My Boy Tonight" was composed for a book of temperance 
hymns, The Fountain of Song, 1877. 



FIELD HYMNS. 449 

"ETERNITY." 



This is the title and refrain of both Mrs. Ellen 
M. H. Gates' impressive poem and its tune. 

O the clanging bells of Time! 

Night and day they never cease; 
We are wearied with their chime, 

For they do not bring us peace. 
And we hush our hearts to hear, 

And we strain our eyes to see 
If thy shores are drawing near 
Eternity! Eternity! 

Skill was needed to vocalize this great word, but 
the ear of Mr. Bliss for musical prosody did not 
fail to make it effective. After the beautiful har- 
mony through the seven lines, the choral reverently 
softens under the rallentando of the closing bars, 
and dwelling on the awe-inspiring syllables, solemn- 
ly dies away. 

TRIUMPH BY AND BY. 

This rally-song of the Christian arena is wonder- 
fully stirring, especially in great meetings, for it 
sings best in full choral volume. 

The prize is set before us. 
To win His words implore us, 
The eye of God is o'er us 

From on high. 
His loving tones are falling 
While sin is dark, appalling, 
*Tis Jesus gently calling; 

He is nigh! 



450 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Chorus. 

By and by we shall meet Him, 
By and by we shall greet Him, 
And with Jesus reign in glory. 
By and by! 

We'll follow where He leadeth, 
We'll pasture where He feedeth. 
We'll yield to Him who pleadeth 

From on high. 
Then nought from Him shall sever. 
Our hope shall brighten ever 
And faith shall fail us never; 

He is nigh. 

Chorus — By and by, etc. 

Dr. Christopher Ruby Blackall, the author of 
the hymn, was born in Albany, N. Y., Sept. i8, 
1830. He was a surgeon in the Civil War, and in 
medical practice fifteen years, but after\\'ards be- 
came connected with the American Baptist Publi- 
cation Society as manager of one of its branches. 
He has written several Sunday-school songs set to 
music by W. H. Doane. 

THE TUNE, 

By Horatio R. Palmer is exactly what the hymn 
demands. The range scarcely exceeds an octave, 
but with the words "From on high," the stroke of 
the soprano on upper D carries the feeling to 
unseen summits, and verifies the title of the song. 
From that note, through melody and chorus the 
*' Triumph by and by" rings clear. 



FIELD HYMNS. 45I 

" NOT HALF HAS EVER BEEN TOLD "' 

This is emotional, but every word and note is 
uplifting, and creates the mood for religious 
impressions. The writer. Rev. John Bush Atchi- 
son, was born at Wilson, N. Y., Feb. i8, 1840, and 
died July 15, 1882. 

I have read of a beautiful city 

Far away in the kingdom of God, 
I have read how its walls are of jasper, 

How its streets are all golden and broad; 
In the midst of the street is Life's River 

Clear as crystal and pure to behold, 
But not half of that city's bright glory 

To mortals has ever been told. 

The chorus (twice sung) — 

Not half has been told, 

— concludes with repeat of the two last lines of this 
first stanza. 

Mr. Atchison was a Methodist clergyman who 
composed several good hymns. " Behold the Stone 
is Rolled Away," "O Crown of Rejoicing," and 
*' Fully Persuaded," indicate samples of his work 
more or less well-known. "Not Half Has Ever 
Been Told" was written in 1875. 

THE TUNE, 

Dr. Otis F. Presbry, the composer, was a young 
farmer of York, Livingston Co., N. Y., born there 
the 20th of December, 1820. Choice of a pro- 



452 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

fessional life led him to Berkshire Medical College, 
where he graduated in 1847. ^" after years his 
natural love of musical studies induced him to give 
his time to compiling and publishing religious 
tunes, w^ith hymns more especially for Sunday- 
schools. 

He became a composer and wTote the melody 
to Atchison's words in 1877, which was arranged 
by a blind musician of Washington, D.C., J. W. 
BischofF by name, with whom he had formed a 
partnership. The solo is long — would better, 
perhaps, have been four-line instead of eight — but 
well sung, it is a flight of melody that holds an 
assembly, and touches hearts. 

Dr. Presbry's best known book was Gospel Bells 
(1883), the joint production of himself, Bischoff, 
and Rev. J. E. Rankin. He died Aug. 20, 1901. 

**COME." 



One of the most characteristic (both words and 
music) of the Gospel Hymns — "Mrs. James Gib- 
son Johnson" is the name attached to it as its 
author, though we have been unable to trace and 
verify her claim. 

O, word of words the sweetest, 

O, words in which there lie 
All promise, all fulfillment, 

And end of mystery; 
Lamenting or rejoicing, 

With doubt or terror nigh. 



FIELD HYMNS. 453 

I hear the "Come" of Jesuj, 
And to His cross I fly. 

Chorus. 

Come, come — 
Weary, heavy-laden, come, O come to me. 

THE TUNE, 

Composed by James McGranahan, delivers the 
whole stanza in soprano or tenor solo, when the 
alto, joining the treble, leads off the refrain in duet, 
the male voices striking alternate notes until the 
full harmony in the last three bars. The style and 
movement of the chorus are somewhat suggestive 
of a popular glee, but the music of the duet is 
flexible and sweet, and the bass and tenor progress 
with it not in the ride-and-tie-fashion but marking 
time wtih the title-syllable. 

The contrast between the spiritual and the in- 
tellectual effect of the hymn and its wakeful tune is 
illustrated by a case in Baltimore. While Moody 
and Sankey were doing their gospel work in that 
city, a man, who, it seems, had brought a copy of 
the Gospel Hymns, walked out of one of the meet- 
ings after hearing this hymn-tune, and on reaching 
home, tore out the leaves that contained the song 
and threw them into the fire, saying he had "never 
heard such twaddle" in all his life. 

The sequel showed that he had been too hasty. 
The hymn would not leave him. After hearing it 
night and day in his mind till he began to realize 



454 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

what It meant, he went to Mr. Moody and told him 
he was " a vile sinner" and wanted to know how he 
could "come" to Christ. The divine invitation 
was explained, and the convicted man underwent 
a vital change. His converted opinion of the hymn 
was quite as remarkably different. He declared it 
was "the sweetest one in the book." {Story of the 
Gospel Hymns.) 

"ALMOST PERSUADED." 



The Rev. Mr. Brundage tells the origin of this 
hymn. In a sermon preached by him many years 
ago, the closing words were: 

"He who is almost persuaded is almost saved, 
but to be almost saved is to be entirely lost." Mr. 
Bliss, being in the audience, was impressed with 
the thought, and immediately set about the com- 
position of what proved one of his most popular 
songs, deriving his inspiration from the sermon of 
his friend, Mr. Brundage. Memoir of Bliss. 

Almost persuaded now to believe, 
Almost persuaded Christ to receive; 
Seems now some soul to say 
"Go Spirit, go thy way. 
Some more convenient day 
On Thee I'll call." 

Almost persuaded — the harvest is past! 

Both hymn and tune are by Mr. Bliss — and the 
omission of a chorus is in proper taste. This re- 



FIELD HYMNS. 455 

vival piece brings the eloquence of sense and sound 
to bear upon the conscience in one monitory plead- 
ing. Incidents in this country and in England 
related in Mr. Sankey's book, illustrate its power. 
It has a convicting and converting history. 

"MY AIN COUNTREE." 



This hymn was written by Miss Mary Augusta 
Lee one Sabbath day in i860 at Bowmount, Croton 
Falls, N.Y.,and first published in the New York 
Observer, Dec. 1 86 1. The authoress had been 
reading the story of John Macduff who, with his 
wife, left Scotland for the United States, and accum- 
ulated property by toil and thrift in the great West. 
In her leisure after the necessity for hard work 
was past, the Scotch woman grew homesick and 
pined for her "ain countree." Fler husband, at 
her request, came east and settled with her in sight 
of the Atlantic where she could see the waters that 
washed the Scotland shore. But she still pined, 
and finally to save her life, John Macdruff took her 
back to the heather hills of the mother-land, where 
she soon recovered her health and spirits. 

I am far from my hame an' Tm weary aften whiles 

For the langed-for hame-bringing an' my Father's welcome 

smiles. 
I'll ne'er be fu' content until mine eyes do see 
The shinin' gates o' heaven an' mine ain countree. 

The airt' is flecked wi' flowers mony-tinted, frish an' gay, 
The birdies warble blithely, for my Father made them sae. 



456 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

But these sights an* these soun's will naething be to me 
When I hear the angels singin' in my ain countree. 

Miss Lee was born in Croton Falls in 1838, and 
was of Scotch descent, and cared for by her grand- 
father and a Scotch nurse, her mother dying in her 
infancy. In 1870 she became the wife of a Mr. 
Demarest, and her married life was spent in 
Passaic, N. J., until their removal to Pasadena, 
Cal., in hope of restoring her failing health. She 
died at Los Angeles, Jan. 8, 1888. 

THE TUNE 

Is an air written in 1864 in the Scottish style by 
Mrs. lone T. Hanna, wife of a banker in Denver, 
Colo., and harmonized for choral use by Hubert 
P Main in 1873. Its plaintive sweetness suits the 
words which probably inspired it. The tone and 
metre of the hymn were natural to the young 
author's inheritance; a memory of her grand- 
father's home-land melodies, with which he once 
crooned "Httle Mary'' to sleep. 

Sung as a closing hymn, "My ain countree" 
sends the worshipper away with a tender, un- 
worldly thought that lingers. 

Mrs. Demarest wrote an additional stanza in 
1881 at the request of Mr. Main. 

Some really good gospel hymns and tunes 
among those omitted in this chapter will cry out 
against the choice that passed them by. Others 
are of the more ephemeral sort, the phenomena 



FIELD HYMNS. 457 

(and the demand) of a generation. Carols of pious 
joy with inordinate repetition, choruses that sur- 
prise old lyrics with modern thrills, ballads of 
ringing sound and slender verse, are the spray of 
tuneful emotion that sparkles on every revival high- 
tide, but rarely leaves floodmarks that time will not 
erase. Religious songs of the demonstrative, not 
to say sensational, kind spring impromptu from 
the conditions of their time — and give place to 
others equally spontaneous when the next spiritual 
wave sweeps by. Their value lingers in the im- 
pulse their novelty gave to the life of sanctuary 
worship, and in the Christian characters their 
emotional power helped into being. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



HYMNS, 
FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL, 



CHRISTMAS. 



" ADESTE FIDELES. " 

This hymn Is of doubtful authorship, by some 
assigned to as late a date as 1680, and by others to 
the 13th century as one of the Latin poems of St. 
Bonaventura, Bishop of Albano, who was born at 
Bagnarea in Tuscany, A. D. 122 1. He was a learned 
man, a Franciscan friar, one of the greatest teachers 
and writers of his church, and finally a cardinal. 
Certainly Roman Catholic in its origin, whoever was 
its author, it is a Christian hymn qualified in every 
way to be sung by the universal church. 

Adeste, fideles 
Laeti triumphantes, 
Venite, venite in Bethlehem; 
Natum videte Regem angelorum. 

(458) 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 459 

Chorus. 

Venite, adoremus, 
Venite, adoremus! 
Venite, adoremus Dominum. 

This has been translated by Rev. Frederick Oake- 
ley (1808-1880) and by Rev. Edv^ard Caswall 
(18 14-1878) the version of the former being the one 
in more general use. The ancient hymn is much 
abridged in the hymnals, and even the translations 
have been altered and modernized in the three or 
four stanzas com.monly sung. Casw^all's version 
renders the first line "Come hither, ye faithful," 
literally construing the Latin v^ords. 

The following is substantially Oakeley's English 
of the "Adeste, fideles." 

O come all ye faithful 
Joyful and triumphant, 
To Bethlehem hasten now with glad accord; 
Come and behold Him, 
Born the King of Angels. 

Chorus. 

O come, let us adore Him, 

O come, let us adore Him, 

O come, let us adore Him, 

Christ, the Lord. 

Sing choirs of angels. 
Sing in exultation 
Through Heaven's high arches be your praises poured; 
Now to our God be 
Glory in the highest! 

O come, let us adore Himl 



460 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Yea, Lord, we bless Thee, 
Born for our salvation 
Jesus, forever be Thy name adored! 
Word of the Father 
Now in flesh appearing; 

O come, let us adore Him! 

The hymn with its primitive music as chanted 
in the ancient churches, was known as "The Mid- 
night Mass," and was the processional song of the 
rehgious orders on their way to the sanctuaries 
where they gathered in preparation for the Christ- 
mas morning service. The modern tune — or rather 
the tune in modern use — is the one everywhere 
familiar as the "Portuguese Hymn." (See page 205.) 

MILTON^S HYMN TO THE NATIVITY. 

It was the winter wild 

While the Heavenly Child 
All meanly wrapped in the rude manger lies. 

Nature in awe of Him 

Had doffed her gaudy trim 
With her great Master so to sympathize. 

:f: He * :|c :tc He 

No war nor battle sound 

Was heard the world around. 
The idle spear and shield were high uphung. 

The hooked chariot stood 

Unstained with hostile blood, 
The trumpets spake not to the armed throng, 

And Kings sat still with awful eye 
As if they knew their Sovereign Lord was by. 

This exalted song — the work of a boy of scarcely 
twenty-one — is a Greek ode in form, of two hun- 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 461 

dred and sixteen lines in twenty-seven strophes. 
Some of its figures and fancies are more to the 
taste of the seventeenth century than to ours, but it 
is full of poetic and Christian sublimities, and its 
high periods will be heard in the Christmas hym- 
nody of coming centuries, though it is not the fash- 
ion to sing it now. 

John Milton, son and grandson of John Miltons, 
was born in Breadstreet, London, Dec. 9, 1608, 
fitted for the University in St. Paul's school, and 
studied seven years at Cambridge. His parents 
intended him for the church, but he chose literature 
as a profession, travelled and made distinguished 
friendships in Italy, Switzerland and France, and 
when little past his majority was before the public 
as a poet, author of the Ode to the Nativity, of a 
Masque, and of many songs and elegies. In later 
years he entered political life under the stress of his 
Puritan sympathies, and served under Cromwell and 
his successor as Latin Secretary of State through 
the time of the Commonwealth. While in public 
duty he became blind, but in his retirement com- 
posed "Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained." 
Died in 1676. 

THE TUNE. 

In the old "Carmina Sacra" a noble choral 
(without name except "No war nor battle 
sound") well interprets portions of the 4th and 
5th stanzas of the great hymn, but replaces the 
line — 



462 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

**The idle spear and shield were high uphung." 
— with the more modern and less figurative — 
**No hostile chiefs to furious combat ran." 

Three stanzas are also added, by the Rev. H. O. 
Dwight, missionary to Constantinople. The sub- 
stituted line, which is also, perhaps, the composition 
of Mr. Dwight, rhymes with — 

*'His reign of peace upon the earth began," 

— and as it is not un-Miltonic, few singers have 
ever known that it was not Milton's own. 

Dr. John Knowles Paine, Professor of Music at 
Harvard University, and author of the Oratorio 
of "St. Peter," composed a cantata to the great 
Christmas Ode of Milton, probably about 
1868. 

Professor Paine died Apr. 25, 1906. 

It is worth noting that John Milton senior, the 
great poet's father, was a skilled musician and a com- 
poser of psalmody. The old tunes "York" and 
"Norwich," in Ravenscroft's collection and copied 
from it in many early New England singing-books, 
are supposed to be his. 

The Miltons were an old Oxfordshire Catholic 
family, and John, the poet's father, was disin- 
herited for turning Protestant, but he prospered in 
business, and earned the comfort of a country 
gentleman. He died, very aged, in May, 1646, and 
his son addressed a Latin poem ("Ad Patrem") to 
his memory. 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 463 

*' HARK! THE HERALD ANGELS SING. " 

This hymn of Charles Wesley, dating about 1 730, 
was evidently written with the^Adeste Fideles" in 
mind, some of the stanzas, in fact, being almost 
like translations of it. The form of the two first 
lines was originally — 

Hark! how all the welkin rings, 
* 'Glory to the King of Kings!" 

— but was altered thirty years later by Rev. Martin 
Madan (i 726-1 790) to — 

Hark! the herald angels sing 
Glory to the new-born King! 

Other changes by the same hand modified the three 
following stanzas, and a fifth stanza was added by 
John Wesley — 

Hail the heavenly Prince of Peace I 
Hail the Sun of Righteousness! 
Light and life to all He brings, 
Ris'n with healing in His wings, 

THE TUNE. 

" Mendelssohn '' is the favorite musical interpreter 
of the hymn. It is a noble and spirited choral from 
Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy's cantata, "Gott ist 
Licht." 

' 7OY TO THE WORLD, THE LORD IS COME !" 

This inspirational lyric of Dr. Watts never grows 
old. It was written in 1 719. 



464 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Joy to the world! the Saviour reigns! 

Let men their songs employ 
While fields and floods, rocks, hills and plains 

Repeat the sounding joy. 

Dr. Edward Hodges (i 796-1867) wrote an ex- 
cellent psalm-tune to it which is still in occasional 
use, but the music united to the hymn in the pop- 
ular heart is "Antioch," an adaptation from 
Handel's Messiah. This companionship holds 
unbroken from hymnal to hymnal and has done so 
for sixty or seventy years; and, in spite of its fugue, 
the tune — apparently by some magic of its own — 
contrives to enlist the entire voice of a congregation, 
the bass falling in on the third beat as if by intui- 
tion. The truth is, the tune has become the habit 
of the hymn, and to the thousands who have it by 
heart, as they do in every village where there is a 
singing school, "Antioch" is "Joy to the World,'* 
and "Joy to the World" is "Antioch." 

* ^ HARKI WHAT MEAN THOSE HOLY VOICES r 

This fine hymn, so many years appearing with 
the simple sign " Cawood " or " J. Cawood '' printed 
under it, still holds its place by universal welcome. 

Hark! what mean those holy voices 
Sweetly sounding through the skies } 

Lo th* angelic host rejoices; 
Heavenly hallelujahs rise. 

Hear them tell the wondrous story. 
Hear them chant in hymns of joy. 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 465 

Glory in the highest, glory, 
Glory be to God on high I 

The Rev. John Cawood, a farmer's son, was born 
at Matlock, Derbyshire, Eng., March 1 8, 1 775, grad- 
uated at Oxford, 1801, and was appointed perpetual 
curate of St. Anne's in Bendly, Worcestershire. 
Died Nov. 7, 1 852. He is said to have written seven- 
teen hymns, but was too modest to publish any. 

THE TUNE. 

Dr. Dykes' "Oswald," and Henry Smart's 
"Bethany" are worthy expressions of the feeling 
in Cawood's hymn. In America, Mason's "Am- 
aland," with fugue in the second and third lines, 
has long been a favorite. 

' * WHILE SHEPHERDS WATCHED THEIR FLOCKS. " 

This was written by Nahum Tate (1652-1715), 
and after two hundred years the church remembers 
and sings the song. Six generations have grown 
up with their childhood memory of its pictorial 
verses illustrating St. Luke's Christmas story. 

While shepherds watched their flocks by night, 

All seated on the ground, 
The angel of the Lord came down 

And glory shone around. 

**Fear not" said he, for mighty dread 

Had seized their troubled mind, 
"Glad tidings of great joy I bring 

To you and all mankind." 



466 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

r HE TUNE. 

Modern hymnals have substituted "Christmas" 
and other more or less spirited tunes for Read's 
''Sherburne," which was the first musical trans- 
lation of the hymn to American ears. But, to show 
the traditional hold that the New England fugue 
melody maintains on the people, many collections 
print it as alternate tune. Some modifications have 
been made in it, but its survival is a tribute to its 
real merit. 

Daniel Read, the creator of "Sherburne,'* 
"Windham," "Russia," "Stafford," "Lisbon," and 
many other tunes characteristic of a bygone school 
of psalmody, was born in Rehoboth, Mass., Nov. 
2, 1757. He published The American Singing 
Book, 1785, Columbian Harmony, 1793, and sev- 
eral other collections. Died in New Haven, Ct., 
1836. 

* ' IT CAME UPON THE MIDNIGHT CLEAR. " 

Rev. Edmund Hamilton Sears, author of this 
beautiful hymn-poem, was born at Sandisfield, 
Berkshire Co., Mass., April 6, 18 10, and educated 
at Union College and Harvard University. He 
became pastor of the Unitarian Church in Way- 
land, Mass., 1838. Died in the adjoining town 
of Weston, Jan. 14, 1876. The hymn first ap- 
peared in the Christian Register in 1857. 

It came upon the midnight clear, 
That glorious song of old, 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 467 

From angels bending near the earth 
To touch their harps of gold. 

* 'Peace to the earth, good will to men 
From Heaven's all-gracious King." 
The world in solemn stillness lay, 
To hear the angels sing. 

Still through the cloven skies they come 

With peaceful wings unfurled 
And still their heavenly music floats 

O'er all the weary world. 

Above its sad and lonely plains 

They bend on hovering wing. 
And ever o'er its Babel sounds 

The blessed angels sing. 

THE TUNE. 

No more sympathetic music has been written 
to these Hnes than *' Carol," the tune composed by 
Richard Storrs Willis, a brother of Nathaniel Parker 
Willis the poet, and son of Deacon Nathaniel 
Willis, the founder of the Touth^s Companion. He 
was born Feb. lo, 1819, graduated at Yale in 1841, 
and followed literature as a profession. He was 
also a musician and composer. For many years 
he edited the N. T. Musical World, and, besides 
contributing frequently to current literature, pub- 
lished Church Chorals and Choir Studies, Our 
Church Music and several other volumes on 
musical subjects. Died in Detroit, May 7, 1900. 

The much-loved and constantly used advent 
psalm of Mr. Sears, — 



468 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Calm on the listening ear of night 

Come heaven's melodious strains 
Where wild Judea stretches far 

Her silver-mantled plains, 

— was set to music by John Edgar Gould, and the 
smooth choral with its sweet chords is a remarkable 
example of blended voice and verse. 

" O LITTLE TOWN OF BETHLEHEM! " 

Phillips Brooks, the eloquent bishop of Massa- 
chusetts, loved to write simple and tender poems 
for the children of his church and diocese. They 
all reveal his loving heart and the beauty of his 
consecrated imagination. This one, the best of his 
Christmas Songs, was slow in coming to public 
notice, but finally found its place in hymn-tune 
collections. 

O little town of Bethlehem, 

How still we see thee lie! 
Above thy deep and dreamless sleep 

The silent stars go by; 
Yet in thy dark streets shineth 

The everlasting light; 
The hopes and fears of all the years 

Are met in thee tonight. 

For Christ is born of Mary, 

And gathered all above. 
While mortals sleep, the angels keep 

Their watch of wond'ring love. 
O morning stars, together 

Proclaim the holy birth! 
And praises sing to God the King 

And peace to men on earth. 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 469 

How silently, how silently, 

The wondrous gift is given! 
So God imparts to human hearts 

The blessings of His heaven. 

No ear may hear His coming, 

But in this world of sin. 
Where meek souls will receive Him still 

The dear Christ enters in. 

Phillips Brooks, late bishop of the diocese of 
Massachusetts, was born in Boston, Dec. 13, 1835; 
died Jan. 23, 1893. He was graduated at Harvard 
in 1855, and at the Episcopal Divinity School of 
Alexandria, Va., 1859. The first ten years of his 
ministry were spent in Pennsylvania, after which 
he became rector of Trinity Church, Boston, and 
was elected bishop in 1891. He was an inspiring 
teacher and preacher, an eloquent pulpit orator, 
and a man of deep and rich religious life. 

The hymn was written in 1868, and it was, no 
doubt, the ripened thought of his never-forgotten 
visit to the ** little town of Bethlehem*' two years 
before. 

THE TUNE. 

"Bethlehem" is the appropriate name of a tune 
written bv J. Barnby, and adapted to the words, 
but it is the hymn's first melody (named "St. 
Louis" by the compiler who first printed it in the 
Church Porch from original leaflets) that has the 
credit of carr)ang it to popularity. 

The composer was Air. Redner, organist of the 
Church of the Holy Trinity, Philadelphia, of which 



470 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Rector Brooks was then in charge. Lewis Henry 
Redner, born 1831, was not only near the age of his 
friend and pastor but as much devoted to the in- 
terests of the Sunday-school, for whose use the 
hymn was written, and he had promised to write 
a score to which it could be sung on the coming 
Sabbath. Waking in the middle of the night, after 
a busy Saturday that sent him to bed with his 
brain "in a whirl," he heard "an angel strain," 
and immediately rose and pricked the notes of the 
melody. The tune had come to him just in time 
to be sung. A much admired tune has also been 
written to this hymn by Hubert P. Main. 



PALM SUNDAY. 



FAURE'S 'TALM BRANCHES. *' 

Sur nos chemins les rameaux et les jieurs 
Sont repandos — 

O'er all the way green palms and blossoms gay 
Are strt-wn to-day in festive preparation, 
Where Jesus comes to wipe our tears away. 
E'en now the throng to welcome Him prepare; 
Join all and sing. — 

Jean Baptiste Faure, author of the words and 
music, was born at MouHns, France, Jan. 15, 1830. 
As a boy he was gifted with a beautiful voice, and 
crowds used to gather wherever he sang in the 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL 47I 

Streets of Paris. Little is known of his parentage, 
and apparently the sweet voice of the wandering 
lad was his only fortune. He found wealthy friends 
who sent him to the Conservatoire, but when his 
voice matured it ceased to serve him as a singer. 
He went on with his study of instrumental music, 
but mourned for his lost vocal triumphs, and his 
longing became a subject of prayer. He promised 
God that if his power to sing were given back to 
him he would use it for charity and the good of 
mankind. By degrees he recovered his voice, and 
became known as a great baritone. As profes- 
sional singer and composer at the Paris Grand 
Opera, he had been employed largely in dramatic 
work, but his **Ode to Charity" is one of his endur- 
ing and celebrated pieces, and his songs written 
for benevolent and religious services have found 
their way into all Christian lands. 

His "Palm-Branches" has come to be a sin^ 
qua non on its calendar Sunday wherever church 
worship is planned with any regard to the Feasts 
of the Christian year. 



EASTER. 



Perhaps the most notable feature in the early 
hymnology of the Oriental Church was its Resur- 
rection songs. Being hymns of joy, they called 
forth all the ceremony and spectacle of ecclesias- 



472 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

tical pomp. Among them — and the most ancient 
one of those presented — is the hymn of John of 
Damascus, quoted in the second chapter (p. 54). 
This was the proclamation-song in the watch- 
assemblies, when exactly on the midnight moment 
at the shout of "Christos egerthe!'' (XptjrbqT^YlpOT).) 
"Christ is risen!" thousands of torches were lit, 
bells and trumpets pealed, and (in the later cen- 
turies) salvos of cannon shook the air. 

Another favorite hymn of the Eastern Church 
was the ** Salve, Beate Mane^^ "Welcome, Happy 
Morning," of Fortunatus. (Chap. 10, p. 357.) This 
poem furnished cantos for Easter hymns of the 
Middle Ages. Jerome of Prague sang stanzas of 
it on his way to the stake. 

An anonymous hymn, ^'Poneluctum, Magdelena" 
in medieval Latin rhyme, is addressed to Mary 
Magdelene weeping at the empty sepulchre. The 
following are the 3d and 4th stanzas, with a transla- 
tion by Prof. C. S. Harrington of Wesly an University: 

Gaude, plaude, Magdalena! 

Tumba Christus exiit! 
Tristis est peracta scena, 

Victor mortis rediit; 
Quern deflebas morientem, 
Nunc arride resurgentem! 
Alleluia! 

Telle vultum, Magdalen a 1 

Redivivum aspice; 
Vide frons quam sit amoena, 

Quinque plagas inspice; 
Fulgent, sic ut margaritae, 



KYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 473 

Omamenta novae vitae. 
Alleluia! 



Magdalena, shout for gladness! 
Christ has left the gloomy grave; 
Finished is the scene of sadness; 

Death destroyed, He comes to save; 
Whom with grief thou sawest dying, 
Greet with smiles, the tomb defying. 
Hallelujah! 

Lift thine eyes, O Magdalena! 

Lo! thy Lord before thee stands; 
See! how fair the thorn-crowned forehead; 

Mark His feet. His side. His hands; 
Glow His wounds with pearly whiteness! 
Hallowing life with heavenly brightness! 
Hallelujah! 

The hymnaries of the Christian Church for 
seventeen hundred years are so rich in Easter 
hallelujahs and hosannas that to introduce them 
all would swell a chapter to the size of an encyclo- 
pedia — and even to make a selection is a responsi- 
ble task. 

Simple mention must suffice of Luther's — 
In the bonds of death He lay; 

—of Watts'— 

He dies, the Friend of sinners dies; 
— of John Wesley's — 

Our Lord has gone up on high; 
—of C. F. Gellert's— 

Christ is risen! Christ is risen! 

He hath burst His bonds in twain; 



474 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

— omitting hundreds which have been helpful in 
psalmody, and are, perhaps, still in choir or con- 
gregational use. 

" CHRIST THE LORD IS RISEN TODAY" 

Begins a hymn of Charles Wesley's and is also the 
first line of a hymn prepared for Sunday-school use 
by Mrs. Storrs, wife of the late Dr. Richard Salter 
Storrs of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Wesley's hymn is sung — with or without the 
hallelujah interludes — to "Telemann's Chant," 
(Zeuner), to an air of Mendelssohn, and to John 
Strainer's "Paschale Gaudium." Like the old 
New England "Easter Anthem" it appears to have 
been suggested by an anonymous translation of 
some more ancient (Latin) antiphony. 

Jesus Christ is risen to day. 

Hallelujah! 

Our triumphant holy day, 

Hallelujah! 

# 4: * * * * 

Who endured the cross and grave, 

Hallelujah! 
Sinners to redeem and save, 

Hallelujah! 

AN ANTHEM FOR EASTER. 



This work of an amateur genius, with its rustic 
harmonies, suited the taste of colonial times, and 
no doubt the devout church-goers of that day 



I 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 475 

found sincere worship and thanksgiving in its 
flamboyant music. "An Anthem for Easter/' in 
A major by William Billings (1785) occupied 
several pages in the early collections of psalmody 
and "the sounding joy" was in it. Organs were 
scarce, but beyond the viols of the village choirs it 
needed no instrumental accessories. The language 
is borrowed from the New Testament and 
JToung's Night Thoughts. 

The Lord is risen indeed! 

Hallelujah! 
The Lord is risen indeed! 

Hallelujah! 

Following this triumphant overture, a recitative 
bass solo repeats i Cor. 15:20, and the chorus takes 
it up with crowning hallelujahs. Different parts, 
per fug am, inquire from clef to clef — 

And did He rise ? 
And did He rise ? — 
Hear [the answer), O ye narionsi 
Hear it, O ye dead! 

Then duet, trio and chorus sing it, successively — 

He rose! He rose! He rose! 
He burst the bars of death, 
And triumphed o'er the grave! 

The succeeding thirty-four bars — duet and chorus 
— take home the sacred gladness to the heart of 
humanity — 

Then, then / rose, 

:(( >|! >ic >): * 'fc 



476 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

And seized eternal youth, 
Man all immortal, hail! 
Heaven's all the glory, man's the boundless bliss. 

" YES, THE REDEEMER ROSE ." 

In the six-eight syllable verse once known as 
"hallelujah metre" — written by Dr. Doddridge 
to be sung after a sermon on the text in ist Co- 
rinthians noted in the above anthem — 

Yes, the Redeemer rose, 

The Saviour left the dead. 
And o'er our hellish foes 

High raised His conquering head. 
In wild dismay the guards around 
Fall to the ground and sink away. 

Lewis Edson's "Lenox" (1782) is an old favorite 
among its musical interpreters. 

*^ SHORT WAS HIS SLUMBER. " 

This hymn for the song-service of the Ruggles 
St. Church, Boston, was written by Rev. Theron 
Brown. 

O short was His slumber; He woke from the dust; 

The Saviour death's chain could not hold; 
And short, since He rose, is the sleep of the just; 

They shall wake, and His glory behold. 

:4e 4: :(: * He * 

Dear grave in the garden; hope smiled at its door 
Where love's brightest triumph was told; 

Christ lives! and His life will His people restore; 
They shall wake, and His glory behold. 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 477 

The music is Bliss' tune to SpafFord's "When 
Peace Like a River/* 

Another by the same writer, sung by the same 
church chorus, is — 

He rose! O morn of wonder! 

They saw His light go down 
Whose hate had crushed Him under, 

A King without a crown. 
No plume, no garland wore He, 

Despised death's Victor lay, 
And wrapped in night His glory, 

That claimed a grander day. 

****** 

He rose! He burst immortal 

From death's dark realm alone, 
And left its heavenward portal 

Swung wide for all his own. 
Nor need one terror seize us 

To face earth's final pain. 
For they who follow Jesus, 

But die to live again. 

The composer's name is lost, the tune being left 
nameless when printed. The impression is that 
it was a secular melody. A very suitable tune for 
the hymn is Geo. J. Webb's "Millennial Dawn" 
("the Morning Light is breaking.") 



4/8 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

THANKSGIVING. 



" DIE FELDER WIR PFLUGEN UND STREUEN. '* 

We plow the fields and scatter 

The good seed on the land, 
But it is fed and watered 

By God's Almighty hand, 
He sends the snow in winter. 

The warmth to swell the grain, 
The breezes, and the sunshine 

And soft, refreshing rain. 
All, all good gifts around us 

Are sent from heaven above 
Then thank the Lord, O thank the Lord 
For all His love! 

Matthias Claudius, who wrote the German 
original of this little poem, was a native of Rein- 
feld, Holstein, born 1770 and died 18 15. He wrote 
lyrics, humorous, pathetic and religious, some of 
which are still current in Germany. 

The translator of the verses is Miss Jane Mont- 
gomery Campbell, whose identity has not been 
traced. Hers is evidently one of the retiring names 
brought to light by one unpretending achievement. 
English readers owe to her the above modest and 
devout hymn, which was first published here in 
Rev. C. S. Bere's Garland of Songs with Tunes, 
1861. 

Little is known of Arthur Cottman, composer to 
Miss Campbell's words. He was born in 1842, 
and died in 1879. 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 



479 



" WITH SONGS AND HONORS SOUNDING LOUD. " 

Stanzas of this enduring hymn of Watts' have 
been as often recited as sung. 

He sends His showers of blessing down 

To cheer the plains below; 
He makes the grass the mountains crown, 

And corn in valleys grow. 

THE TUNE, 

One of the chorals — if not the best — <o claim 
partnership with this sacred classic, is John Cole's 
"Geneva," distinguished among the few fugue 
tunes which the singing world refuses to dismiss. 
There is a growing grandeur in the opening solo 
and its following duet as they climb the first tetra- 
chord, when the full harmony suddenly reveals 
the majesty of the music. The little parenthetic 
duo at the eighth bar breaks the roll of the song 
for one breath, and the concord of voices closes in 
again like a diapason. One thinks of a bird-note 
making a waterfall hsten. 

"HARVEST HOME." 



Let us sing of the sheaves, when the summer is done, 
And the garners are stored with the gifts of the sun. 
Shouting home from the fields like the voice of the sea, 
Let us join with the reapers in glad jubilee, — 
Refrain. 

Harvest home! {double rep.) 
Let us chant His praise who has crowned our days 
With bounty of the harvest home. 



480 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Who hath ripened the fruits into golden and red ? 
Who hath grown in the valleys our treasures of bread, 
That the owner might heap, and the stranger might glean 
For the days when the cold of the winter is keen ? 
Harvest home! 

Let us chant, etc. 

For the smile of the sunshine, again and again. 
For the dew on the garden, the showers on the plain. 
For the year, with its hope and its promise that end. 
Crowned with plenty and peace, let thanksgiving ascend. 
Harvest home! 

Let us chant, etc. 

We shall gather a harvest of glory, we know. 
From the furrows of life where in patience we sow. 
Buried love in the field of the heart never dies. 
And its seed scattered here will be sheaves in the skies. 
Harvest home! 

Let us chant, etc. 

Thanksgiving Hymn. Boston, 1890. Theron 
Brown. 

Tune "To the Work, To the Work." W. H. 
Doane. 

"THE GOD OF HARVEST PRAISE." 



Written by James Montgomery in 1840, and 
published in the Evangelical Magazine as the 
Harvest Hymn for that year. 

The God of harvest praise; 
In loud thanksgiving raise 

Heart, hand and voice. 
The valleys smile and sing, 
Forests and mountains sing. 
The plains their tribute bring. 

The streams rejoice. 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 481 

s(( >|e )(e 3|e :)( 3|c 

The God of harvest praise; 
Hearts, hands and voices raise 

With sweet accord; 
From field to garner throng, 
Bearing your sheaves along, 
And in your harvest song 

Bless ye the Lord. 

Tune, "Dort'* — Lowell Mason. 



MORNING. 



"STILL, STILL WITH THEE. " 

These stanzas of Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, 
with their poetic beauty and grateful religious 
spirit, have furnished an orison worthy of a place 
in all the hymn books. In feeling and in faith the 
hymn is a matin song for the world, supplying 
words and thoughts to any and every heart that 
worships. 

Still, still with Thee, when purple morning breaketh, 
When the bird waketh and the shadows flee; 

Fairer than morning, lovelier than daylight, 

Dawns the sweet consciousness, I am with Thee. 

Alone with Thee, amid the mystic shadows 
The solemn hush of nature newly born; 

Alone with Thee, in breathless adoration. 
In the calm dew and freshness of the mom. 

****** 



482 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

When sinks the soul, subdued by toil, to slumber, 
Its closing eyes look up to Thee in prayer, 

Sweet the repose beneath Thy wings overshadowing, 
But sweeter still to wake and find Thee there, 

THE TUNES. 

Barnby's "Windsor," and "Stowe" by Charles 
H. Morse (1893) — both written to the words. 

Mendelssohn's "Consolation" is a classic in- 
terpretation of the hymn, and finely impressive 
when skillfully sung, but simpler — and sweeter 
to the popular ear — is Mason's " Henley," written 
to Mrs. Eslings' — 

"Come unto me when shadows darkly gather." 



EVENING HYMNS, 



John Keble's beautiful meditation — 

Sun of my soul, Thou Saviour dear; 
John Leland's — 

The day is past and gone; 
and Phebe Brown's — 

I love to steal awhile away; 

— have already been noticed. Bishop Doane's 
gentle and spiritual lines express nearly everything 
that a worshipping soul would include in a moment 
of evening thought. The first and last stanzas are 
the ones most commonly sung. 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 483 

Softly now the light of day 
Fades upon my sight away: 
Free from care, from labor free, 
Lord I would commune with Thee. 

Soon for me the light of day 
Shall forever pass away; 
Then, from sin and sorrow free, 
Take me, Lord, to dwell with Thee. 

THE TUNE. 

Both Kozeluck and J. E. Gould, besides Louis 
M. Gottschalk and Dr. Henry John Gauntlett, 
have tried their skill in fitting music to this hymn, 
but only Gottschalk and Kozeluck approach the 
mood into which its quiet v^ords charm a pious and 
reflective mind. Possibly its frequent association 
with "Holley," composed by George Hews, may 
influence a hearer's judgement of other melodies 
but there is something in that tune that makes 
it cling to the hymn as if by instinctive kin- 
ship. 

Others may have as much or more artistic music 
but "Holley" in its soft modulations seems to 
breathe the spirit of every word. 

It was this tune to which a stranger recently 
heard a group of mill-girls singing Bishop Doane's 
verses. The lady, a well-known Christian worker, 
visited a certain factory, and the superintendent, 
after showing her through the building, opened a 
door into a long work-room, where the singing of the 



484 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

girls delighted and surprised her. It was sunset, 
and their hymn was — 

Sofdy now the light of day. 

Several of the girls were Sunday-school teachers, 
who had encouraged others to sing at that hour, 
and It had become a habit. 

"Has it made a difference .^" the lady inquired. 

"There is seldom any quarrelling or coarse jok- 
ing among them now,'* said the superintendent with 
a smile. 

Dr. S. F. Smith's hymn of much the same tone 
and tenor — 

Softly fades the twilight ray 
Of the holy Sabbath day, 

— IS commonly sung to the tune of " Holley. " 

George Hews, an American composer and piano- 
maker, was born in Massachusetts 1800, and died 
July 6, 1873. No intelligence of him or his work 
or former locality is at hand, beyond this brief note 
in Baptie, "He is believed to have followed his 
trade in Boston, and written music for some of 
Mason's earlier books. 



DEDICATION, 



''CHRIST IS OUR CORNER-STONE." 

'' ' ' . ■ 

This reproduces in Chandler's translation a song- 
service in an ancient Latin liturgy {angulare funda' 
mentum). 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 485 

Christ is our Comer-Stone; 
On Him alone we build. 
With His true saints alone 

The courts of heaven are filled. 
On His great love 
Our hopes we place 
Of present grace 
And joys above. 

O then with hymns of praise 

These hallowed courts shall ring; 
Our voices we will raise 
The Three-in-One to sing. 
And thus proclaim 
In joyful song 
But loud and long 
That glorious Name. 

The Rev. John Chandler v^as born at Witley, 
Surrey, Eng. June i6, 1806. He took his A.M. 
degree at Oxford, and entered the ministry of the 
Church of England, was Vicar of Witley many 
years, and became well-knov^n for his translations 
of hymns of the primitive church. Died at Putney, 
July I, 1876. 

THE TUNE, 

Sebastian Wesley's " Harewood '* is plainer and of 
less compass, but Zundel's "Brooklyn" is more 
than its rival, both in melody and vivacity. 

" OH LORD OF HOSTS WHOSE GLORY FILLS 
THE BOUNDS OF THE ETERNAL HILLS. " 

A hymn of Dr. John Mason Neale — 



486 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

Endue the creatures with Thy grace 
That shall adorn Thy dwelling-place 
The beauty of the oak and pine, 
The gold and silver, make them Thine. 

The heads that guide endue with skill, 
The hands that work preserve from ill, 
That we who these foundations lay 
May raise the top-stone in its day. 

THE TUNE. 

"Welton," by Rev. Caesar Malan — author of 
"Hendon," once familiar to American singers. 

Henri Abraham Caesar Malan was born at Gen- 
eva, Switzerland, 1787, and educated at Geneva 
College. Ordained to the ministry of the State 
church, (Reformed,) he was dismissed for preach- 
ing against its formalism and spiritual apathy; but 
he built a chapel of his own, and became a leader 
with D'Aubigne, Monod, and others in reviving 
the purity of the EvangeHcal faith and laboring for 
the conversion of souls. 

Malan wrote many hymns, and published a large 
collection, the ''Chants de Siotiy' for the Evan- 
gelical Society and the French Reformed Church. 
He composed the music of his own hymns. Died 
at Vandosurre, 1864. 

" DAUGHTER OF ZION, FROM THE DUST ." 

Cases may occur where an exhortation hymn 
earns a place with dedication hymns. 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 487 

The charred fragment of a hymn-book leaf 
hangs in a frame on the auditorium wall of the 
**New England Church," Chicago. The former 
edifice of that church, all the homes of its resident 
members, and all their business offices except one, 
were destroyed in the great fire. In the ruins of 
their sanctuary the only scrap of paper found on 
which there was a legible word was this bit of a 
hymn-book leaf with the two first stanzas of Mont- 
gomery's hymn, 

Daughter of Zion, from the dust. 

Exalt thy fallen head; 
Again in thy Redeemer trust, 

He calls thee from the dead. 

Awake, awake! put on thy strength, 

Thy beautiful array; 
The day of freedom dawns at length, 

The Lord's appointed day. 

The third verse was not long in coming to every 
mind — 

Rebuild thy walls! thy bounds enlarge! 

— and even without that added word the impov- 
erished congregation evidently enough had received 
a message from heaven. They took heart of grace, 
overcame all difficulties, and in good time replaced 
their ruined Sabbath-home with the noble house 
in which they worship today.* 

If the "New England Church" of Chicago did 
not sing this hymn at the dedication of their new 

*The stoiy is told by Rev. William E. Barton D.D. of Oak Park, HI. 



/ 



488 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

temple it was for some other reason than lack of 
gratitude — not to say reverence. 



THE SABBATH, 



The very essence of all song-w^orship pitched on 
this key-note is the ringing hymn of Watts — 

Sweet is the day of sacred rest, 

No mortal cares disturb my breast, etc. 

— but It has vanished from the hymnals with its tune. 
Is it because profane people or thoughtless youth 
made a travesty of the two next lines — 

O may my heart in tune be found 
Like David's harp of solemn sound ? 

THE TUNE. 

Old "Portland" by Abraham Maxim, a fugue 
tune in F major of the canon style, expressed all 
the joy that a choir could put into music, though 
with more sound than skill. The choral is a relic 
among reHcs now, but it is a favorite one. 

"Sweet is the Light of Sabbath Eve" by Edmes- 
ton; Stennett's "Another Six Days' Work is Done," 
sung to " Spohr, " the joint tune of Louis Spohr and 
J.E.Gould; and Doddridge's "Thine Earthly Sab- 
bath, Lord, We Love" retain a feeble hold among 
some congregations. And Hayward's "Welcome 
Delightful Morn," to the impossible tune of "Lis- 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 489 

cher," survived unaccountably long in spite of its 
handicap. But special Sabbath hymns are out of 
fashion, those classed under that title taking an in- 
cidental place under the general head of " Worship.*' 



COMMUNION. 



"BREAD OF HEAVEN, ON THEE WE FEED." 

- 

This hymn of Josiah Conder, copying the phy- 
sical metaphors of the 6th of John, is still occasion- 
ally used at the Lord's Supper. 

Vine of Heaven, Thy blood supph'es 
This blest cup of sacrifice, 
Lord, Thy wounds our heahng give, 
To Thy Cross we look and live. 

The hymn is notable for the feHcity with which 
it combines imagery and reality. Figure and fact 
are always in sight of each other. 

Josiah Conder was born in London, September 
17, 1789. He edited the Eclectic Review, and was 
the author of numerous prose works on historic 
and religious subjects. Rev. Garrett Horder says 
that more of his hymns are in common use now 
than those of any other except Watts and Dod- 
dridge. More in proportion to the relative number 
may be nearer the truth. In his lifetime Conder 
wrote about sixty hymns. He died Dec. 27, 

1855. 



490 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

THE TUNE. 

The tune "Corsica" sometimes sung to the 
words, though written by the famous Von Gluck, 
shows no sign of the genius of its author. Born at 
Weissenwang, near New Markt, Prussia, July 2, 
1 7 14, he spent his hfe in the service of operatic 
art, and is called "the father of the lyric drama," 
but he paid little attention to sacred music. Queen 
Marie Antoinette was for a while his pupil. Died 
Nov. 25, 1787. 

"Wilmot," (from Von Weber) one of Mason^s 
popular hymn-tune arrangements. Is a melody with 
which the hymn Is well acquainted. It has a fire- 
side rhythm which old and young of the same 
circles take up naturally in song. 

** HERE, O MY LORD, I SEE THEE FACE TO FACE ." 

Written in October, 1855, by Dr. Horatlus Bonar. 
James Bonar, brother of the poet-preacher, just 
after the communion for that month, asked him to 
furnish a hymn for the communion record. It was 
the church custom to print a memorandum of each 
service at the Lord's table, with an appropriate 
hymn attached, and an original one would be thrice 
welcome. Horatius in a day or two sent this 
hymn: 

Here, O my Lord, I see Thee face to face, 
Here would I touch and handle things unseen 
Here grasp with firmer hand th' eternal grace, 
And all my weariness upon Thee lean. 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 49I 



^ ^ Ji: ^ ^ ^ 



Too soon we rise; the symbols disappear; 
The feast, though not the love, is past and gone; 
The bread and wine remove, but Thou art here, 
Nearer than ever — still my Shield and Sun. 

THE TUNE. 

"Morecambe'' is an anonymous composition 
printed with the words by the Plymouth Hymnal 
editors. " Bedin " by Mendelssohn is better. The 
metreof Bonar'shymn is unusual, and melodies to 
fit it are not numerous, but for a meditative service 
it is worth a tune of its own. 

" O THOU MY SOUL, FORGET NO MORE. " 

The author of this hymn found in the Baptist 
hymnals, and often sung at the sacramental seasons 
of that denomination, was the first Hindoo convert 
to Christianity. 

Krishna Pal, a native carpenter, in consequence 
of an accident, came under the care of Mr. Thomas, 
a missionary who had been a surgeon in the East 
Indies and was now an associate worker with 
William Carey. Mr. Thomas set the man's broken 
arm, and talked of Jesus to him and the surround- 
ing crowd with so much tact and loving kindness 
that Krishna Pal was touched. He became a pupil 
of the missionaries; embraced Christ, and in- 
fluenced his wife and daughter and his brother to 
accept his new faith. 



/ 



492 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

He alone, however, dared the bitter persecution 
of his caste, and presented himself for church- 
membership. He and Carey's son were baptized 
in the Ganges by Dr. Carey, Dec. 28, 1800, in the 
presence of the English Governor and an immense 
concourse of people representing four or five differ- 
ent religions. 

Krishna Pal wrote several hymns. The one here 
noted was translated from the Bengalee by Dr. 
Marshman. 

O thou, my soul, forget no more 
The Friend who all thy sorrows bore; 
Let every idol be forgot; 
But, O my soul, forget him not. 

Renounce thy works and ways, with grief. 
And fly to this divine relief; 
Nor Him forget, who left His throne, 
And for thy life gave up His own. 

Eternal truth and mercy shine 

In Him, and He Himself is thine: 

And canst thou then, with sin beset. 

Such charms, such matchless charms forget ? 

Oh, no; till life itself depart, 
His name shall cheer and warm my heart; 
And lisping this, from earth I'll rise, 
And join the chorus of the skies. 

THE TUNE. 

There is no scarcity of good long-metre tunes to 
suit the sentiment of this hymn. More commonly 
in the Baptist manuals its vocal mate is Brad- 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 493 

bury's "Rolland'' or the sweet and serious Scotch 
melody of *' Ward," arranged by Mason. Best of 
all is "Hursley," the beautiful Ritter-Monk 
choral set to "Sun of My Soul." 



NEW TEAR. 



Two representative hymns of this class are John 
Newton's — 

While with ceaseless course the sun, 

■ — and Charles Wesley's — 

Come let us anew our journey pursue; 

the one a voice at the next year's threshold, the 
other a song at the open door. 

While with ceaseless course the sun 
Hasted thro' the former year 
Many souls their race have run 
Nevermore to meet us here. 
****** 

As the winged arrow flies 
Speedily the mark to find, 
As the hghtening from the skies 
Darts and leaves no trace behind, 
Swiftly thus our fleeting days 
Bear we down life's rapid stream, 
Upward, Lord, our spirits raise; 
All below is but a dream. 

A grave occasion, whether unexpected or peri- 
odical, will force reflection, and so will a grave 



494 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

truth; and when both present themselves at once, 
the truth needs only commonplace statement. If 
the statement is in rhyme and measure more at- 
tention is secured. Add a tune to it, and the most 
frivolous v^ill take notice. Newton's hymn sung 
on the last evening of the year has its opportunity — 
and never fails to produce a solemn effect; but 
it is to the immortal music given to it in Samuel 
Webbe's " Benevento" that it owes its unique and 
permanent place. Dykes' "St. Edmund'' may be 
sung in England, but in America it will never re- 
place Webbe's simple and wonderfully impressive 
choral. 

Charles Wesley's hymn is the antipode of New- 
ton's in metre and movement. 

Come, let us anew our journey pursue, 

Roll round with the year 
And never stand still till the Master appear. 
His adorable will let us gladly fulfil 

And our talents improve 
By the patience of hope and the labor of love. 

Our life is a dream, our time as a stream 

Glides swiftly away, 
And the fugitive moment refuses to stay. 
The arrow is flown, the moment is gone, 

The millennial year, 
Rushes on to our view, and eternity's near. 

One could scarcely imagine a greater contrast 
than between this hymn and Newton's. In spite 
of its eccentric metre one cannot dismiss it as 
rhythmical jingle, for it is really a sermon shaped 
into a popular canticle, and the surmise is not a 



I 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 495 

difficult one that he had in mind a secular air that 
was famihar to the crowd. But the hymn is not 
one of Wesley's poems. Compilers who object to 
its lilting measure omit it from their books, but it 
holds its place in public use, for it carries weighty 
thoughts in swift sentences. 

that each in the Day of His coming may say, 
*'I have fought my way through, 

1 have finished the work Thou didst give me to do." 
O that each from the Lord may receive the glad word, 

**Well and faithfully done. 
Enter into my joy, and sit down on my throne." 

For a hundred and fifty years this has been sung 
in the Methodist watch-meetings, and it will be 
long before it ceases to be sung — and reprinted in 
Methodist, and some Baptist hymnals. 

The tune of "Lucas," named after James Lucas, 
its composer, is the favorite vehicle of song for 
the "Watch-hymn." Like the tune to "O How 
Happy Are They," it has the movement of the words 
and the emphasis of their meaning. 

No knowledge of James Lucas is at hand except 
that he lived in England, where one brief reference 
gives his birth-date as 1762 and "about 1805" as 
the birth-date of the tune. 

"GREAT GOD, WE SING THAT MIGHTY HAND. " 

The admirable hymn of Dr. Doddridge may be 
noted in this division with its equally admirable 



49^ STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

tune of "Melancthon," one of the old Lutheran 
chorals of Germany. 

Great God, we sing that mighty hand 
By which supported still we stand. 
The opening year Thy mercy shows; 
Thy mercy crown it till its close! 

By day, by night, at home, abroad, 
Still we are guarded by our God. 

As this last couplet stood — and ought now to 
Stand — pious parents teaching the hymn to their 
children heard them repeat — 

By day, by night, at home, abroad. 
We are surrounded still with God. 

Many are now living whose first impressive 
sense of the Divine Omnipresence came with that 
line. 



PARTING, 



" GOD BE WITH YOU TILL WE MEET AGAIN. " 

A lyric of benediction, born, apparently, at the 
divine moment for the need of the great " Society 
of Christian Endeavor," and now adopted into the 
Christian song-service of all lands. The author, 
Rev. Jeremiah Eames Rankin, D.D., LL.D., was 
born in Thornton, N. H., Jan. 2, 1828. He was 
graduated at Middlebury College, Vt., in 1848, 
and labored as a Congregational pastor more 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 497 

than thirty years. For thirteen years he was 
President of Howard University, Washington, 
D.C. Besides the "Parting Hymn" he wrote The 
Auld Scotch Mtther, Ingleside Rhymes, Hymns 
pro P atria, and various practical works and rehg- 
ious essays. Died 1904. 

THE TUNE. 

As in a thousand other partnerships of hymnist 
and musician, Dr. Rankin was fortunate in his 
composer. The tune is a symphony of hearts — 
subdued at first, but breaking into a chorus strong 
with the upHft of hope. It is a farewell with a 
spiritual thrill in it. 

Its author, William Gould Tomer, was born in 
Finesville, Warren Co., N. J., October 5, 1832; 
died in Phillipsburg, N. J., Sept. 26, 1896. He was 
a soldier in the Civil War and a writer of good 
ability as well as a composer. For some time he 
was editor of the High Bridge Gazette, and music 
with him was an avocation rather than a pro- 
fession. He wrote the melody to Dr. Rankin's 
hymn in 1880, Prof. J. W. BischofF supplying the 
harmony, and the tune was first published in 
Gospel Bells the same year. 



FUNERALS, 



The style of singing at funerals, as well as the 
character of the hymns, has greatly changed — if, 



49^ STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

indeed, music continues to be a part of the service, 
as frequently, in ordinary cases, it is not. " China " 
with its comforting words — and terrifying chords — 
is forever obsolete, and not only that, but Dr. 
Muhlenberg's, *'I Would Not Live Alway," with its 
sadly sentimental tune of "Frederick," has passed 
out of common use. Anna Steele's "So Fades the 
Lovely, Blooming Flower," on the death of a child, 
is occasionally heard, and now and then Dr. S. F. 
Smith's, "Sister, Thou Wast Mild and Lovely," 
(with its gentle air of "Mt. Vernon,") on the death 
of a young lady. Standard hymns like Watts', 
"Unveil Thy Bosom, Faithful Tomb," to the slow, 
tender melody of the " Dead March," (from Han- 
del's oratorio of "Saul") and Montgomery's 
"Servant of God, Well Done," to "Olmutz," or 
Woodbury's "Forever with the Lord," still retain 
their prestige, the music of the former being 
played on steeple-chimes on some burial occasions 
in cities, during the procession — 

Nor pain nor grief nor anxious fear 
Invade thy bounds; no mortal woes 

Can reach the peaceful sleeper here 
While angels watch the soft repose. 

The latter hymn (Montgomery's) is biographi- 
cal — as described on page 301 — 

Servant of God, well done; 

Rest from thy loved employ; 
The battle fought, the vict'ry won, 

Enter thy Master's joy. 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 499 

Only five stanzas of this long poem are now in 
use. 

The exquisite elegy of Montgomery, entitled 
**The Grave," — 

There is a calm for those who weep, 

A rest for weary mortals found 
They softly lie and sweetly sleep 

Low in the ground. 

— is by no means discontinued on funeral occasions, 
nor Margaret Mackay's beloved hymn, — 

Asleep in Jesus, blessed sleep, 

— melodized in Bradbury's "Rest." 

Mrs. Margaret Mackay v^as born in 1801, the 
daughter of Capt. Robert Mackay of Hedgefield, 
Inverness, and v^ife of a major of the same name. 
She v^as the author of several prose works and 
Lays of Leisure Hours, containing seventy-two 
original hymns and poems, of which "Asleep in 
Jesus" is one. She died in 1887. 

"MY JESUS, AS THOU WILT. " 

{Mein 'JesUy ivte du iviUst.) 

This sweet hymn for mourners, known to us 
here in Jane Borthwick's translation, was written 
by Benjamin Schmolke (or Schmolk) late in the 
17th century. He was born at Brauchitzchdorf, 
in Silesia, Dec. 21, 1672, and received his educa- 
tion at the Labau Gymnasium and Leipsic Uni- 
versity. A sermon preached while a youth, for his 



500 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

father, a Lutheran pastor, showed such remark- 
able promise that a wealthy man paid the expenses 
of his education for the ministry. He was ordained 
and settled as pastor of the Free Church at 
Schweidnitz, Silesia, in which charge he continued 
from 1 70 1 till his death. 

Schmolke was the most popular hymn-writer of 
his time, author of some nine hundred church 
pieces, besides many for special occasions. Withal 
he was a man of exalted piety and a pastor of rare 
wisdom and influence. 

His death, of paralysis, occurred on the anniver- 
sary of his wedding, Feb. 12, 1737. 

My Jesus, as Thou wilt, 

Oh may Thy will be mine! 
Into Thy hand of love 

I would my all resign. 
Thro* sorrow or thro' joy 

Conduct me as Thine own. 
And help me still to say, 

My Lord, Thy will be done. 

The last line is the refrain of the hymn of four 
eight-line stanzas. 

THE TUNE. 

" Sussex," by Joseph Bamby, a plain-song with 
a fine harmony, is good congregational music for 
the hymn. 

But " Jewett," one of Carl Maria Von Weber's 
exquisite flights of song, is like no other in its 
intimate interpretation of the prayerful words. 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 5OI 

We hear Luther's "bird in the heart" singing 
softly in every inflection of the tender melody as it 
glides on. The tune, arranged by Joseph Hol- 
brook, is from an opera — the overture to Weber's 
Der Freischiitz — but one feels that the gentle 
musician when he wrote it must have caught an 
inspiration of divine trust and peace. The wish 
among the last words he uttered when dying in 
London of slow disease was, "Let me go back 
to my own (home), and then God's will be done." 
That wish and the sentiment of Schmolke's hymn 
belong to each other, for they end in the same 
way. 

My Jesus, as Thou wilt: 

All shall be well for me; 
Each changing future scene 

I gladly trust with Thee. 
Straight to my home above 

I travel calmly on, 
And sing in life or death 

My Lord, Thy will be done. 

" I CANNOT ALWAYS TRACE THE WAY ." 

In later years, when funeral music is desired, 
the employment of a male quartette has become a 
favorite custom. Of the selections sung in this 
manner few are more suitable or more generally 
welcomed than the tender and trustful hymn of 
Sir John Bowring, rendered sometimes in Dr. 
Dykes' "Almsgiving," but better in the less-known 
but more flexible tune composed by Howard M. 
Dow — 



502 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

I cannot always trace the way 

Where Thou, Almighty One, dost move. 

But I can always, always say 
That God is love. 

When fear her chilling mantle flings 
O'er earth, my soul to heaven above 

As to her native home upsprings, 
For God is love. 

When mystery clouds my darkened path, 
I'll check my dread, my doubts reprove; 

In this my soul sweet comfort hath 
That God is love. 

Yes, God is love. A thought like this 

Can every gloomy thought remove, 
And turn all tears, all woes to bliss 

For God is love. 

The first line of the hymn was originally, "'Tis 
seldom I can trace the way." 

Howard M. Dow has been many years a resident 
of Boston, and organist of the Grand Lodge of 
Freemasons at the Tremont St. (Masonic) Temple. 



WEDDING. 



Time was when hymns were sung at weddings, 
though in America the practice was never uni- 
versal. Marriage, among Protestants, is not one 
of the sacraments, and no masses are chanted for 
it by ecclesiastical ordinance. The question of 
music at private marriages depends on conven- 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 5O3 

lence, vocal or instrumental equipment, and the 
general drift of the occasion. At public weddings 
the organ's duty is the "Wedding March." 

To revive a fashion of singing at home marriages 
would be considered an oddity — and, where civil 
marriages are legal, a superfluity — but in the 
religious ceremony, just after the prayer that 
follows the completion of the nuptial formula, it 
will occur to some that a hymn would "tide over" 
a proverbially awkward moment. Even good, 
quaint old John Berridge's lines would happily 
relieve the embarrassment — besides reminding the 
more thoughtless that a wedding is not a mere 
piece of social fun — 

Since Jesus truly did appear 

To grace a marriage feast 
O Lord, we ask Thy presence here 

To make a wedding guest. 

Upon the bridal pair look down 
Who now have pHghted hands; 

Their union with Thy favor crown 
And bless the nuptial bands 

4: * 4: * * * 

In purest love these souls unite 

That they with Christian care 
May make domestic burdens light 

By taking each a share. 

Tune, "Lanesboro," Mason. 

A wedding hymn of more poetic beauty is the 
one written by Miss Dorothy Bloomfield (now Mrs. 
Gurney), born 1858, for her sister's marriage in 

1883. 



504 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

O perfect Love, all human thought transcending, 
Lowly we kneel in prayer before Thy throne 

That their's may be a love which knows no ending 
Whom Thou forevermore dost join in one. 

O perfect Life, be Thou their first assurance 
Of tender charity and steadfast faith, 

Of patient hope and quiet, brave endurance. 

With childlike trust that fears nor pain nor death. 

Grant them the joy which brightens earthly sorrow. 
Grant them the peace which calms all earthly strife. 

And to their day the glorious unknown morrow 
That dawns upon eternal love and life. 

Tune by Joseph Barnby, *' O Perfect Love." 



FRUITION DAT. 



"LO! HE COMES WITH CLOUDS DESCENDING. " 

Thomas Olivers begins one of his hymns with 
this line. The hymn is a Judgment-day lyric of 
rude strength and once in current use, but now 
rarely printed. The "Lo He Comes," here spec- 
ially noted, is the production of John Cennick, the 
Moravian. 

Lo! He comes with clouds descending 

Once for favored sinners slain. 

Thousand thousand saints attending 

Swell the triumph of His train. 

Hallelujah I 

God appears on earth to reign. 

>|c :(: t "Ic ♦ tc "t" 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 505 

Yea, amen; let all adore Thee 
High on Thy eternal throne. 

Saviour, take the power and glory. 
Claim the kingdom for thine own; 
O come quickly; 

Hallelujah! Come, Lord, come. 

THE TUNES. 

Various composers have v^ritten music to this 
universal hymn, but none has given it a choral 
that it can claim as peculiarly its own. "Brest," 
Lov^ell Mason's plain-song, has a limited range, 
and runs low on the staff, but its solemn chords are 
musical and commanding. As much can be said 
of the tunes of Dr. Dykes and Samuel Webbe, 
which have more variety. Those who feel that the 
hymn calls for a more ornate melody will prefer 
Madan's"Helmsley." 

" LP! WHAT A GLORIOUS SIGHT APPEARS ." 

The great Southampton bard who wrote 
"Sweet fields beyond the swelling flood" was 
quick to kindle at every reminder of Fruition Day. 

Lo! what a glorious sight appears 

To our believing eyes! 
The earth and seas are passed away, 

And the old rolling skies. 
From the third heaven, where God resides, 

That holy, happy place. 
The New Jerusalem comes down. 

Adorned with shining grace. 



5o6 



STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 



This hymn of Watts* sings one of his most exalted 
visions. It has been dear for two hundred years 
to every Christian soul throbbing with millennial 
thoughts and wishful of the day when — 

The God of glory down to men 
Removes His best abode, 

— and when — 

His own kind hand shall wipe the tears 

From every weeping eye. 
And pains and groans, and griefs and fears, 

And death itself shall die, 

■ — and the yearning cry of the last stanza, when the 
vision fades, has been the household ^ of myriads of 
burdened and sorrowing saints — 

How long, dear Saviour, O how long 

Shall this bright hour delay ? 
Fly swifter round ye wheels of Time, 

And bring the welcome day! 



THE TUNES. 

By right of long appropriation both "North- 
field" and "New Jerusalem" own a near relation- 
ship to these glorious verses. Ingalls, one of the 
constellation of early Puritan psalmodists, to which 
Billings and Sw^an belonged, evidently loved the 
hymn, and composed his "New Jerusalem" to the 
verse, "From the third heaven," and his "North- 
field" to "How long, dear Saviour." The former 
is now sung only as a reminiscence of the music of 
the past, at church festivals, charity fairs and enter- 



HYMNS, FESTIVAL AND OCCASIONAL. 507 

tainments of similar design, but the action and 
hearty joy in it always evoke sympathetic 
applause. "Northfield" is still in occasional 
use, and it is a jewel of melody, however irre- 
trievably out of fashion. Its union to that im- 
mortal stanza, if no other reason, seems likely to 
insure its permanent place in the lists of sacred 
song. 

John Cole's "Annapolis," still found in a few 
hymnals with these words, is a little too late to be 
called a contemporary piece, but there are some 
reminders of Ingalls "New Jerusalem" in its style 
and vigor, and it really partakes the flavor of the 
old New England church music. 

Jeremiah Ingalls was born in Andover, Mass., 
March. I, 1764. A natural fondness for music in- 
creased with his years, but opportunities to educate 
it were few and far between, and he seemed like 
to become no more than a fairly good bass-viol 
player in the village choir. But his determination 
carried him higher, and in time his self-taught 
talent qualified him for a singing-school master, 
and for many years he travelled through Massa- 
chusetts, New Hampshire and Vermont, training 
the raw vocal material in the country towns, and 
organizing choirs. 

Between his thirtieth and fortieth years, he com- 
posed a number of tunes, and, in 1804 published 
a two hundred page collection of his own and 
others' music, which he called the Christian 
Harmony. 



508 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

His home was for some time in Newberry, Vt., 
but he subsequently lived at Rochester and at 
Hancock in the same state. 

Among the traditions of him is this anecdote of 
the origin of his famous tune "Northfield," which 
may indicate something of his temper and religious 
habit. During his travels as a singing-school 
teacher he stopped at a tavern in the town of 
Northfield and ordered his dinner. It was very 
slow in coming, but the inevitable "how long.^" 
that formulated itself in his hungry thoughts, in- 
stead of sharpening into profane complaint, fell into 
the rhythm of Watts' sacred line — and the tune 
came with it. To call it "Northfield" was natural 
enough; the place where its melody first beguiled 
him from his bodily wants to a dream of the final 
Fruition Day. 

Ingalls died in Hancock, Vt., April 6, 1828. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



HYMNS OF HOPE AND CON- 
SOLATION. 



"JERUSALEM THE GOLDEN. " 

Urhs Sion Aurea. 

"The Seven Great Hymns'' of the Latin Church 
are: 

Laus Patriae Coelestis, — (Praise of the Heavenly Country). 

Veni, Sancte Spiritus, — (Come, Holy Spirit) 

Veni, Creator Spiritus, — (Come, Creator Spirit) 

Dies Irae, — (The Day of Wrath) 

Stabat Mater, — (The Mother Stood By) 

Mater Speciosa, — (The Fair Mother.) 

Vexilla Regis. — (The Banner of the King.) 

Chief of these is the first named, though that is 
but part of a religious poem of three thousand lines, 
which the author, Bernard of Cluny, named "De 
Contemptu Mundi'' (Concerning Disdain of the 
World.) 

Bernard was of English parentage, though born 
at Morlaix, a seaport town in the north of France. 

(509) 



5IO STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

The exact date of his birth is unknown, though it 
was probably about A. D. i lOO. He is called Ber- 
nard of Cluny because he lived and wrote at that 
place, a French town on the Grone where he was 
abbot of a famous monastery, and also to dis- 
tinguish him from Bernard of Clairvaux. 

His great poem is rarely spoken of as a whole, 
but in three portions, as if each were a complete 
work. The first is the long exordium, exhausting 
the pessimistic title (contempt of the world), and 
passing on to the second, where begins the real 
" Laus Patriae Coelestis." This being cut in two, 
making a third portion, has enriched the Christian 
world with two of its best hymns, *Tor Thee, O 
Dear, Dear Country, "and "Jerusalem the Golden.'* 

Bernard wrote the medieval or church Latin in 
Its prime of literary refinement, and its accent is so 
obvious and its rhythm so musical that even one 
ignorant of the language could pronounce it, and 
catch its rhymes. The " Contemptu Mundi " begins 
with these two lines, in a hexameter impossible 
to copy in translation: 

Hora novissima; tempora pessima sunt; Vigilemus! 
Ecce minaciter imminet Arbiter, Ille Supremus! 

'Tisthe last hour; the times are at their worst; 

Watch; lo the Judge Supreme stands threat'ning nigh! 

Or, as Dr. Neale paraphrases and softens it, — 

The World is very evil, 
The times are waxing late, 

Be sober and keep vigil, 
The Judge is at the gate, 



HYMNS OF HOPE AND CONSOLATION. 5II 

— and, after the poet's long, dark diorama of the 
world's wicked condition, follows the " Praise of the 
Heavenly Fatherland," when a tender glory dawns 
upon the scene till it breaks into sunrise with the 
vision of the Golden City. All that an opulent and 
devout imagination can picture of the beauty and 
bounty of heaven, and all that faith can construct 
from the glimpses in the Revelation of its glory 
and happiness is poured forth in the lavish poetry 
of the inspired monk of Cluny — 

Urbs Sion aurea, patria lactea, cive decora, 
Omne cor obruis, omnibus obstruis, et cor et ora. 
Nescio, nescio quae jubilatio lux tibi qualis, 
Quam socialia gaudia, gloria quam specialis. 

Jerusalem, the golden; 

With milk and honey blest; 
Beneath thy contemplation 

Sink heart and voice opprest. 
I know not, O I know not 

What joys await us there, 
With radiancy of glory, 

With bliss beyond compare. 

They stand, those halls of Zion, 

All jubilant with song,* 
And bright with many an angel, 

And all the martyr throng. 
The Prince is ever in them, 

The daylight is serene; 
The pastures of the blessed 

Are decked in glorious sheen. 

*In first editions, *'' con jubilant with song." 



512 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

O sweet and blessed country, 

The home of God's elect! 
O sweet and blessed country, 

That eager hearts expect! 
Jesu, in mercy bring us 

To that dear land of rest, 
Who art, with God the Father, 

And Spirit, ever blest. 

Dr. John Mason Neale, the translator, was 
obliged to condense Bernard's exuberant verse, 
and he has done so with unsurpassable grace and 
melody. He made his translation while "inhi- 
bited" from his priestly functions in the Church of 
England for his high ritualistic views and practice, 
and so poor that he wrote stories for children to 
earn his living. His poverty added to the wealth 
of Christendom. 

THE TUNE. 

The music of "Jerusalem the Golden" used in 
most churches is the composition of Alexander 
Ewing, a paymaster in the English army. He was 
born in Aberdeen, Scotland, Jan. 3d, 1830, and 
educated there at Marischal College. The tune 
bears his name, and this honor, and its general 
favor with the public, are so much testimony to its 
merit. It is a stately harmony in D major with 
sonorous and impressive chords. Ewing died in 1895. 

" WHY SHOULD WE START AND FEAR TO DIE ? " 

Probably it is an embarrassment of riches and 
despair of space that have crowded this hymn — 



HYMNS OF HOPE AND CONSOLATION. 513 

perhaps the sweetest that Watts ever wrote — out of 
some of our church singing-books. It is pleasant 
to find it in the new Methodist Hymnal, though 
with an indifferent tune. 

Christians of today should surely sing the last 
two stanzas with the same exalted joy and hope 
that made them sacred to pious generations past 
and gone — 

O if my Lord would come and meet, 

My soul would stretch her wings in haste, 
Fly fearless through death's iron gate, 

Nor feel the terrors as she passed. 
Jesus can make a dying bed 

Feel soft as downy pillows are, 
While on His breast I lean my head 

And breathe my life out sweetly there. 

THE TUNE. 

The plain-music of William Boyd*s 'Pentecost/' 
(with modulations in the tenor), creates a new 
accent for the familiar lines. Preferable in every 
sense are Bradbury's tender" Zephyr" or "Rest." 

No coming generation will ever feel the pious 
gladness of Amariah Hall's "All Saints New" in 
E flat major as it stirred the Christian choirs of 
seventy five years ago. Fitted to this heart-felt 
lyric of Watts, it opened with the words — 

O if my Lord would come and meet, 

in full harmony and four-four time, continuing to 
the end of the stanza. The melody, with its slurred 
syllables and beautiful modulations was almost 



514 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

blithe in its brightness, while the strong musical 
bass and the striking chords of the "counter," 
chastened it and held the anthem to its due solem- 
nity of tone and expression. Then the fugue took 
up— 

Jesus can make a dying bed, 

— bass, treble and tenor adding voice after voice in 
the manner of the old "canon" song, and the full 
harmony again carried the v^ords, v^ith loving 
repetitions, to the final bar. The music closed v^ith 
a minor concord that was strangely effective and 
sweet. 

Amariah Hall was born in Raynham, Mass., 
April 28, 1785, and died there Feb. 8, 1827. He 
"farmed it," manufactured straw-bonnets, kept 
tavern and taught singing-school. Music was only 
an avocation with him, but he was an artist in his 
way, and among his compositions are found in 
some ancient Tune books his "Morning Glory," 
"Canaan," "Falmouth," "Restoration," "Mas- 
sachusetts," "Raynham," "Crucifixion," "Har- 
mony," "Devotion," "Zion," and "Hosanna." 

"All Saints New" was his masterpiece. 

" WHEN I CAN READ MY TITLE CLEAR. " 

No sacred song has been more profanely paro- 
died by the thoughtless, or more travestied, (if we 
may use so strong a word), in popular religious 
airs, than this golden hymn which has made Isaac 
Watts a benefactor to every prisoner of hope. Not 



HYMNS OF HOPE AND CONSOLATION. 515 

to mention the fancy figures and refrains of camp- 
meeting music, which have cheapened it, neither 
John Cole's "AnnapoHs" nor Arne's "Arlington" 
nor a dozen others that have borrov^ed these speak- 
ing lines, can wear out their association with " Auld 
lang Syne.'' The hymn has permeated the tune, 
and, without forgetting its own words, the Scotch 
melody preforms both a social and religious mis- 
sion. Some arrangements of it make it needlessly 
repetitious, but its pathos will always best vocalize 
the hymn, especially the first and last stanzas — 

When I can read my title clear 

To mansions in the skies 
I'll bid farewell to every fear 

And wipe my weeping eyes. 

:4c 4: * 4c * 4: 

There shall I bathe my weary soul 

In seas of heavenly rest, 
And not a wave of trouble roll 

Across my peaceful breast. 

" VITAL SPARK OF HEAVENLY FLAME. " 

This paraphrase, by Alexander Pope, of the 
Emperor Adrian's death-bed address to his soul — 

Animula, vagula, blandula, 
Hospes, comesque corporis, 

— transfers the poetry and constructs a hymnic 
theme. 

An old hymn writer by the name of Flatman 
wrote a Pindaric, somewhat similar to "Adrian's 
Address," as follows: 



5i6 



STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 



When on my sick-bed I languish, 
Full of sorrow, full of anguish, 
Fainting, gasping, trembling, crying, 
Panting, groaning, speechless, dying; 
Methinks I hear some gentle spirit say, 
"Be not fearful, come away." 

Pope combined these two poems with the words 
of Divine inspiration, "O death, where is thy 
sting ? O grave, where is thy victory ?'* and made 
a pagan philosopher's question the text for a tri- 
umphant Christian anthem of hope. 

Vital spark of heavenly flame. 
Quit, oh quit this mortal frame. 
Trembling, hoping, ling'ring, flying, 
Oh the pain, the bliss of dying! 
Cease, fond nature, cease thy strife, 
And let me languish into life. 

Hark! they whisper: angels say, 
* 'Sister spirit, come away!" 
What is this absorbs me quite. 
Steals my senses, shuts my sight. 
Drowns my spirit, draws my breath. 
Tell me, my soul, can this be death .? 

The world recedes: it disappears: 
Heaven opens on my eyes; my ears 

With sounds seraphic ring. 
Lend, lend your wings! I mount! I fly! 
O grave where is thy victory .? 

O death, where is thy sting ? 



THE TUNE. 



The old anthem, " The Dying Christian," or "The 
Dying Christian to his Soul," which first made this 



HYMNS OF HOPE AND CONSOLATION. 517 

lyric familiar in America as a musical piece, will 
never be sung again except at antique entertain- 
ments, but it had an importance in its day. 

Beginning in quadruple time on four flats minor, 
it renders the first stanza in flowing concords largo 
aff'ettuoso, and a single bass fugue. Then suddenly 
shifting to one flat, major, duple time, it executes 
the second stanza, "Hark! they whisper"....*' What 
is this, etc.," in alternate pianissimo and forte 
phrases; and finally, changing to triple time, sings 
the third triumphant stanza, andante, through 
staccato and fortissimo. The shout in the last 
adagio, on the four final bars, " O Death ! O Death ! " 
softening with "where is thy sting V' is quite in the 
style of old orchestral magnificence. 

Since "The Dying Christian" ceased to appear 
in church music, the poem, for some reason, seems 
not to have been recognized as a hymn. It is, how- 
ever, a Christian poem, and a true lyric of hope and 
consolation, whatever the character of the author 
or however pagan the original that suggested it. 

The most that is now known of Edward Har- 
wood, the composer of the anthem, is that he 
was an EngHsh musician and psalmodist, born near 
Blackburn, Lancaster Co., 1707, and died about 
1787. 

" YOUR HARPS, YE TREMBLING SAINTS. " 

This hymn of Toplady, — unlike "A Debtor to 
Mercy Alone, "and "Inspirer and Hearer of Pray- 
er," both now little used, — stirs no controversial 



5l8 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

feeling by a single line of his aggressive Calvinism. 
It is simply a song of Christian gratitude and joy. 

Your harps, ye trembling saints 
Down from the willows take; 

Loud to the praise of Love Divine 
Bid every string awake. 

Though in a foreign land, 

We are not far from home, 
And nearer to our house above 

We every moment come. 

:4c :4c 4c :(c :|c :4c 

Blest is the man, O God, 

That stays himself on Thee, 
Who waits for Thy salvation. Lord, 

Shall Thy salvation see, 

THE TUNE. 

"Olmutz" was arranged by Lowell Mason from 
a Gregorian chant. He set it himself to Toplady's 
hymn, and it seems the natural music for it. The 
words are also sometimes written and sung to Jona- 
than Woodman's "State St." 

Jonathan Call Woodman was born in New- 
buryport, Mass., July I2, 1813. He was the organ- 
ist of St. George's Chapel, Flushing L.I. and a 
teacher, composer and compiler. His Musical 
Casket was not issued until Dec. 1858, but he 
wrote the tune of "State St." in August, 1844. It 
was a contribution to Bradbury's Psalmodist, which 
was published the same year. 



HYMNS OF HOPE AND CONSOLATION. 519 
" YE GOLDEN LAMPS OF HEAVEN, FAREWELL. " 

Dr. Doddridge's "farewell" is not a note of re- 
gret. Unlike Bernard, he appreciates this world 
while he anticipates the better one, but his con- 
templation climbs from God's footstool to His 
throne. His thought is in the last two lines of the 
second stanza, where he takes leave of the sun — 

My soul that springs beyond thy sphere 
No more demands thine aid. 

But his fancy will find a function for the "golden 
lamps" even in the glory that swallows up their 
light— 

Ye stars are but the shining dust 

Of my divine abode, 
The pavement of those heavenly courts 
Where I shall dwell with God. 

The Father of eternal light 

Shall there His beams display, 
Nor shall one moment's darkness mix 

With that unvaried day. 

THE TUNE. 

The hymn has been assigned to" Mt. Auburn," 
a composition of George Kingsley, but a far better 
interpretation — if not best of all — is H.K.Oliver's 
tune of "Merton," (1847,) older, but written pur- 
posely for the words. 

" TRIUMPHANT ZION, LIFT THY HEAD. " 

This fine and stimulating lyric is Doddridge in 
another tone. Instead of singing hope to the in- 



520 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

dividual, he sounds a note of encouragement to the 
church. 

Put all thy beauteous garments on. 

And let thy excellence be known; 

Decked in the robes of righteousness, 

The world thy glories shall confess. 

:|c * :(c :(c :|c :^ 

God from on high has heard thy prayer; 
His hand thy ruins shall repair. 
Nor will thy watchful Monarch cease 
To guard thee in eternal peace. 

The tune, "Anvem,'' is one of Mason's charm- 
ing melodies, full of vigor and cheerful life, and 
everything can be said of it that is said of the 
hymn. Duffield compares the hymn and tune to a 
ring and its jev^el. 

It is one of the inevitable freaks of taste that puts 
so choice a strain of psalmody out of fashion. 
Many younger pieces in the church manuals could 
be better spared. 

" SHRINKING FROM THE COLD HAND OF DEATH ." 

This is a hymn of contrast, the dark of recoiling 
nature making the background of the rainbov^. 
Written by Charles Wesley, it has passed among 
his forgotten or mostly forgotten productions but 
is notable for the frequent use of its 3rd stanza by 
his brother John. John Wesley, in his old age, did 
not so much shrink from death as from the thought 
of its too slow approach. His almost constant 
prayer v^as, " Lord, let me not live to be useless. " 



HYMNS OF HOPE AND CONSOLATION. 52I 

" At every place, ** says Belcher, " after giving to his 
societies what he desired them to consider his last 
advice, he invariably concluded with the stanza be- 
ginning — 

** *Oh that, without a lingering groan, 
I may the welcome word receive. 
My body with my charge lay down. 
And cease at once to work and live.' " 

The anticipation of death itself by both the great 
evangelists ended like the ending of the hymn — 

No anxious doubt, no guilty gloom 

Shall daunt whom Jesus' presence cheers; 

My Light, my Life, my God is come, 
And glory in His face appears. 

"FOREVER WITH THE LORD." 



Montgomery had the Ambrosian gift of spiritual 
song-writing. Whatever may be thought of his 
more ambitious descriptive or heroic pages of 
verse, and his long narrative poems, his lyrics and 
cabinet pieces are gems. The poetry in some 
exquisite stanzas of his "Grave" is a dream of 
peace : 

There is a calm for those who weep, 

A rest for weary mortals found; 
They softly lie and sweetly sleep 
Low in the ground. 

The storms that wreck the winter's sky 

No more disturb their deep repose 
Than summer evening's latest sigh 
That shuts the rose. 



522 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

But in the poem, "At Home in Heaven," which 
we are considering — with its divine text in i Thess. 
4:17 — the Sheffield bard rises to the heights of 
vision. He wrote it when he was an old man. The 
contemplation so absorbed him that he could not 
quit his theme till he had composed twenty-two 
quatrains. Only four or five — or at most only 
seven of them — are now in general use. Like his 
" Prayer is the Soul's Sincere Desire,'* they have the 
pith of devotional thought in them, but are less 
subjective and analytical. 

Forever with the Lord! 

Amen, so let it be, 
Life from the dead is in that word; 

'Tis immortality. 

Here in the body pent, 

Absent from Him I roam, 
Yet nightly pitch my moving tent 

A day's march nearer home. 

My Father's house on high! 

Home of my soul, how near 
At times to faith's foreseeing eye 

Thy golden gates appear. 

I hear at morn and even, 

At noon and midnight hour, 
The choral harmonies of heaven 

Earth's Babel tongues o'erpower. 

The last line has been changed to read — 
Seraphic music pour, 

— and finally the hymnals have dropped the verse 
and substituted others. The new line is an im- 



HYMNS OF HOPE AND CONSOLATION. 523 

provement in melody but not in rhyme, and, be- 
sides, it robs the stanza of its leading thought — • 
heaven and earth offsetting each other, and 
heavenly music drowning earthly noise — a thought 
that is missed even in the rich cantos of " Jerusalem 
the Golden." 

THE TUNES. 

Nearly the whole school of good short metre 
tunes, from "St. Thomas" to "Boylston" have 
offered their notes to Montgomery's **At Home 
in Heaven," but the two most commonly recog- 
nized as its property are *'Mornington," named 
from Lord Mornington, its author, and I. B.Wood- 
bury's familiar harmony, " Forever with the Lord." 

Garret Colley Wellesley, Earl of Mornington, 
and ancestor of the Duke of Wellington, was born 
in Dagan, Ireland, July 19, 1735. Remarkable 
for musical talent when a child, he became a skilled 
vioHnist, organ-player and composer in boyhood, 
with little aid beyond his solitary study and 
practice. When scarcely twenty-one, the Univer- 
sity of Dublin conferred on him the degree of 
Doctor of Music, and a professorship. He excelled 
as a composer of glees, but wrote also tunes and 
anthems for the church, some of which are still 
extant in the choir books of the Dublin Cathedral. 
Died March. 22, 1781. 



524 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

"HARK! HARK, MY SOUL !" 

The Methodist Reformation, while it had found 
no practical sympathy within the established 
church, left a deep sense of its reason and purpose 
in the minds of the more devout Episcopalians, 
and this feeling, instead of taking form in popular 
revival methods, prompted them to deeper sin- 
cerity and more spiritual fervor in their traditional 
rites of worship. Many of the next generation 
inherited this pious ecclesiasticism, and carried 
their loyalty to the old Christian culture to the 
extreme of devotion till they saw in the sacraments 
the highest good of the soul. It was Keble's 
** Christian Year" and his "Assize Sermon" that 
began the Tractarian movement at Oxford which 
brought to the front himself and such men as 
Henry Newman and Frederick William Faber. 

The hymns and sacred poems of these sacra- 
mentarian Christians would certify to their earnest 
piety, even if their lives were unknown. 

Faber's hymn "Hark, Hark My Soul," is wel- 
comed and loved by every Christian sect for its 
religious spirit and its lyric beauty. 

Hark! hark, my soul! angelic songs are swelling 

0*er earth's green fields and ocean's wave-beat shore; 

How sweet the truth those blessed strains are telling 
Of that new life where sin shall be no more. 

Refrain 

Angels of Jesus, angels of light 

Singing to welcome the pilgrims of the night. 



HYMNS OF HOPE AND CONSOLATION. 525 

Onward we go, for still we hear them singing 
* 'Come, weary souls, for Jesus bids you come, " 

And through the dark, its echoes sweetly ringing. 
The music of the gospel leads us home. 

Angels of Jesus. 

Far, far away, like bells at evening pealing. 

The voice of Jesus sounds o'er land and sea, 
And laden souls, by thousands meekly stealing. 
Kind Shepherd, turn their weary steps to Thee. 

Angels of Jesus. 
THE TUNES. 

John B. Dykes and Henry Smart — both masters 
of hymn-tune construction — have set this hymn to 
music. "Vox AngeHca" in B flat, the work of the 
former, is a noble composition for choir or congre- 
gation, but *' Pilgrim," the other's interpretation, 
though not dissimilar in movement and vocal 
range, has, perhaps, the more sympathetic melody. 
It is, at least, the favorite in many localities. Some 
books print the two on adjacent pages as optionals. 

Another much-loved hymn of Faber's is — 

O Paradise, O Paradise! 

Who doth not crave for rest ? 
Who would not see the happy land 

Where they that loved are blest ? 
Refrain 

Where loyal hearts and true 

Stand ever in the light, 
All rapture through and through 

In God's most holy sight. 

O Paradise, O Paradise, 
The world is growing oldj 



526 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 



Who would not be at rest and free 
Where love is never cold. 

Where loyal hearts and true. 

O Paradise, O Paradise, 

I greatly long to see 
The special place my dearest Lord, 

In love prepares for me. 

Where loya! hearts and true. 

This aspiration, from the ardent soul of the poet 
has been interpreted in song by the same two 
musicians, and by Joseph Barnby — all with the 
title "Paradise." Their similarity of style and 
near equality of merit have compelled compilers 
to print at least two of them side by side for the 
singers' choice. A certain pathos in the strains of 
Barnby's composition gives it a peculiar charm to 
many, and in America it is probably the oftenest 
sung to the words. 

Dr. David Breed, speaking of Faber's "un- 
usual" imagination, says, "He got more out of 
language than any other poet of the English ton- 
gue, and used words — even simple words — so that 
they rendered him a service which no other poet 
ever secured from them." The above hymns are 
characteristic to a degree, but the telling simplicity 
of his style — almost quaint at times — is more 
marked in "There's a Wideness in God's Mercy," 
given on p. 234. 




Horatius 
Bonar, D.D. 




HYMNS OF HOPE AND CONSOLATION. 527 

"BEYOND THE SMILING AND THE WEEPING." 

This song of hope — one of the most strangely 
tuneful and rune-like of Dr. Bonar's hymn-poems 
— is less frequently sung owing to the peculiarity 
of its stanza form. But it scarcely needs a staff of 
notes — 

Beyond the smiling and the weeping 

I shall be soon; 
Beyond the waking and the sleeping, 
Beyond the sowing and the reaping 
I shall be soon. 
Refrain 

Love, rest and home! 

Sweet hope I 
Lord, tarry not, but come. 

****** 

Beyond the parting and the meeting 

I shall be soon; 
Beyond the farewell and the greeting, 
Beyond the pulses' fever-beating 

I shall be soon. 

Love, rest and home! 

Beyond the frost-chain and the fever 

I shall be soon; 
Beyond the rock-waste and the river 
Beyond the ever and the never 
I shall be soon. 

Love, rest and home! 

The wild contrasts and reverses of earthly vi- 
cissitude are spoken and felt here in the sequence 
of words. Perpetual black-and-white through 
time; then the settled life and untreacherous 



528 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

peace of eternity. Everywhere in the song the note 
of heavenly hope interrupts the wail of disappoint- 
ment, and the chorus returns to transport the soul 
from the land of emotional whirlwinds to unbroken 
rest. 

THE TUNES. 

Mr. Bradbury wrote an admirable tune to this 
hymn, though the one since composed by Mr. 
Stebbins has in some localities superseded it in 
popular favor. Skill in following the accent and 
unequal rhythms produces a melodious tone- 
poem, and completes the impression of Bonar's 
singular but sweet lyric of hope which suggests a 
chant-choral rather than a regular polyphonic 
harmony. W. A. Tarbutton and the young com- 
poser, Karl Harrington, have set the hymn to 
music, but the success of their work awaits the 
public test. 

" WE SHALL MEET BEYOND THE RIVER. " 

The words were written by Rev. John Atkinson, 
D.D., in January, 1867, soon after the death of his 
mother. He had been engaged in revival work 
and one night in his study, " that song, in substance, 
seemed," he says, "to sing itself into my heart." 
He said to himself, "I would better write it down, 
or I shall lose it." 

"There," he adds, "in the silence of my 
study, and not far from midnight, I wrote the 
hymn." 



HYMNS OF HOPE AND CONSOLATION. 529 

We shall meet beyond the river 

By and by, by and by; 
And the darkness will be over 

By and by, by and by. 

With the toilsome journey done, 

And the glorious battle v^on. 
We shall shine forth as the sun 

By and by, by and by. 

The Rev. John Atkinson was born in Deerfield, 
N. J. Sept. 6, 1835. A clergyman of the Metho- 
dist denomination, he is well-known as one of its 
writers. The Centennial History of American Metho- 
dism is his work, and besides the above hymn, he has 
written and published The Garden of Sorrows, 
and The Living Way. He died Dec. 8, 1897. 

The tune to *'We Shall Meet," by Hubert P. 
Main, composed in 1867, exactly translates the 
emotional hymn into music. S. J. Vail also wrote 
music to the words. The hymn, originally six 
eight-line stanzas, was condensed at his request 
to its present length and form by Fanny Crosby. 

" ONE SWEETLY SOLEMN THOUGHT. " 

Phebe Gary, the author of this happy poem, was 
the younger of the two Gary sisters, Alice and 
Phebe, names pleasantly remembered in American 
literature. The praise of one reflects the praise of 
the other when we are told that Phebe possessed a 
loving and trustful soul, and her life was an honor 
to true womanhood and a blessing to the poor. She 
had to struggle with hardship and poverty in her 



530 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

early years: "I have cried in the street because I 
was poor," she said in her prosperous years, "and 
the poor always seem nearer to me than the rich." 

When reputation came to her as a writer, she re- 
moved from her little country home near Cincin- 
nati, O., where she was born, in 1824, and settled 
in New York City with her sister. She died at 
Newport, N. Y., July 31, 1871, and her hymn was 
sung at her funeral. Her remains rest in Green- 
wood Cemetery. 

"One Sweetly Solemn Thought," was written in 
1852, during a visit to one of her friends. She 
wrote (to her friend's inquiry) years afterwards 

that it first saw the light "in your own house in 

the little back third-story bedroom, one Sunday 
after coming from church." It was a heart ex- 
perience noted down without literary care or artistic 
effort, and in its original form was in too irregular 
measure to be sung. She set little value upon it as 
a poem, but when shown hesitatingly to inquiring 
compilers, its intrinsic worth was seen, and various 
revisions of it were made. The following is one of 
the best versions — stanzas one, two and three: — - 

One sweetly solemn thought 

Comes to me o'er and o'er, 
I am nearer home to-day, 

Than I ever have been before. 

Nearer my Father's house, 

Where the many mansions be, 

Nearer the great white throne, 
Nearer the crystal sea. 



HYMNS OF HOPE AND CONSOLATION. 53 1 

Nearer the bound of life, 

Where we lay our burdens down. 

Nearer leaving the cross 
Nearer gaining the crown. 

THE TUNE. 

The old revival tune of "Dunbar," with its 
chorus, "There'll be no more sorrow there,'* has 
been sung to the hymn, but the tone-lyric of Philip 
Phillips, "Nearer Home,'' has made the words its 
own, and the public are more familiar with it than 
with any other. It was this air that a young man 
in a drinking house in Macao, near Hong-Kong, 
began humming thoughtlessly while his companion 
was shuffling the cards for a new game. Both were 
Americans, the man with the cards more than twen- 
ty years the elder. Noticing the tune, he threw 
down the pack. Every word of the hymn had 
come back to him with the echo of the music. 

"Harry, where did you learn that hymn V^ 

"What hymn?" 

"Why the one you have been singing." 

The young man said he did not know what he 
had been singing. But when the older one repeated 
some of the lines, he said they were learned in the 
Sunday-school. 

" Come, Harry, " said the older one, " here's what 
I've won from you. As for me, as God sees me, I 
have played my last game, and drank my last 
bottle. I have misled you, Harry, and I am sorry 
for it. Give me your hand, my boy, and say that, 



532 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

for old America's sake, if for no other, you will 
quit this infernal business." 

Col. Russel H. Conwell, of Boston, (now Rev. 
Dr. Conwell of Philadelphia) who was then visit- 
ing China, and was an eye-witness of the scene, 
says that the reformation was a permanent one for 
both. 

*' l WILL SING YOU A SONG OF THAT BEAUTIFUL 
LAND." 



One day, in the year 1865, Mrs. Ellen M. H. 
Gates received a letter from Philip Phillips noting 
the passage in the Pilgrirns Progress which des- 
cribes the joyful music of heaven when Christian 
and Hopeful enter on its shining shore beyond the 
river of death, and asking her to write a hymn in 
the spirit of the extract, as one of the numbers m 
his Singing Pilgrim. Mrs. Gates complied — and 
the sequel of the hymn she wrote is part of the mod- 
ern song-history of the church. Mr. Phillips has 
related how, when he received it, he sat down with 
his little boy on his knee, read again the passage in 
Bunyan, then the poem again, and, turning to his 
organ, pencil in hand, pricked the notes of the 
melody. "The *Home of the Soul,'" he says, 
"seems to have had God's blessing from the 
beginning, and has been a comfort to many a 
bereaved soul. Like many loved hymns, it has 
had a peculiar history, for its simple melody has 
flowed from the Hps of High Churchmen, and has 



HYMNS OF HOPE AND CONSOLATION. 533 

sought to make itself heard above the din of Salva- 
tion Army cymbals and drums. It has been sung 
in prisons and in jailyards, while the poor convict 
v^as waiting to be launched into eternity, and on 
hundreds of funeral occasions. One man writes 
me that he has led the singing of it at one hundred 
and twenty funerals. It was sung at my dear boy's 
funeral, who sat on my knee when I wrote it. It is 
my prayer that God may continue its solace and 
comfort. I have books containing the song now 
printed in seven different languages." 

A writer in the Golden Rule (now the Christian 
Endeavor World) calls attention to an incident on 
a night railroad train narrated in the late Ben- 
jamin F. Taylor's PForld on Wheels, in which 
*^this hymn appears as a sort of Traveller's Psalm." 
Among the motley collection of passengers, some 
talkative, some sleepy, some homesick and cross, all 
tired, sat two plain women who, "would make cap- 
ital country aunts. . . .If they were mothers at all 
they were good ones." Suddenly in a dull silence, 
near twelve o'clock, a voice, sweet and flexible, 
struck up a tune. The singer was one of those 
women. "She sang on, one after another the good 
Methodist and Baptist melodies of long ago," and 
the growing interest of the passengers became 
chained attention when she began — 

**I will sing you a song of that beautiful land, 
The far-away home of the soul, 
Where no storms can beat on the glittering strand. 
While the years of eternity roll. 



534 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

O, that home of the soul, in my visions and dreams, 

Its bright jasper walls I can see; 
Till I fancy but thinly the veil intervenes 

Between the fair city and me." 

"The car was a wakeful hush long before she had 
ended; it was as if a beautiful spirit were floating 
through the air. None that heard will ever for- 
get. Philip Phillips can never bring that *home of 
the soul' any nearer to anybody. And never, I 
think, was quite so sweet a voice lifted in a storm 
of a November night on the rolling plains of 
Iowa." 

In an autograph copy of her hymn, sent to the 
editor, Mrs. Gates changes "harps" to "palms." 
Is it an improvement ? " Palms" is a word of two 
meanings. 

O how sweet it will be in that beautiful land, 

So free from all sorrow and pain. 
With songs on our lips and with harps in our hands 

To meet one another again. 

" THERE'S A LAND THAT IS FAIRER THAN DAY " 

This belongs rather with "Christian Ballads" 
than with genuine hymns, but the song has had and 
still has an uplifting mission among the lowly 
whom literary perfection and musical nicety could 
not touch — and the first two hnes, at least, are 
good hymn-writing. Few of the best sacred lyrics 
have been sung with purer sentiment and more 
affectionate fervor than "The Sweet By-and-By." 
To any company keyed to sympathy by time, place, 



HYMNS OF HOPE AND CONSOLATION. 535 

and condition, the feeling of the song brings unshed 
tears. 

As nearly as can be ascertained it was in the year 
1867 that a man about forty-eight years old, named 
Webster, entered the office of Dr. Bennett in Elk- 
horn, Wis., wearing a melancholy look, and was 
rallied good-naturedly by the doctor for being so 
blue — Webster and Bennett were friends, and the 
doctor was familiar with the other's frequent fits 
of gloom. 

The two men had been working in a sort of part- 
nership, Webster being a musician and Bennett a 
ready verse-writer, and together they had created 
and published a number of sheet-music songs. 
When Webster was in a fit of melancholy, it was the 
doctor's habit to give him a "dose" of new verses 
and cure him by putting him to work. Today the 
treatment turned out to be historic. 

**What's the matter now," was the doctor's greet- 
ing when his "patient" came with the tell-tale face. 

"O, nothing," said Webster. "It'll be all right 
by and by." 

"Why not make a song of the sweet by and by ?" 
rejoined the doctor, cheerfully. 

"I don't know," said Webster, after thinking a 
second or two. "If you'll make the words, I'll 
write the music." 

The doctor went to his desk, and in a short time 
produced three stanzas and a chorus to which his 
friend soon set the notes of a lilting air, brighten- 
ing up with enthusiasm as he wrote. Seizing his 



536 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

violin, which he had with him, he played the mel- 
ody, and in a few minutes more he had filled in the 
counterpoint and made a complete hymn-tune. 
By that time two other friends, who could sing, had 
come in and the quartette tested the music on the 
spot. Here different accounts divide widely 
as to the immediate sequel of the new-born 
song. 

A Western paper in telling its story a year or two 
ago, stated that Webster took the "Sweet By and 
By "(in sheet-music form), with a batch of other 
pieces, to Chicago, and that it was the only song 
of the lot that Root and Cady would not buy; and 
finally, after he had tried in vain to sell it, Lyon 
and Healy took it "out of pity," and paid him 
twenty dollars. They sold eight or ten copies (the 
story continued) and stowed it away with dead 
goods, and it was not till apparently a long time 
after, when a Sunday-school hymn-book reprinted 
it, and began to sell rapidly on its account, that 
the " Sweet By and By" started on its career round 
the world. 

This seems circumstantial enough, and the author 
of the hymn in his own story of it might have chos- 
en to omit some early particulars, but, untrust- 
worthy as the chronology of mere memory is, he 
would hardly record immediate popularity of a 
song that lay in obscurity for years. Dr. Bennett's 
words are, "I think it was used in public shortly 
after [its production], for w^ithin two weeks child- 
ren on the street were singing it. " 



HYMNS OF HOPE AND CONSOLATION. 537 

The explanation may be partly the different 
method and order of the statements, partly lapses 
of memory (after thirty years) and partly in collat- 
eral facts. The Sunday-school hymn-book was 
evidently The Signet Ring, which Bennett and 
Webster were at work upon and into which first 
went the "Sweet By and By" — whatever efforts 
may have been made to dispose of it elsewhere or 
whatever copyright arrangement could have war- 
ranted Mr. Healy in purchasing a song already 
printed. The Signet Ring did not begin to pro- 
fit by the song until the next year, after a copy of it 
appeared in the publishers' circulars, and started 
a demand; so that the immediate popularity im- 
plied in Doctor Bennett's account was limited to 
the children of Elkhorn village. 

The piece had its run, but with no exceptional 
result as to its hold on the public, until in 1873 ^^^ 
D. Sankey took it up as one of his working hymns. 
Modified from its first form in the ^'Signet Ring'* 
with pianoforte accompaniment and chorus, it 
appeared that year in Winnowed Hymns as ar- 
ranged by Hubert P. Main, and it has so been 
sung ever since. 

Sanford Filmore Bennett, born in 1836, appears 
to have been a native of the West, or, at least, 
removed there when a young man. In 1861 he 
settled in Elkhorn to practice his profession. Died 
Oct., 1898. 

Joseph Philbrick Webster was born in Man- 
chester, N.H. March 22, 1819. He was an active 



538 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

member of the Handel and Haydn Society, and 
various other musical associations. Removed to 
Madison, Ind. 1851, Racine, Wis. 1856, and Elk- 
horn, Wis., 1857, v^here he died Jan. 18, 1875. 
His Signet Ring was published in 1868. 

There's a land that is fairer than day, 

And by faith I can see it afar 
For the Father waits over the way 

To prepare us a dwelling-place there. 
Chorus 

In the sweet by and by 
We shall meet on that beautiful shore. 

We shall sing on that beautiful shore 
The melodious songs of the blest, 

And our spirits shall sorrow no more. 
Nor sigh for the blessing of rest. 

In the sweet by and by, etc. 

" SUNSET AND EVENING STAR. " 

Was it only a poet's imagination that made 
Alfred Tennyson approach perhaps nearest of all 
great Protestants to a sense of the real " Presence, '* 
every time he took the Holy Communion at the 
altar } Whatever the feeling was, it characterized 
all his maturer life, so far as its spiritual side was 
known. His remark to a niece expressed it, while 
walking with her one day on the seashore, "God 
is with us now, on this down, just as truly as Jesus 
was with his two diciples on the way to Emmaus. '* 

Such a man's faith would make no room for 
dying terrors. 



HYMNS OF HOPE AND CONSOLATION. 539 

Sunset and evening star, 

And one clear call for me. 
And may there be no moaning of the bar 

When I put out to sea. 

But such a tide as, moving, seems asleep. 

Too full for sound and foam. 
When that w^hich drev^ from out the boundless deep 

Turns again home. 

Twilight and evening bell, 

And after that the dark, 
And may there be no sadness of farewell 

When I embark. 

For though from out our bourne of time and place 

The flood may bear me far, 
I hope to see my Pilot face to face 

When I have crossed the bar. 

Tennyson lived three years after penning this 
sublime prayer. But it was his swan-song. Born 
at Somersby, Lincolnshire, Aug. 6, 1809, dying at 
Farringford, Oct. 6, 1892, he filled out the measure 
of a good old age. And his prayer was answered, 
for his death was serene and dreadless. His unseen 
Pilot guided him gently *' across the bar" — and 
then he saw Him. 

THE TUNE. 

Joseph Barnby's *^ Crossing the Bar" has sup- 
plied a noble choral to this poem. It will go far to 
make it an accepted tone in church worship, 
among the more lyrical strains of verse that sing 
hope and euthanasia. 



540 STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 

" SAFE IN THE ARMS OF JESUS. " 

If Tennyson had the mistaken feeling (as Dr. 
Benson intimates) *'that hymns were expected to 
be commonplace,'* it was owing both to his mental 
breeding and his mental stature. Genius in a co- 
lossal frame cannot otherwise than walk in strides. 
What is technically a hymn he never wrote, but it 
is significant that as he neared the Shoreless Sea, 
and looked into the Infinite, his sense of the Di- 
vine presence instilled something of the hymn spirit 
into his last verses. 

Between Alfred Tennyson singing trustfully of 
his Pilot and Fanny Crosby singing "Safe in the 
Arms of Jesus," is only the width of the choir. The 
organ tone and the flute-note breathe the same song. 
The stately poem and the sweet one, the masculine 
and the feminine, both have wings, but while the 
one is lifted in anthem and solemn chant in the 
great sanctuaries, the other is echoing Isaiah's 
tender text* in prayer meeting and Sunday-school 
and murmuring it at the humble firesides like a 
mother's lullaby. 

Safe in the arms of Jesus, 

Safe on His gentle breast, 
There by His love o'ershaded 

Sweetly my soul shall rest. 
Hark! 'tis the voice of angels 

Borne in a song to me 
Over the fields of glory, 

Over the jasper sea. 

*Isa. 40: II. 



HYMNS OF HOPE AND CONSOLATION. 54I 

Refrain 

Safe in the arms of Jesus (ist four lines rep.). 

Safe in the arms of Jesus, 

Safe from corroding care, 
Safe from the world's temptations. 

Sin cannot harm me there. 
Free from the blight of sorrow. 

Free from my doubts and fears, 
Only a few more trials, 

Only a few more tears. 

Safe in the arms of Jesus, 

Jesus, my heart's dear refuge 

Jesus has died for me; 
Firm on the Rock of Ages 

Ever my trust shall be. 
Here let me with patience. 

Wait till the night is o'er, 
Wait till I see the morning 

Break on the Golden Shore. 

Safe in the arms of Jesus, 

— Composed 1868. 
THE TUNE. 

Those who have characterized the Gospel Hymns 
as " sensational" have always been obliged to except 
this modest lyric of Christian peace and its sweet 
and natural musical supplement by Dr. W. H. 
Doane. No hurried and high-pitched chorus dis- 
turbs the quiet beauty of the hymn, a simple Ja 
f^/?o being its only refrain. "Safe in the Arms of 
Jesus" sang itself into public favor with the pulses 
of hymn and tune beating together. 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



Abbot, Lyman, 237, 326 

Abt, Franz, 228, 364 

Adams, E., 369 

Adams, John, 368 

Adams, John Quincy, 293 

Adams, Sarah F., 1 52 

Addison, Joseph, 113, 114, 353 

Adrian, (Emperor), 515 

AiBiUNGER, Johan Caspar, 357 

Aldrich, Jonathan, 287 

Alexander, Mrs. C.F., 414 

Allen, George N., 412 

Allen, J. O., 129 

Almond, , 364, 365 

Altenb ERG, Johan M., 84 

Ambrose, xiii, i, 2, 3 

Anatolius, 354 

Apes, William, 265 

Aratus, 237 

Arne, Thomas A., 107, 108 

Arnold, Matthew, 109 

Arnold, S ., 287 

Atchison, John B., 451 

Atkinson, John, 528, 529 

AuBER, Harriet, 168, 169 

Augustine, ix, 2, 3 

AvisoN, Charles, 329 

Bach, Emanuel, 9 

Bach, Sebastian, 9> 71 

Bailey, Thomas H., 112 

Baker, Sir Henry, 57 

Baldwin, Thomas, 262 

Barlow, Joel, 242, 243 

Barnby, Joseph, 102, iii, 469, 

500,504,526, 539 

Barnes, Albert, 35 

Barthelemon, F.H., 202, 222 

Basil the great, 54 

Bassini, , 444 

Beanes, William, 333 

Beddome, Benjamin, 160, 169 



Beecher, Henry Ward, 218 

Beethoven, Ludwig Von, 5, 193, 

327, 338 

Belcher, Dr., 44 

Bennett, Sanford F., 535~537 

Benson, Louis F., 204, 206 

Bentham, Jeremy, 97 

Berkeley, Bp. George,. .. .324-326 

Bernard OF CLAiRVAux, 100 

Bernard of cluny, 407, 510, 

5ii» 519 

Berridge, John, 122, 123, 503 

BeRTHOLD OF TOURS, 55 

Beza, Theodore, xvi 

BiGLOW AND main, 229 

Billings, William, i6, 327, 332, 

333>---: 475 

Bishop, Sir Henry, 135 

Blackall, C.R., 450 

Bliss, Mrs. J. Worthington 259 

Bliss, Philip P., 155, 156, 319, 
372, 421, 422, 424, 431, 436, 

437,442,444> 454 

Bloomfield, Dorothy, 503 

Boardman, George Dana, 247 

Bohler, Peter, 46 

Bonaparte, Napoleon, 97, 389 

Bonar, Horatius, 225, 226, 228, 

309,490,415, 527 

BoNAR, James, 490 

Bonaventura, 54, 458 

Borth WICK, Jane, 103, 499 

BoRTNiANSKY, Dimitri, 213 

Bottome, Francis, 433 

BOURDALOUE, I3 

Bourgevis, Louis, 15 

BowRiNG, Sir John, 97, 98, 170, 501 

Boyd, William, 513 

Bradbury, William B., 106, 107, 
215, 217, 235, 311, 312, 363, 

410,513, 528 

Brady, Nicholas, 12, 14, 193 



643 



544 



STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES, 



Brainerd, Dav d, 263 

Breed, David R., 171, 176, 180, 

226, 526 

Brooks, Charles T., 348 

Brooks, Bp. Phillips, x, 164, 169 

Brown, John, 342 

Brown, Phebe H., 229-232, 482 

Brown, Samuel, 232 

Brown, Theron, 188, 476, 480 

Brown, Timothy H., 229 

Bruce, Michael, 297 

Brundage, , 454 

Bull, John, 338 

Burgmuller, F,, 425 

BuRNEY, Charles, 241, 407 

Burns, Robert, 333, 336, 367 

Bute, Walter, 379, 380 

BuTTERwoRTH, Hczckiah, V, vi, 

186,187,252, 254 

Caldwell, William, 27? 

Campbell, David E., 222' 

Campbell, Jane M., 478 

Campbell, Robert, 6^ 

Caradoc, , 38I 

Carey, Henry, 339 

Carey, William, 172, 491, 492. 

Caroline, (Queen), 2o3 

Cary, Phebe, 407, 529, 530 

Cartwright, Peter, 271, 272 

Case, Charles C, 187 

Caswall, Edward, 75, 101, 459 

Cawood, John, 414, 465 

Celano, Thomas di., 62, 63 

Cennick, John, 124, 126, 504 

Chalmers, Thomas, 225, 226 

Chandler, John, 485 

Chandler, S., 270 

Chapin, Amzi, 275 

Charlemagne, 5 

Charles, David, 403 

Charles, Thomas, 401 

CiBBER, Mrs., 108 

Clark, Jeremiah, 9 

Clarke, Adam, 177 

Claudius, Matthias, 478 

Clement of Alexandria,. .294, 296 

Clephane, El zabeth C, 423 

Clichtovius, 5 

Cole, John, 115, 479, 507, 515 



Coles, George, 126, 127, 285 

Collyer, William B., 72, 73 

Columbus, Christopher, 356 

CoNDER, Josiah, 489 

CoNKEY, Ithamar, 99, 249 

Converse, Charles Crozat, 426 

CoNWELL, Russell H., 532 

Cook, Martha A. W., 148, 149 

Cook, Parsons, 148, 149 

Cooper, George, 312 

CoRELU, Arcangelo, 39 

Cornell, J. B., 438 

Cornell, John Henry, 96, 355, 415 

Corse, Gen. G. M., 424 

Cousin, Anne R., 78, 8a 

Covert, 333 

CowD ELL, Samuel, 265 

CowpER, William, x, 129, 131, 

176, 192, 403 

Croft, William, 204 

Crosby, Fanny J., 156, 184, 312, 

425^438, 546 

CuYLER, Theodore L., 377 

Cyprian of CARTHAGE, I 

Dadmun, J. W., 272 

Dagget, Simeon, ' 330 

Dana, Mary S. B., 287, 288 

Dartmouth, Lord, 269 

Davenant, Sir William, 306 

De Groote, Gerard, 67 

DelaMothe, JeanneM.B., 190, 191 

De Lisle, Roget, 329 

Denham, David, 134 

Dermid, (King), 328 

Dexter, Henry M., 294, 296 

DiTSON, Oliver, vii, 413 

Dixon, William, 36 

DoANE,Bp. George W., 482, 483 

DoANE, William H., 157, 425, 

429, 430, 438, 450, 480, 541 

Doddridge, Philip, 116, 117, 

169, 410, 413, 476, 488, 495, 519 

Dodge, Ossian E., 333 

D0UGL.A.S, George, vii 

Dow, Howard M., 502 

Dow, Lorenzo, 272 

Dow,Peggy, 272 

Draper, Bourne H., 171 

Dlnbar, E. W., 288 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



545 



D'uRHAN, Christian, 82 

DuTTON, Deodatus, 232 

DwiGHT, H.O., 462 

DwiGHT, John S., 347, 348 

DwiGHT, Timothy, 29, 133, 134 

Dykes, John B., 51, 57, 65, 104, 
152, 224, 228, 363, 370, 372, 
465* 5^5 

Edmeston, James, 299, 488 

Edson, Lewis, 395, 476 

Edwards, Jonathan, 263 

Elias, John, 390 

EuzABETH, (Queen), 17 

Elliott, Charlotte, 214, 215 

Elliot, Ebenezer, 183 

Ellsworth, J. S., 437 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 339, 340 

Ephrem, Syrus, 56 

Erbury, , 381 

EsLiNG, Catherine, 208, 209, 482 

Evans, Evelyn, 407 

Evans, Heber, 399 

Evans, John Miller, 369 

Evans, Thomas, 401 

EwiNG, Alexander, 512 

Faber, Frederick W., 233, 234, 

30i» 5H 

Faure, Jean Baptiste, 470 

Fawcett, John, 132, 133 

FiNDLATER, MrS., IO3 

Fischer, William Gustavus, 429 

Flatman, , 515 

FoRTUNATUs, Venantius, 357, 472 

Foster, Paul, vii 

Franc, Guillaume, 194 

Francis, Benjamin, 132 

Frankenberry, A.D., 424 

Frederick, (King), 94 

Freeman, John E., 222 

Frothingham,N.L., ix 

Fulbert, Bp., 59~6i 

Gardiner, William, 48, 130 

Gates, Bernard, 96 

Gates, Ellen M. H., vii, 256, 

258, 430» 449» 53^. 534 

Gauntlett, Henry I., 48, 483 

Gellert, C. F., 473 



George i, (King), 11 

Gerhardt, Paul, 84, 85, 87, 88, 93 

Giardini, Felice, 227 

Gilmore, Joseph Henry, 235, 236 

Gladstone, William E., 139, 140 

Glaser, Carl, 48 

Glenelg, Lord, 22 

Good E, William, 14, 31 

Gordon, A. J., 162, 164 

Gordon, Mrs. A. J., vii 

Gottschalk, Louis, 483 

GouGH, John B., 215 

Gould, Eliza, 151 

Gould, John Edgar, 374, 468, 488 

Gould, Sabine Baring, 185 

Grannis, Sidney M., 259 

Grape, John T., 429 

Grant, Sir Robert, 21, 22, 21 z 

Gregory nazianzen, 56 

Gregory the great, (Pope), 

xiii,xiv,8, 10 

Grenade, John, 298 

Griffiths, Arm, 396~399 

Griffiths, Edward, 386 

Griggs, , 102 

Groote, Gerald de, 67 

GuiDO, Arentino, xiv 

Guild, Curtis, 206 

GuRNEY, Mrs., 503 

Gustavus adolphus, (King), ..82-84 
Gu YON, Madame, 1 90, 1 92 

Hague, John R., vii 

Hall, Amasiah, 513, 514 

Hall, Elvina M., 426 

Hammond, William, 29 

Handel, George Frederick, 11, 

3i»i34»i66, 414 

Hankey, Kate, 427, 429 

Hanna, lone T., 456 

Harrington, C.S., 149 

Harrington, Karl, 528 

Harris, Howell, 381, 387, 388 

Harris, Thomas, 366 

Harrison, Ralph, 48 

K\RT, Joseph, 119, 121 

Harewood, Edward, 517 

Hastings, H. L., 204 

Hastings, Thomas, 25, 59, 142, 

160,168,174,219-221, 223 



546 



STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 



Hatfield, C. F., 14 

Hatton, John, 37 

Hatton, John Liphot, 37 

Havergal, Frances Ridley, 154, 155 

Havergal, William Henry, 227 

Hawkes, Annie S., 153 

Hawkes, Robert, 14 

Haydn, Joseph, 32 

Hayward, Thomas, 488 

Hearn, Marianne Famingham, 

441. 442 

Heath, George, 143 

Heath, Lyman, 247 

Heber, Bp. Reginald, 4, 50, 51, 

178, i79>---- 3'8 

Hedge, Frederick H., 71 

Hemans, Felicia, 196, 359, 323, 

3H> 333 

Henry viii, (King), 18 

Hews, George, 407, 483, 484 

Hicks, John J., 272 

Hilary, Bp., liii 

Hiller, Ferdinand, 65, 66 

Hinsdale, George, 229 

Hodges, Edward, 212, 464 

Holbrook, Joseph P., 360, 364, 501 

Hold EN, Oliver, 27, 28 

Holmes, O. \V., 52, 249, 344 

HoLROYD, Israel, 409 

HOLZMAN, , 329 

Hopkins, Edward, 30, 112 

Hopkins, John, 15 

HoPKiNSON, Joseph, 331 

Hopper, Edward, 373 

HoRDER, Garret, 489 

Howard, John, 24 

Howe, Julia Ward, 340, 343 

Hucbald, xiii 

HuFFER, Francis, 95 

HfGHES AND SON, vii 

Hughes, Mrs., 359 

Hlmphreys, Cecil Frances, 414 

Hunter, William, 272, 288, 289 

Huntingdon, (Lady) Selina, 25, 

88,89,119,128, 201 

Huntington, DeWitt C, 436 

Husband, John Jenkins, 416 

Hyatt, John, 216 

Hyde, Charles, 230 



Ingalls, Jeremiah, 121, 274, 

278, 507 

rving, Washington, 321 

SAAC, Heinrich, 91, 112 

ACKSON, Andrew, 206 

ACKSON, Deborah, 206 

EROME OF PRAGUE. ., 472 

OHN OF DAMASCUS, 53, 54, 57 

OHNSON, Albert, 222 

OHNSON, Mrs. James G., 452 

ONES, H. R., 392 

ONES, John, 393 

ONES, Nancy, 389, 390 

ONES, Thomas, 401 

UDAH, Daniel Ben, 20 

udson, Sarah B., 246 

uuAN, John, 204 

Keble, John, 1 59, 252, 482 

Keene, Robert, 204 

Keller, Matthias, 343, 345, 347 

Kelley, Thomas, 173, 174 

Kempis, Thomas a, 67 

KEN,Bp., 13, 14 

Key, Francis Scott, 49, 333 

Key, John R., 49 

King, Jacob, 71 

King robert ii, 11, 57, 58, 60 

KiNGSLEY, George, 34, 102, 158, 

281,318, 519 

Kipling, Rudyard, 349~35' 

KozELUCK, , 483 

Krishna pal, 491 

Lamb, Frank M., 253, 254 

Lattimore, W. O., 434 

Lee, Mary Augusta, 455, 456 

Lee, Gen. Robert E., 206 

Leland, John, 224, 276, 482 

Lincoln, Abraham, 239, 256 

Lindsay, Miss, 259 

LoaAN, John, 279 

Longfellow, Henry W., — 248, 249 

Longfellow, Samuel, ix 

Lorimer, George, 252 

Louis, (King), 5, 191 

LOWRY, J. C, 118 

LowRY, Robert, 39, 148, 153, 
406, 419, 446, 448 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



5+7 



Loyola, Ignatius, 74 

Lucas, James, 495 

Lldwig, Duke, 121 

Luke, Jemima T., 305, 306 

Lulu, , 338 

LuMMis, Franklin H., 342 

Luther, Martin, rvi, 8, 69-71, 388 

Lyon, Meyer, 20 

Lyte, Henry Francis, 217, 221 

Macgill, Hamilton M., 296 

Mackay, Charles, 135 

Mackay, Margaret, 499 

Mackay, William Paton, 416 

Madan, Martin, 29, 30, 41, 463, 505 

Maffit, John, 274 

Main, Hubert P-,vi,vii, 115, 134, 
228, 240, 299, 307, 369, 415, 

430» 470, 537 

Malan, Caesar, rvi, 214, 384, 436 

Marco, ( ?), Portugal is, 205, 206 

Marot, Clement, xvi 

MLarsh, , 363 

Marvin, Bp., 151 

Mary, (Queen), 12, 18 

Mary, (Princess), 12, 18 

Mary, (Virgin), 356, 358 

Mary Stuart, (Queen), 77 

Mason, Francis, 175 

Mason, Lowell, 36, 91, 93, 105, 
106, III, 118, 131, 133, 146, 
170, 173, 179, 196, 302, 337, 

339,348,363,581, 526 

Masters, Mary, 303 

Maurice, , 381 

Maxim, Abraham,. , . .282, 283, 488 

Mayo, Mrs. Herbert, 310 

Mazzinghi, Joseph, 202, 203 

Mc Granahan, James, 308, 444, 452 

McKeever, F. G., vii 

McKiNLEY,Will'am, 151, 251 

Mc Mullen, Mr. and Mrs., 222 

Meek, William T., vii 

Medley, Samuel, 136, 276 

Melancthon, Philip, 69 

Mendelssohn, Felix, 463, 482, 491 

Merriam, Edmund F., vii 

Merrill, Abraham, D., 269 

MiDLANE, Albert, 445 

Miller, James, 367 



MiLMAN, Henry Hart, 278 

Mills, Elizabeth, 307 

Milton, John, 461, 462 

Mohammed, 5 

Monk, William H.,..i6o, 219, 245 
Montgomery, James, 21, 144, 
145, 176, 177, 285, 353, 480, 

487, 499' 521 

Moody, Dwight L., 308, 310, 

4^1,4^6, 431 

Moore, (More), Joshua,4. .267, 269 
Moore, Thomas, 112,219,243, 

325-328, 333 

Morgan, David, 392 

MoRNiNGTON, Garret, Colley 

Wellesley, Earl of 523 

MoRRis, Robert, 260 

Morse, Charles H., 482 

Mote, Edward, 216 

Mozart, Johan Wolfgang, 222, 

244, 327 

Muhlenberg, Henry M...158, 498 

Muhlenberg, W. A., 157, 158 

MuRiLLO, Bartolomeo, 162 

Nageli, Johan G., 161, 162 

Napoleon, 97, 389 

Nares, James, 95 

Neale, John M., 6, 7, 55, 57, 

354,--- 512 

Nero, (Emperor), 322 

Newell, Harriet, 175 

Newman, John Henry, 223, 224, 524 
Newton, John, 130, 203, 204, 

286, 386, 403,... 493 

Nicholson, Ludovic, 201 

NovELLO, Vincent, 73, 74 

Nutter, Dr., 180 

Oakeley, Frederick, 459 

Oakely, Sir. Herberts., 252 

Oakey, Emily, 434, 435 

OccuM, Samson, 267-269, 279 

O^Kane, Tullius C, 437 

Oldcastle, John, 379 

Oliver, Henry K., 104, 105 

Olivers, Thomas,. . .19, 20, 22, 504 
Osborne, John, 146 

Paine , John K ., 462 



548 



STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 



Paine, Robert T., 335 

Palestrina, jciv-xvi 

Palmer, Horatio R., 261, 311, 

417, 450 

Palmer, Ray, 59 

Parker, Theodore, ix 

Parry, Joseph, 395, 398 

Patrick, St., 328 

Payne John Howard, 135 

Peloubet, F. N., 188 

Penry, , 381 

Perronet, Edward,. ..25, 27, 31, 59 

Phelps, A. S, vii 

Phelps, S.D 147 

Phelps, W. L., vii 

Philip, "King", 265 

Phillips, Phihp, 149, 150, 239, 
256, 267, 309, 333, 421, 531, 

53^ 534 

Phipps, George, 188, 189 

Pierpont, John, 335, 336 

PiNSUTi, 415 

Pleyel, Ignace, 126, 208 

Pliny, 293 

Pope, Alexander, 238, 326, 515, 516 

Powell, John, 381 

Presbry, Otis F., 451, 452 

Price, Dr., 41 

Price, E. M., 395 

Pritchard, Rhys M., 379, 396 

Proch, Heinrich, 357 

PuRC ELL, Henry, 338 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, 76 

Rankin, James, 3 62 

Rankin, Jeremiah E ., 496 

Ravenscro FT, Thomas, 338 

Read, Daniel, 407, 466 

Reading, John, 205 

Redhead, Richard, 50 

Redner, Louis H., 469 

Rees, William, 402 

Reinagle, Alexander R., 87 

Rexford, Eben E., 439, 440 

Rhys, Morgan, 404 

Richardson, John, 76 

Ridley, Bp., 4 

Riley, Mary Louise, 317 

RiMBAULT, Edward F., 282 

RjNCWALDT, Bartholomew,. . . .71, 73 



RippoN, John, 27, 204, 281 

RiTTER, Peter, 160 

Robert ii, (King), 57, 58, 60 

Roberts, Evan, 377, 393, 394 

Roberts, W. M., 404 

Robinson, Charles, 171, 179 

Robinson, Robert, 283, 284 

RoMAiNE, William, 31 

Roosevelt, Theodore, 151 

Root, George F., 155, 156,254, 

3iS»3i7»439. 444 

Rousseau, J. J., 112, 113 

RowE, Elizabeth, 45 

Rowlands, Daniel, 381, 387 

Rutherford, Samuel, 78, 79, 81 

Salmon, Thomas, 432 

Sanderson, Mrs., 335 

Sankey, Ira D., 184, 258, 308- 
3"> 374) 375» 4i7, 421-423, 

434,438,447,.... 537 

ScHMOLKE, Benjamin, * 499 

Schumann, Robert, 87 

Scott, Thomas, 226, 411 

Scott, Sir Walter, 240 

ScRiVEN, Joseph, 425 

Seagrave, Robert, 94 

Sears, Edmund H., 466 

Seneca, 320, 322 

Servoss, Mary Elizabeth,. .442, 443 

Seward, William H., 257 

Shepherd, Thomas, 411 

Sheridan, Mrs. Richard Brins- 

ley, 244 

Shipley, Dean, 178 

Shirley, Sir Walter,. .127, 128, 202 

SiMAO,Portugalis, 206 

Simpson, Robert, 298 

Singer, Elizabeth, 45 

Smart, Henry, 4, 5, 10, 137, 465, 525 

Smith, Mrs. Albert, 317 

Smith, Alexander, 368 

Smith, Goldwin, X 

Smith, Isaac, 324 

Smith, John Stafford, 335 

Smith, Samuel Francis, 180-182, 

337, 339 

Spafford, Horatio G., 440, 441 

Spohr, L., 126, 207, 227, 228, 

244, 488 



INDEX OF NAMES. 



549 



Stainer, John, ....65, 66, 352, 474 
Stanley, (Dean), Arthur P., 

65, 66, 148 

Stead, William, 1 50, 151 

Stebbins, George C, 254, 308, 

375. 415. 528 

Steele, Anna, 197 

Steffe, John W., 342 

St. Fulbert, S9~6i 

Stennet, Joseph, 23, 488 

Stennet, Samuel, 23, 24 

Stephens, , 395 

Stephen, (St.), the Sabaite, 57 

Sternhold, Thomas, ..S 15, 16 

Stevenson, , 327 

Stokes, Walter, 84 

Storrs, Richard S., 35, 474 

Storrs, Mrs. R. S., 474 

Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 481 

Stowell, Hugh, 222, 223 

Staurt, Charles M., 34 

Sumner, Janaziah, 330 

Swain, Joseph, 28, 281 

Swan, Jabez, 286 

Swan, Timothy, 194, 195, 327, 506 

Tadolini, Giovanni, 35? 

Tait, Abp., 252 

Tallis, Thomas, xv, 17, 18 

Tansur, William, 282, 283 

Tarbutton, W.A., 528 

Tate, Nahum, ,...12, 14, 193, 283 

Taylor, Benjamin F., 533 

Taylor, James, 61 

Taylor, Thomas R., 300, 30I 

Taylor, V.C, 52, 244 

Tennyson, Alfred, 259, 538-54O 

Tersteegen, Gerhard, 102 

Teschner, Melchior, 8 

Theodulph, Bp., 5, 6, 7 

Thomas h Kempis, 67 

Thomas pi Celano, 62, 63 

Th RING, Godfrey, 371 

Thrupp, Dorothy A., 310 

Tomer, William G., 497 

TopLADY, A. M., 137, 138, 517, 18 

TouRjEE, Eben, 149, 150, 235 

TouRjEE, Lizzie S., 235 

Tours, Berthold, 415 

Trajan, (Emperor), 293 



Tyler, Mrs. Fanny, 28 

Ufford, E. S., 374, 376, 377 

Upham, Thomas, 192 

Urhan, Christian, 82 

Vail, Silas J., S..234, 235 

Van Alstyne, Mrs., 156, 184, 

312, 4^5. 438 

Vernon, (Admiral), 339 

Victoria, (Queen), 391, 248, 252 

VoKES, Mrs., 171, 173 

Voltaire, 43 

Von Gluck, 490 

VonWeber, CM., 121,338,490, 500 

Wade, , 102 

Walford, William W., 432 

Walther, Johan, xvi 

Warner, Anna, 418 

Washburn, Henry S., 245, 247 

Waters, Horace, 303 

Watkins, Jack E., 390 

Watson, Bp., 151 

Watson, Richard, 120 

Watts, Isaac, 14, 29, 33, 35, 37, 
40, 41-45, 47, 60, 105, 107- 
109, 133, 134, 165, 166, 167, 

243» 390. 403. 463,506, 513 

Wayland, Francis, 42 

Webb, George J., 182, 444 

Webbe, Samuel, 116, 505 

Webster, Joseph P., 535~537 

Wells, G. C, iil 

Wentworth, (Gov.), 269 

Wesley, Charles, 14, 26, 45, 47, 
94, III, 118, 204, 274, 359- 
361, 388, 396, 403, 420, 463, 

474, 493, 5^0 

Wesley, John, 14, 209,211, 273, 520 

Wesley, Samuel, 45, 178 

Wesley, Samuel Sebastian, 45, 

177, 178, 304, 485 

Wheelock, Eleazer, 267, 269 

White, Henry Kirke, 297, 364-366 
Whitefield, George, 19, 31, 88, 

124, 132, 201 

Whiting, William, 369, 370 

Whittier, John G., 250, 251 

Whittle, D.W., 444 



550 



STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 



William, (King), 12, 13 

Williams, Aaron, 130, 134 

Williams, David, 405 

Williams, Helen M., 125, 126, 206 
Williams, Peter, 199, 201, 387, 389 
Williams, Thomas,. . . 393, 401, 403 
WiLLiAMS,William, 166-168, 199, 

381—386, 388, 396, 399>---- 405 
Willis, Richard Storrs,. . . .415, 467 

Willis, Nathaniel, 467 

WiLus, N. P., 467 

Wilson, Hugh, 353 

Winks, W.E., 406 

WiNKWORTH, Catherine, 84 

WooDBRiDGE, William C.,. .338, 339 



Woodbury, Isaac B., iii, 183, 

244> 3»9» 407 

Woodman, J, C, 410,415 

Wood, Sir Evelyn, 368 

Wroth, William, 379 

Wyeth, John, 283,284 

Xavier, Francis, 74 

Young, Andrew, 304 

Zerrahn, Carl, 444 

Zeuner, Heinrich, 172, 241 

ZlNZENDORF, (Count), 9I, 92 

ZuNDEL, John, 363, 485 



INDEX OF TUNES, 



ABENDS, 252 

ABERYSTWITH, 395 

ABIDE WITH ME, 219 

AELRED, 372 

AIN, 38,39 

ALMOST PERSUADED, 454 

ALSACE, 193 

ALL SAINTS, NEW, 513 

AMALAND, 465 

AMERICA, 336~339 

AMES, 34 

AMSTERDAM, 95, 96 

ANACREON IN HEAVEN, 334 

ANNAPOLIS, 507, 515 

ANTHEM FOR EASTER, 474 

ANTIOCH, 166, 464 

ANTIPHONALS, xU'l 

ANVERN, 520 

ARABIA, 388 

ARIEL, 137 

ARLINGTON, IO7, I18, 515 

ATH ENS, 227, 307 

AUDIENTES, 303 

AULD LANG SYNE, 515 

AURELIA, 177 

AUTUMN, (Sardius), 222 

AZMON, 47*48 

BABEL, 388 

BALERMA, 297, 298 

BATTLE HYMN ETC., 34I~343 

BELMONT, 116 

BENEVENTO, 494 

BERLIN, 491 

BETHANY, 153,465 

BEYOND THE SMILING AND THE, . 528 

BIRMINGHAM, I32 

BONNY DOON, 367 

BOSWORTH, 105 

BOWER OF PRAYER, THE I47 

BOWRING, 170 

B0TL8T0N, 133> 169, 523 



BRADEN, 276 

BRATTLE STREET, I26, 207 

BREST, 505 

BRIGHT CANAAN, 273,274 

BRIGHTON, 245 

BROKEN PINION, THE 254 

BROOKLYN, 485 

BROWN, 232 

BRUCE's ADDRESS, 335, 336 

BRYMGFRYD, 388 

BUCKFIELD, 283 

BURIAL OF MRS. JUDSON, 247 



CALM ON THE LISTENING EAR, 

(epiphany), 468 

CANAAN, 514 

CANONS, it 

CAPEL Y DDOL, 4O5 

CAROL, 467 

CATHARINE, 4O4 

CHESTER, 331*33^ 

CHINA, 194 

CHRISTMAS, 414, 466 

CLWYD, 393 

COLEBROOK, 137 

COLUMBIA, 332 

COME, 453 

COME, MY BRETHREN, 280 

COME, YE DISCONSOLATE, 221 

COME, YE FAITHFUL, 55 

CONSOLATION, 482 

CONVENTION HYMN, 1 87 

CORONATION, ^7> 59 

CORSICA, 490 

COUNTERPOINT, XV 

CREATION, 40 

CRIMEA, 366 

CROSSING THE BAR, 539 

CRUCIFIXION, 5'4 

CWYFAN, 388 

CWYNFAN PRYDIAN, 402 



551 



552 



STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES, 



DARBY, 403 

DEAD MARCH in" SAUL,'"'' 498 

DEDHAM, 48, 130 

DENMARK, 4I 

DENNIS, I33»'^* 

DEVONSHIRE, I05 

DEVOTION, 514 

DIES IRA E, 65 

DORT, 187, 348, 481 

DUNBAR, 531 

DUNDEE, 194 

DUKE STREET, 37, 1 66 

EASTER ANTHEM, 474 

EBENEZER, 406 

EDEN OF LOVE, 272,273 

EDINA, 252 

EDOM, 401 

EIN FESTE BURG, 7I 

EIRINWG, 403 

ELLACOMBE, 177 

ELLIOTT, 215 

ELVY, 388 

EMMONS, 125 

EPIPHANY (calm ON THE USTEN- 

ing), 468 

ERNAN, 407 

ETERNITY, 449 

EUCHARIST, Ill 

EVAN, 227 

EVENING SONG TO THE VIRGIN,. . 359 

EXCELSIUS, 96 

FAIR HARVARD, 307 

FALMOUTH, 514 

FEDERAL STREET, 104,105 

FITZWILLIAM, 4 

FOREVER WITH THE LORD, 498 

FREDERICK, 158,498 

FROM Greenland's ICY, 179 

GANGES, 119, 269, 270 

GARDEN HYMN, THE, 277,278 

GENEVA, 115 

GOLDEN HILL, 108,274 

GOD BE WITH YOU, 497 

GOOD MORNING IN GLORY, 164 

GOTT 1ST LICHT, 463 

GREENVILLE, 1X2, 121 

GRIGGS, 102 



habaekuc, 212 

hail columbia, 33i 

hallelujah! 'tis done! 422 

hallowell, 283 

HAMBURG, Ill 

HANOVER, 204 

HAPPY DAY, 282 

HAPPY LAND, 3O4 

HAREWOOD, 485 

HARMONY, 514 

HARMONY GROVE, I05 

HARVEST HOME, 479 

HAYDN, 31 

HEBER, 102,318 

HE LEADETH ME, 236 

HELMSLEY, 505 

HENDON, 486 

HE WILL HIDE ME,. 444 

HOLD THE FORT, 424, 432 

HOLLEY, 407, 483, 484 

HOLY CROSS, 102 

HOLY, HOLY, HOLY, 5! 

HOLY TRINITY, I02 

HOME OF THE SOUL, THE,. . . .532, 533 

HOME, SWEET HOME, I35 

HORBURY, 152 

HOSANNA, 512 

HUDSON, 105 

HURSLEY, 160,493 

HYFRYDOL, 375 

i'm GLAD i'm in THIS AR.MY, 299 

IMMANUEL's BANNER, 188 

INDEPENDENCE, 332 

INNSBRUCK, 91 

IT IS WELL, 440 

(See Index of Hymns) 

JAZER, 118 

JEWETT, 500 

JOYFULLY, JOYFULLY, 289,290 

(See Index of Hymns) 

KEBLE, 52 

Keller's American hymn, 433-445 

KENT, 105 

KENTUCKY, 274 

LABAN, 143 



INDEX OF TUNES. 



553 



LAMENT OVER BOSTON, 332 

LAND AHEAD, 369 

LANESBORO, 36, 503 

U^ SPEZIA, 61 

LENOX, 395*476 

LEONI, 20 

LET THE LOWER LIGHTS, 434 

USBON, 466 

LISCHER, 488 

LLANIETYN, 4O4 

LOUVAN, 52, 244 

LOVING-KINDNESS, 277 

LOWELL, 407 

LUCAS, 494 

Luther's HYMN, 73 

LUX BENIGNA, 224 

MAGDALEN, 35I 

MAGNIFICAT, i- xi, xii, lO 

MAITLAND, 4I2 

MAJESTY, 16 

MALVERN, 93 

MANOAH, 116 

MARSEILLAISE, 174,329, 352 

MASSACHUSETTS, 5I4 

MATTHIAS, 245 

MEAR, 130 

MELANCTHON, 496 

MELITA, 370 

MILTON, 243 

MENDELSSOHN, 463 

MERIBAH, 90, 91, 119, 395 

MERTON, 105, 519 

MESSIAH, 281 

MIDNIGHT MASS, 460 

MIGDOL, 173 

MILLENNIAL DAWN,. . . .I77, 182, 477 

MISSIONARY CHANT, I72, 29I 

MONSON, 232 

MONTGOMERY, 35 

MORECAMBE, 49I 

MORLAIX, 372 

MORNING, 105 

MORNING GLORY, 5O4 

MORNINGTON, 523 

MOZART, 244 

MT. AUBURN, 519 

MT. VERNON, 498 

MT AIN COUNTREE, 456 

MY BROTHER I WISH YOU WELL,. . 9I 



MY JESUS, I LOVE THEE, 162, 163 

NANCY JIG, 385 

NAOMI, 198 

NEALE, 355 

NEARER HOME, 407,531 

NESTA, 404 

NETTLETON, 112,283,284 

NEW DURHAM, 283 

NEW JERUSALEM, 506,507 

NICAEA, 51 

NORTHFIELD, 506-508 

NORWICH, 207,462 

NOT HALF HAS EVER BEEN TOLD, 45I 

NOTTINGHAM, 16 

NO WAR NOR BATTLE SOUND, 461 

OAK, 302 

ODE ON SCIENCE, 33O 

O DO NOT BE DISCOURAGED,. . . . 299 

OLD HUNDRED, ivi, I5, 4I, 166, 339 

OLMUTZ, 518 

OLD SHIP OF ZION, 29O 

ONE MORE day's WORK, ETC.,.. 418 

ONLY REMEMBERED, 3O9 

ONWARD, CHRISTIAN SOLDIERS, 

56, 186 

O, PERFECT LOVE, 504 

ORTONVILLE, 2^ 

OVER THERE, 436 

PALESTINE, 202 

PALM BRANCHES, 47O 

PARADISE, ^l6 

PART-SONG, IV 

PASCHALE GAUDIUM, 474 

PENTECOST, 513 

PETERBOROUGH, 48 

PILGRIM, 525 

PISGAH, 118 

PLAIN-SONG, xii, 10 

pleyel's hymn, 280,411 

polyphonic, xv 

portland, 283, 488 

PORTUGUESE HYMN,...205, 2o6, 460 

PRECIOUS JEWELS, 315, 316 

president's MARCH, 33! 

RAND DE VACHES, 35* 

RATHBUN, 99)^49 



554 



STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 



RAVENDALE, 84 

RAYNHAM, 514 

REFUGE, 363 

REJOICE AND BE GLAD, 415 

RESCUE THE PERISHING, 425 

REST, 499>5i3 

RESTORATION, 514 

RETREAT, 223 

RETROSPECT, 332 

REVIVE THY WORK, 445 

RHINE, 125 

RIVAULX, 104 

ROLLAND, 106,493 

ROCKINGHAM, 13! 

ROTTERDAM, 55 

RUSSIA, 466 

RUTHERFORD, 82 

SAFE IN THE ARMS OF JESUS,. . 54I 

SALEM, 123 

SAUSBURY PLAIN, I05 

SAMSON, 166 

SARDIUS, (autumn), 20I 

SAVANNAH, 238 

SAVIOUR, LIKE A SHEPHERD, 3IO, 3II 

SAVIOUR, PILOT ME, 374 

SCALE, THE, .xiii, liv 

SCATTER SEEDS OF KINDNESS,.. 318 

SCHUM.\NN, 87 

SCOTS WHA HAE, 336 

SEQUENCES, (foot note), 8 

SHAWMUT, 407 

SHERBURNE, 466 

SICILY, 129,283 

SILOAM, 244,318,319 

SILVER STREET, 324 

SIMPSON, 126 

SOMETHING FOR JESUS, I 48 

SONGS OF THE BEAUTIFUL, 483 

SONNET, 287 

SOUND THE LOUD TIMBRAL, 327 

SPEED AWAY, 184 

SPOHR, 244 

STAFFORD, 466 

STAR-SPANGLED BANNER, THE, 

49. 333-335 

STATE STREET, 4IO, 5I5 

ST. AMBROSE, 296 

8T. ANSELM, (wc plow the fields), 478 

ST. ATHANASIU8, 59 



ST. BERNARD, 75 

ST. BOTOLPH, Z44 

ST. CHAD, 50 

ST. EDMUND, I 52 

ST. GARMON, 395 

ST. KEVIER, 307 

ST. LOUIS, 469 

ST. MAGNUS, 16 

ST. PETERSBURG, 2I3 

ST. PHILIP, 30 

ST. THOMAS, 38, 134, 523 

STEPHENS, 28a 

STOWE, 482 

SUSSEX, 500 

SWEET BY AND BY, 534-537 

SWEET GAULEE, 26 1 , 319 

SWEET HOUR OF PRAYER, 432 

SWITZER's SONG OF HOME,. . . . 

TALLIS' EVENING HYMN,, .ivi, 16, IJ 

TE DEUM, 1-4 

TELEMANN's CHANT, 474 

THACH ER, 109 

THE BOWER OF PRAYER, I47 

THE BROKEN PINION, 254 

THE CHARIOT, 279 

THE DYING CHRISTIAN, 516, 517 

THE EDEN OF LOVE, 272, 273 

THE GARDEN HYMN, 277, ^7^ 

THE HARP THAT ONCE, 328 

THE HEBREW CHILDREN, 27I 

THE HOME OF THE SOUL,.. 532, 533 

THE LAND OF THE BLEST, 308 

THE MORNING LIGHT IS BREAK- 
ING, 177, 182, 477 

THE NINETY AND NINE, 422 

THE OLD, OLD STORY, 429 

THE PRODIGAL CHILD, 43O 

THE SOLID ROCK, 3I7 

THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER,.. 333 

THERE IS A GREEN HILL, 4I4 

THROW OUT THE LIFE-LINE,. . . . 374 

TH YDIAN, 388 

TO THE WORK, 438, 480 

TOPLADY, 59, 142 

TRENCYNON, 395 

TRIUMPH BY AND BY 45O 

TRURO, 241, 407 

TURNER, 282 



INDEX OF TUNES. 



555 



UXBRIDGE, 93 

VOX ANGELICA, 525 

VOX DILECTI, 238 

VOX JESU, 227 

WAITING AND WATCHING, 443 

WALNUT GROVE, I05 

WARD, 196,493 

WARE, 34 

WATCHMAN, I70 

WEBB, 177, 182 

WEIMAR, 9 

WELLS, 409 

WELLESLEY, 235 

WELTON, 486 

WE SHALL MEET, 529 

WHAT A FRIEND WE HAVE,.... 425 
WHAT SHALL THE HARVEST BE, 

435, 436 

WHEN JESUS COMES, 437 



WHEN PEACE LIKE A, 477 

WH EN SHALL WE ALL MEET, .... 266 
WHEN THE SWALLOWS HOME- 
WARD FLY, 364 

WHERE ARE THE REAPERS,.... 429 
WHERE IS MY WANDERING BOY, 446 
WHILE THE DAYS ARE GOING,. .. . 3I2 

WHITMAN, 146, 364 

WILMOT, 121,490 

WINDHAM, 407,466 

WINDSOR, 482 

WOODSTOCK, 232 

WOODWORTH, 215 

Y DELYN AUR, 405 

YORK, 462 

YOUR MISSION, 259 

ZEPHYR, 513 

zioN, (T. Hastings), i68, 174 

zioN, {A. Hall), 514 



INDEX OF HYMNS. 



A CHARGE TO KEIP I HAVE, I74 

ABIDE WITH ME, FAST FALLS, 2I7 

ADAMS AND LIBERTY, 335 

ADESTE, FIDELES, 458 

ALAS, WHAT HOURLY DANGERS RISE, I98 

ALL GLORY, LAUD AND HONOR, 5 

ALL HAIL THE POWER OF JESUS' NAME, ^$'^7 

ALL PRAISE TO THEE, ETERNAL LORD, 8 

ALMOST PERSUADED, 454 

ALONG THE BANKS WHERE BABEl's CURRENT, 242, 243 

A MIGHTY FORTRESS IS OUR GOD, 69 

AND IS THIS LIFE PROLONGED TO YOU, 43 

AND WILL THE JUDGE DESCEND, 4IO 

ANGEL OF PEACE, THOU HAS WAITED, 344 

ANGELS ROLL THE ROCK AWAY, 4I I 

ANOTHER SIX DAYS' WORK IS DONE, 23,488 

A POOR WAYFARING MAN OF GRIEF, 285 

ARISE, MY SOUL, ARISE, 395 

ART THOU WEARY, ART THOU LANGUID, 57 

AS DOWN IN THE SUNLESS RETREATS, 243 

ASLEEP IN JESUS, BLESSED SLEEP, 499 

AT ANCHOR LAID REMOTE FROM HOME, I38 

AVE, MARIS STELLA, 356 

AVE, SANCTISSIMA, 357 

AWAKE AND SING THE SONG, 29 

AWAKE MY SOUL, STRETCH EVERY NERVE, 4I3 

AWAKE, MY SOUL, TO JOYFUL LAYS, 276, 277 

AWAKED BY SINAl's AWFUL SOUND, 267 

BATTLE HYMN OF THE REPUBLIC, 34O, 343 

BEFORE Jehovah's awful throne, 40, 41 

BEGONE UNBELIEF, MY SAVIOUR IS NEAR, 203 

BEHOLD THE GLORIES OF THE LAMB, 42 

BEHOLD, THE STONE IS ROLLED AWAY, 45I 

BE THOU EXALTED, O MY GOD, 4O 

BE THOU, O GOD, EXALTED HIGH, Ill 

BEYOND THE SMILING AND THE WEEPING, 527 

BLEST BE THE TIE THAT BINDS, I32 

BLOW YE THE TRUMPET, BLOW, 395 

BREAD OF HEAVEN, ON THEE WE FEED, 489 

BRETHREN, WHILE WE SOJOURN HERE, 280 

BRIGHTLY BEAMS THE FATHEr's MERCY, 43I 

BUILD THEE MORE STATELY MANSIONS, 249 

BY COOL SILOAM's SHADY RILL, 318 

BY THE RUDE BRIDGE THAT ARCHED THE FLOOD, 339 

656 



INDEX OF HYMNS. 557 

calvary's blood the weak exalteth, 385 

child of sin and sorrow, 2z3 

christians, if your hearts are warm, 274, 275 

christ is our corner stone, 485 

CHRIST IS risen! CHRIST IS RISEn! 473 

CHRIST THE LORD IS RISEN TODAY, 474 

COME HITHER, ALL YE WEARY SOULS, 4O9 

COME HITHER, YE FAITHFUL, 459 

COME, HOLY GHOST, IN LOVE, 59 

COME, HOLY SPIRIT, HEAVENLY DOVE, 282 

COME HOME, COME HOME, 43O 

COME, LET US ANEW, 494 

COME, MY BRETHREN, LET US TRY, 279 

COME, SINNER, COME, 4I7 

COME, THOU FOUNT OF EVERY BLESSING, 283, 284 

COME, THOU HOLY SPIRIT, COME, 58 

COME TO JESUS JUST NOW, 29I 

COME UNTO ME WHEN SHADOWS, 2o8, 2O9 

COME, WE THAT LOVE THE LORD, 37> 38 

COME, YE DISCONSOLATE, 219, 220, 326 

COME, YE FAITHFUL, RAISE THE STAIN, 54 

COME, YK SINNERS, POOR AND NEEDY, 119 

COMMIT THOU ALL THY GRIEFS 84-85 

CROWN HIS HEAD WITH ENDLESS BLESSING, 30 

DAUGHTER OF ZION, FROM THE DUST, 486, 489 

DAY OF wrath! THAT DAY OF BURNING, 62-64 

DEAR JESUS, EVER AT MY SIDE, 3O2 

DEAR REFUGE OF MY WEARY SOUL, , I96 

DID CHRIST o'er SINNERS WEEP, 1 60, 161 

DIE FELDER WIR PFLUGEN, 478 

DIES IRAE, DIES ILLA, 62-64 

EARLY, MY GOD, WITHOUT DELAY, 35 

EARLY TO BEAR THE YOKE EXCELS, 4OI 

EIN FESTE BURG 1ST UNSER GOTT, 69 

ETERNAL FATHER, STRONG TO SAVE, 369 

FADING AWAY LIKE THE STARS, 309 

FATHER, WHATEVER OF EARTHLY BLISS, I96 

FEAR NOT, O LITTLE FLOCK, THE FOE, 82 

FIERCE RAGED THE TEMPEST, 372 

FIERCE WAS THE WILD BILLOW, 354 

FOREVER WITH THE LORD, 521 

FROM EVERY STORMY WIND, 222 

FROM Greenland's icy mountains, 178, 179 

FROM WHENCE DOTH THIS UNION ARISE, 263 

FULLY PERSUADED, 45I 

GAUDE, PLAUDE, MAGDALENA, 47» 



558 



STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 



GIVE ME MY SCALLOP-SHELL OF QUIET, 76 

GIVE TO THE WINDS THY FEARS, 88 

GLORIA, lii 

GLORY TO THEE, MY GOD, THIS NIGHT, Xvi, 16 

GOD BE WITH YOU TILL WE MEET, 496 

GOD BLESS OUR NATIVE LAND, 347, 348 

GOD CALUNG YET? lOZ, I03 

GOD IS THE REFUGE OF HIS SAINTS, I96 

GOD OF OUR FATHERS, KNOWN OF OLD, 349, 350 

god's furnace doth in ZION STAND, 89 

GREAT AUTHOR OF SALVATION, 398 

great god, we SING THAT MIGHTY HAND, 496 

GREAT GOD, WHAT DO I SEE AND HEAr! 7I 

GUIDE ME, O THOU GREAT JEHOVAH, I98, 399 

HAIL COLUMBIA, HAPPY LAND, 33I 

HAIL TO THE LORd's ANOINTED, I75 

HALLELUJAH ! 'tIS DONe! 422 

hark! hark, my soul! 524 

hark! the herald ANGELS SING, 463 

hark! what mean those holy VOICES, 464 

hasten, lord, the GLORIOUS TIME, 168 

HASTEN, SINNER, TO BE WISE, 4IO 

HE dies! the FRIEND OF SINNERS, 473 

HE LEADETH ME, 235, 236 

HERE AT THY TABLE, LORD, WE MEET, 24 

HERE BEHOLD THE TENT OF MEETING, 396 

HERE, O MY GOD, I SEE THEE, 49O 

HE rose! o MORN OF wonder! 477 

HIGH THE ANGEL CHOIRS ARE RAISING, 68 

HOLY, HOLY, HOLY, LORD GOD, 50> 5' 

HO, MY COMRADES, SEE THE SIGNAL, 424 

HORA NOVISSIMA, 51O 

HOW FIRM A FOUNDATION, 204, 2o6 

HOW HAPPY IS THE CHILD WHO HEARS, 297 

HOW HAPPY IS THE PILGRIM's LOT, 207 

HOW SWEETLY FLOWED THE GOSPEL SOUND, 98 

HOW SWEET, HOW HEAVENLY IS THE SIGHT, 281 

HOW SWEET THE COVENANT TO REMEMBER, 396 

HOW, UNAPPROACHEd! shall MIND OF MAN, 56 

HOW VAIN ARE ALL THINGS HERE BELOW, 45 

HOW VAST A TREASURE WE POSSESS, 43 

1 AM FAR FRAE MY HAME, 445 

1 AM SO GLAD THAT OUR FATHER, 319 

I CANNOT ALWAYS TRACE THE WAY 502 

IF I WERE A VOICE, 182 

IF THOU WOULDST END THE WORLD, 389 

IF YOU CANNOT ON THE OCEAN, 256-258 

« CAVE MY Urr FOR THEI, 154 



INDEX OF HYMNS. 559 



I HAVE A FATHtR, 305 

1 have read of a beautiful city, 45i 

i hear the saviour say, 426 

i heard the voice of jesus say, 225-227 

I'll cast my heavy burden down, 384 

i love thy kingdom, lord, i33 

i love to steal awhile away, 229, 23 i 

i love to tell the story, 429 

i\m a pilgrim, 278, 288 

i'm BUT A STRANGER HERE, 3OO, 3OI 

I'm GOING HOME, 29I 

i\m NOT ASHAMED, IO7 

IN DE DARK WOOD, 264 

IN EDEN, O THE MEMORy! 383 

I NEED THEE EVERY HOUR, I53 

IN SOME WAY OR OTHER, I48, I49 

IN THE BONDS OF DEATH HE LAY, 473 

IN THE CROSS OF CHRIST I GLORY, 97 

IN THE DEEP AND MIGHTY WATERS, 406 

IN THE WAVES AND MIGHTY WATERS, 4O5 

I OPEN MY EYES TO THIS VISION, 4O4 

IS THIS THE KIND RETURN? I08 

IT CAME UPON THE MIDNIGHT CLEAR, 466 

I THINK WHEN I READ THAT SWEET, 305 

IT MAY NOT BE OUR LOT TO WIELD, 25O 

IT WAS THE WINTER WILD, 460 

I WALKED IN THE WOODLAND MEADOWS, 25I, 2^Z 

I WILL SING YOU A SONG OF THAT, 532 

JERUSALEM THE GOLDEN, 509, 51I 

JESU, DULCIS MEMORIA, I OO 

JESUS' BLOOD CAN RAISE THE FEEBLE, 385 

JESUS, I LOVE THY CHARMING NAME, I16 

JESUS, I MY CROSS HAVE TAKEN, 221 

JESUS, KEEP ME NEAR THE CROSS, I56, 1 57 

JESUS, LOVER OF MY SOUL, 359~364 

JESUS MY ALL TO HEAVEN IS GONE, I26 

JESUS, SAVIOUR, PILOT ME, 373 

JESUS SHALL REIGN WHERe'eR THE SUN, 165 

JESUS, THE VERY THOUGHT OF THEE, lOO 

JESUS THE WATER OF LIFE WILL GIVE, 312 

JESUS, THY BLOOD AND RIGHTEOUSNESS, 9I 

JOHN Wesley's hymn, 209 

JOYFULLY, JOYFULLY ONWARD, 288-29O 

JOY TO THE world! THE LORD IS COME, 166, 463 

KEEP ME VERT NEAR TO JESUS, 4OO 

Keller's American hymn, 343, 345 

LAND ahead! the FRUITS ARE WAVING, 367 



56c 



STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 



LEAD, KINDLY LIGHT, 223 

LET PARTY NAMES NO MORE, 169 

LET TYRANTS SHAKE THEIR IRON ROD, 33I 

LET US GATHER UP THE SUNBEAMS, 317 

LET US SING OF THE SHEAVES, 479 

LIFE IS THE TIME TO SERVE THE LORD, 4O9 

LITTLE TRAVELLERS ZIONWARD, 299 

LO! A SAVIOUR FOR THE FALLEN, 4O4 

LO! HE COMES, WITH CLOUDS DESCENDING, 504 

Lo! ON A NARROW NECK OF LAND, Il8 

Lo! WHAT A GLORIOUS SIGHT APPEARS, 505 

LORD, HOW MYSTERIOUS ARE THY WAYS, I98 

LORD OF ALL BEING, THRONED AFAR, 52 

LORD, WITH GLOWING HEART i'd PRAISE, 49, 50 

LOVE DIVINE, ALL LOVES EXCELLING, 47j HI 

LOVE UNFATHOMED AS THE OCEAN, 4OI 

MAGDALENA, SHOUT FOR GLADNESS, 473 

MAGNIFICAT ANIMA MEA, xii, lO 

MAJESTIC SWEETNESS SITS ENTHRONED, 23 

MARSEILLAISE HYMN, I74, 329, 352 

MEIN JESU, WIE DU WILLST, 499 

MID SCENES OF CONFUSION, I34 

MINE EYES HAVE SEEN THE GLORY OF THE, 34I 

MOURNFULLY, TENDERLY BEAR ON THE DEAD, 245, 246 

MUST JESUS BEAR THE CROSS ALONE, 4H 

MY BROTHER, I WISH YOU WELL, 29O 

MY COUNTRY 'tIS OF THEE, 33^~3i^ 

MY GOD, HOW ENDLESS IS THY LOVE, IO5, I06 

MY GOD, I LOVE THEE, NOT BECAUSE 75 

MY GOD, IS ANY HOUR SO SWEET, 2I4 

MY GOD, MY FATHER, WHILE I STRAY, 2I4 

MY GOD, MY PORTION AND MY LOVE, 382 

MY GRACIOUS REDEEMER, I LOVE, I32 

MY HOPE IS BUILT ON NOTHING LESS, 2l6, 217 

MY JESUS, AS THOU WILT, 499, 5OO 

MY JESUS, I LOVE THEE, 162, 163 

MY LORD AND MY GOD, I HAVE TRUSTED, 77 

MY LORD, HOW FULL OF SWEET CONTENT, I90, I92 

MY SAVIOUR KEEPS ME COMPANY, 189 

MY SOUL, BEHOLD THE FITNESS, 397 

NEARER, MY GOD, TO THEE, I5O-I52 

NO CHANGE OF TIME SHALL EVER SHOCK, I93 

NOT ALL THE BLOOD OF BEASTS, 44 

NOW TO THE LORD A NOBLE SONG, 33 

O BLISS OF THE PURIFIED, 433 

O CANAAN, BRIGHT CANAAN, 273 

O CHURCH, ARISE AND SING, 186 

O COME, ALL YE FAITHFUL, 459 



INDEX OF HYMNS. 561 

O COULD 1 SPEAK THE MATCHLESS WORTH, I36 

O CROWN OF REJOICING, 45I 

ODE ON SCIENCE, 33O 

O DEUS, EGO AMO TE, 74 

O DO NOT BE DISCOURAGED, 298 

O'^ER ALL THE WAY GREEN PALMS, 47O 

o'er the gloomy HII.LS of DARKNESS, 166 

O FOR A CLOSER WALK WITH GOD, I29 

O FOR A THOUSAND TONGUES TO SING, 45, 46 

OFT IN DANGER, OFT IN WO, 366 

O GAULEE, SWEET GALILEE, 260, 319 

O HAD I TH E WINGS OF A DOVE, 4OO 

O HAPPY DAY THAT FIXED MY CHOICE 281 

O HAPPY SAINTS THAT DWELL IN LIGHT 122 

O HELP US, lord; each HOUR OF NEED, 278 

O HOW HAPPY ARE THEY, 281 

O HOW I LOVE JESUS, 29I 

O LITTLE TOWN OF BETHLEHEM, 468 

O LORD OF HOSTS, WHOSE GLORY FILLS, 485 

ONE MORE day's WORK FOR JESUS, 418 

ONE SWEETLY SOLEMN THOUGHT, 529 

ON jordan'stormy banks, 24 

ONLY REMEMBERED, 308 

ON THE MOUNTAIN TOP APPEARING I73 

onward, CHRISTIAN SOLDIERS, 185, 186 

ONWARD RIDE IN TRIUMPH, JESUS, 382 

o paradise! o paradise! 525 

O PERFECT LOVE, 504 

O SACRED HEAD, NOW WOUNDED, 86 

O SING TO ME OF HEAVEN, . 288 

O THE CLANGING BELLS OF TIME, 449 

O THE LAMB, THE LOVING LAMB, 27I 

O THINK OF THE HOME OVER THERE, 463 

O THOU IN WHOSE PRESENCE MY SOUL, 28l 

O THOU, MY SOUL, FORGET NO MORE, 492 

O THOU WHO DIDST PREPARE, 361 

O THOU WHO DRy'sT THE MOURNER's TEAR, 244 

O THOU WHOSE TENDER MERCY HEARS, 198 

O TURN YE, O TURN YE, FOR WHY, 29I 

OUR LORD HAS GONE UP ON HIGH, 473 

O WHEN SHALL I SEE JESUS, 276 

O WHERE SHALL REST BE FOUND, I45 

O WHY SHOULD THE SPIRIT OF MORTAL, 238 

O WORSHIP THE KING ALL GLORIOUS ABOVE, 2Z 



PARTED MANY A TOIL-SPENT YEAR, 267 

PATIENTLY ENDURING, 443 

PEACE, TROUBLED SOUL, WHOSE PLAINTIVE, 202 

PEOPLE OF THE LIVING GOD, 1 44 

PILGRIMS WE ARE TO ZION BOUND, 281 



562 



STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 



PORTALS OF LIGHT, 443 

PRAISE GOD FROM WHOM ALL BLESSINGS, I3 

FULL FOR THE SHORE, 372 

REJOICE AND BE GIj\D, 4I5 

RESCUE THE PERISHING, 425 

REVIVE THY WORK, O LORD, 445 

RISE, CROWNED WITH LIGHT, 238 

RISE, MY SOUL, AND STRETCH THY WINGS, 94 

ROCK OF AGES, CLEFT FOR ME, I37 

SAFE IN THE ARMS OF JESUS, 54O 

SANCTIFY, O LORD, MY SPIRIT, 405 

SAVIOUR, LIKE A SHEPHERD LEAD US, 3IO 

SAVIOUR, THY DYING LOVE, I47 

SCATTER SEEDS OF KINDNESS, 317 

SCOTS WHA HAE WI WALLACE BLED, 335, 352 

SEE GENTLE PATIENCE SMILE ON PAIN, IO4 

SEND THY SPIRIT, I BESEECH THEE, 406 

SERVANT OF GOD, WELL DONE, 498 

SHEPHERD OF TENDER YOUTH, 293-296 

SHOW PITY, LORD, O LORD FORGIVE, 44 

SH RINKING FROM THE COLD HAND OF DEATH, 52O 

SINCE JESUS TRULY DID APPEAR, 503 

SISTER, THOU WAST MILD AND LOVELY, 498 

SO FADES THE LOVELY, BLOOMING FLOWER, IO4, 1 98, 498 

SOFTLY FADES THE TWIUGHT RAY, 484 

SOFTLY NOW THE LIGHT OF DAY, 483 

SOON MAY THE LAST GLAD SONG ARISE, I73 

SOUND THE LOUD TIMBREL, 326, 327 

SPEAK, O SPEAK, THOU GENTLE JESUS, 386 

SPEED AWAY, SPEED AWAY, 184 

SPIRIT OF GRACE AND LOVE DIVINE, 4O3 

stand! the ground's YOUR OWN, 335 

STAR-SPANGLED BANNER, 49, 333~335 

STILL, STILL WITH THEE, 481 

SUN OF MY SOUL, MY SAVIOUR DEAR, I59 

SUNSET AND EVENING STAR, 535 

SUR NOS CHEMINS LES RAMEAUX, 47O 

SWEET HOUR OF PRAYER, 432 

SWEET IS THE DAY OF SACRED REST, 488 

SWEET IS THE LIGHT OF SABBATH EVE, 488 

SWEET IS WORK, MY GOD, MY KING, 37 

SWEET IS THE WORK, O LORD, 168 

SWEET THE MOMENTS, RICH IN BLESSING, I27 

TAKE ME AS I AM, O SAVIOUR, 384 

TE DEUM LAUDAMUS, I 

TELL ME NOT IN MOURNFUL NUMBERS, 248 

TELL ME THE OLD, OLD STORY, 427 

THE BANNER OF IMMANUEL, 188,189 



INDEX OF HYMNS. 563 



THE BIRD LET LOOSE IN EASTERN SKIES, 244 

THE BREAKING WAVES DASHED HIGH, 323 

THE chariot! THE CHARIOt! 278 

THE DAY IS PAST AND GONE, 275 

THE DAY OF RESSURRECTION, 54, 55 

THE EDEN OF LOVE, 272 

THE GLORY IS COMING, GOD SAID IT, 4OO 

THE GOD OF ABRAHAM PRAISE, 18 

THE GOD OF HARVEST PRAISE, 481 

THE HARP THAT ONCE THRO TARA's HALL, 326, 328 

THE HEIGHTS OF FAIR SALEM ASCENDED, 403 

THE LORD DESCENDED FROM ABOVE, I5 

THE LORD INTO HIS GARDEN COMES, 277 

THE LORD IS RISEN INDEED, 475 

THE LORD OUR GOD IS CLOTHED WITH MIGHT, 366 

THE MORNING LIGHT IS BREAKING, I79, 180 

THE OCEAN HATH NO DANGER, 37I 

THE PRIZE IS SET BEFORE US, 449 

THE SANDS OF TIME ARE SINKING, 78 

THE TURF SHALL BE MY FRAGRANT SHRINE, 244 

THE WORLD IS VERY EVIL, 5IO 

THERE ARE LONELY HEARTS TO CHERISH, 312 

THERE IS A CALM FOR THOSE WHO WEEP, 499, 52I 

THERE IS A GREEN HILL FAR AWAY, 4I4 

THERE IS A HAPPY LAND, 304 

there's a LAND THAT IS FAIRER THAN DAY, 532 

there's a WIDENESS IN god's MERCY, 233,234 

THERE WERE NINETY AND NINE, 422 

they that DWELL UPON THE DEEP, 353 

THINE EARTHLY SABBATHS, LORD, WE LOVE, , . 488 

THOU ART, O GOD, THE LIFE AND LIGHT, 244 

THOU DEAR REDEEMER, DYING LAMB, I24 

THOU LOVELY SOURCE OF TRUE DELIGHT, I98 

THROW OUT THE LIFE-LINE, 374~377 

'tis finished! so THE SAVIOUR CRIED, 24 

*TIS RELIGION THAT CAN GIVE, 3O3 

TO CHRIST THE LORD LET EVERY TONGUE, 25 

TO GOD THE FATHER, GOD THE SON, 1 4 

TO LEAVE MY DEAR FRIENDS, AND FROM NEIGHBORS, I46 

TO THE WORK, TO THE WORk! 438 

TOO late! TOO l.\te! 259 

TRIUMPHANT ZION, LIFT THY HEAD, 519 

ULTIMA THULE, 32O 

UNDER THE PALMS, 254 

UNNUMBERED ARE THE MARVELS, 4O2 

UNTO THY PRESENCE COMING, 392 

UNVEIL THY BOSOM FAITHFUL TOMB, 44, 498 

UP AND AWAY LIKE THE DEW, 308 

URBS 5I0N AUREA, 509, 5II 



564 



STORY OF THE HYMNS AND TUNES. 



VENI, SANCTF. SPIRITUS, 57, 58 

VERZAGE NICHT, DU HAUFLEIN KLEIN, §2 

VITAL SPARK OF HEAVENLY FLAME, 515 

WATCHMAN, TELL US OF THE NIGHT, I7O 

Wr; ARE ON OUR JOURNEY HOME, 4I7 

WELCOME, DELIGHTFUL MORN, 488 

WE PLOW THE FIELDS AND SCATTER, 478 

WE PRAISE THEE, O GOD, FOR THE SON, 416 

WE SAT DOWN AND WEPT BY THE WATERS, 24I 

WE SHALL MEET BEYOND THE RIVER, 528 

WE SPEAK OF THE LAND OF THE BLEST, 307 

WESTWARD THE COURSE OF EMPIRE, 324 

WHAT A FRIEND WE HAVE IN JESUS, 425 

WHAT SHALL A DYING SINNER DO, 43 

WHAT SHALL THE HARVEST BE, 434 

WHAT VARIOUS HINDRANCES WE MEET, I3I 

WHEN ALL THY MERCIES, O MY GOD, II3 

WHEN FOR ETERNAL WORLDS I STEER, 286 

WHEN HE COMETH, WHEN HE COMETH, 3I4 

WHEN I CAN READ MY TITLE CLEAR, 43, 514 

WHEN GATHERING CLOUDS AROUND I VIEW, 212 

WHEN ISRAEL OF THE LORD BELOVED, 24O 

WHEN I SURVEY THE WONDROUS CROSS, 42, I09 

WHEN LANGUOR AND DISEASE INVADE, I37 

WHEN MARSHALLED ON THE NIGHTLY PLAIN, 364 

WHEN MY FINAL FAREWELL TO THE WORLD, 441,442 

WHEN OUR HEADS ARE BOWED WITH WO, 278 

WHEN PEACE LIKE A RIVER, 44O 

WHEN SHALL WE ALL MEET AGAIN, 265, 266 

WHEN TWO OR THREE WITH SWEET ACCORD, 24 

WHERE IS MY WAND'rING BOY TO-NIGHT? 446 

WHERE NOW ARE THE HEBREW CHILDREN ? 27O 

WHILE JESUS WHISPERS TO YOU, 418 

WHILE SHEPHERDS WATCHED THEIR FLOCKS, 465 

WHILE THEE I SEEK, PROTECTING POWER, 207 

WHILE WITH CEASELESS COURSE THE SUN, 493 

WHY SHOULD WE START AND FEAR TO DIE, 512 

WIDE, YE HEAVENLY GATES UNFOLD, 1 68 

WITH JOY WE HAIL THE SACRED DAY, 168 

WITH SONGS AND HONORS SOUNDING LOUD, 479 

WITH TEARFUL EYES I LOOK AROUND, 2I4 

YE CHOIRS OF NEW JERUSALEM, 59» ^ 

YE CHRISTIAN HERALDS, GO PROCLAIM, I7I, I?* 

YE CHRISTIAN HEROES, WAKE TO GLORY, 174 

YE GOLDEN LAMPS OF HEAVEN, FAREWELL, 5^9 

YE SERVANTS OF GOD, YOUR MASTER PROCLAIM, 204 

TES, MY NATIVE LAND, I LOVE THEE, 1 80 

TES, THE REDEEMER ROSE, 47^ 

yOUR HARPS, YE TREMBLING SAINTS, 5'7 



\ 



A HARMONY of the GOSPELS 

in the tt)ords of the 

fetanbarb American iRebfeeb JBftle 

"By 
RE:V. JOHN H. KEIRR, D.D. 

Author of "Introduction to New Teitament Study" 
xxiii. 236 Pages Sm. 4to., cloth Price, $1.00 



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" A creditable piece of work. The mechanical arrange- 
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" This Harmony will take its place among the best of the 
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" Admirable for the use of thorough-going Bible students." 
— Christian Endeavor World. 



A History of American Revivals 

By 
FRANK GRENVILLE BEARDSLEY, S.T.D. 

I2MO, 324 Pages, Cloth Prick, $1.50 



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of church history will welcome." — Pacific Presbyterian. 



The Teachings of Jesus 

A Series of Volumes by 
EMINENT AUTHORS AND DIVINES 

JOHN H. KERR, D.D., General Editor 



12mo. 75c. each po^paid 



The Teaching of Jesus Concerniirg 

J. HIS OWN MISSION Frank H, Foster 

" A wonderfully interesting, suggpestive and stimulating book." 

—Baptist Teacher. 

2. THE KINGDOM OF GOD AND THE CHURCH 

Geerha.rdus Vos 

"A scholarly volume, well expressed and worthy of profound 
consideration." —The Examiner. 

3. GOD THE FATHER A. T, Robertson 

"A fresh, reverent and strong presentation of the vital theme." 

—Louisville Courier-Journal. 

4. THE SCRIPTURES D^'oid J, Burrell 

"A thoughtful book by an able writer on a timely topic." 

—Christian Instructor. 

5. CHRISTIAN CONDUCT Andrew C, Zenos 

"A very helpful and practical discussion." 

-^Religious Telescope. 

6. THE HOLY SPIRIT Louis B. CrsLne 

"The book aids us to a lofty and true estimate of the Holy 
Spirit." —Christian Nation. 



7. THE CHRISTIAN LIFE G, B, K Hsittock 

"Sound, scriptural, full of common sense, plain and practical." 

—Herald and Presbyter. 

8. THE FUTURE LIFE Willis J, Beecher 

"The book is clear, simple, scholarly." 

—Cumberlattd Presbyterian. 

9. HIS OWN PERSON WayUnd Hoyt (In preparation) 
JO. JESUS THE TEACHER {Author to be announced) 



THE NEW TESTAMENT 

With Notes 

REVISED POCKET EDITION 

Printed on fine, thin paper, bound in leather, divinity circuit, red under 
gold edge*. Size, 5 ^ x 3^ x ^ inches. Price, $ 1 .00 Poftpaid 



•* This is a very handsome Testament, clear type, copious 
and comprehensive notes, bound in limp leather." — Christian 
Union Herald. 

** A want is felt for a New Testament that can be carried 
in the pocket and at the same time contains helps. This book 
is printed in clear type, with references and comprehensive 
notes covering about half of each page. At the beginning of 
each book is a short introduction to the same. A synopsis of 
Kerr's Harmony of the Gospels, a chronological table of the 
whole Bible, a table of weights and measures, and the heights 
of sacred localities are also given." — Christian Nation. 

'* The notes in this edition are exceedingly clear and 
pointed. They go right to the root of the matter. They are 
brief, and yet full of thought and information." — Christian 
Observer. 

*' We know of no book which is more worthy of a popular 
reception than this beautiful Testament. It contains, ready to 
hand, much of the material needed in reading the Bible." — 
Christian Press. 

"Among the features of this work which are worthy of 
special mention, are the references, the notes, and the instruc- 
tions. There is nothing of more importance in careful Bible 
study than the comparing of Scripture with Scripture. The 
explanatory notes are brief and comprehensive. The instruc- 
tions given at the close of each chapter are full of suggestive- 
ness, and serve admirably both as helps to devotional reading 
and as hints for pastor or teacher in the exposition of the text. 
The brief yet comprehensive introductions to the books are 
very valuable." — Methodist Recorder. 

"The text is the authorized version, with the usual head- 
ings and references, but contains introductions to the several 
books and explanatory footnotes on the separate verses, with a 
group of instructions at the close of each chapter. The plan 
has been consistently and carefully executed. The volume is 
of convenient size and of typographical excellence." — Sunday 
School Times. 



The Young Convert's Problems 

And Their Solution 

-By 

A. C. DIXON. D.D. 

Author of "Evangelism Old and New" 



" The charm of this book is not alone that it raises questions which 
arise, but that it raises questions which might not arise, until one had 
fallen too deeply into blunders and sins."— Christtan Intelligencer. 

"This little book is as good for old converts as it is for young 
onQ%y— Western Recorder. 

"Just the sort of a book to put into the hands of a young Christian." 
—Lutheran Observer. 

" The book sparkles from beginning to end, and there is not a dull 
page in it."— Baptist and Reflector. 

" Its suggestions are based on the wide experience of a wise leader 
of the yonngy— Reformed Ch. Messenger. 

" Dr. Dixon is always fresh, vigorous and suggestive, and seldom has 
he been more so than in this little \o\vt.va&. "—Christian Union Herald. 

"Especially to be commended because it is thoroughly biblical." — 
The Watchword. 

"The young convert who follows these excellent counsels will not 
go wrong,"— ^/(?«'^ Herald. 

"The treatment is plain and sensible."— Ca«a^/a« Baptist. 

"A practical and timely little volume, whose perusal will prove 
very helpful."— 6''«//^^ Presbyterian. 

"As well calculated to aid the young Christian as anything of the 
kind we have found."— ^/. Louis Christian Advocate. 

"The illustrative anecdotes make doubly sure the reading of the 
bo<3k by those for whom it is designed."— /'ac?)?^ Baptist. 

"Wise words from a proved winner of souls."— A'^. Y. Observer. 

12mo. Cloth. X. 93 pages. 50 Cents 

special rates in quantities. Write for prices 



'By the Same Author: 

EVANGELISM OLD AND NEW 

12mo. Cloth, xiii. 209 pages. $1.00 

*'This book will teach how to win souls." 

Sent postpaid on receipt of price 



WHITE, FIRE, 



BY 



JOHN OXENHAM 



12mo. 366 pages. 16 illustrations, $1.25 



"Among the books of the season it stands alone for 
actuality of interest and the play of thrilling adventure." — 
British Weekly. 

" A story that will engross readers who care nothing for 
missions." — Literary World. 

"The story sets forth situations in which strong souls 
fired with great and lofty purposes go through peril and 
sacrifice to accomplish their noble ends. It is an appealing 
story." — Michigan Christian Advocate. 

*' Told with an amount of fire and energy which compels 
the reader's attention and makes this one of the best of recent 
novels." — Morning Post. 

" If there is one purpose uppermost in the book, it is to 
set forth the truth that a great enthusiasm is the mightiest 
force in the world." — Religious Telescope. 

*' ' The white fire of a great enthusiasm is the mightiest 
force in the world.' This quotation upon the title page of 
John Oxenham's missionary story of the South Seas explains 
its ruling thought." — Pacific Baptist. 

"Not a dull chapter." — Baptist Argus. 

"'White Fire' is a missionary story, but not of the 
mawkish sort. It is suffused with a manly, healthy, practical 
spirit. The reader finds himself all too soon at the end of an 
entrancing tale." — Scotsman. 

" The story is full of stirring adventure, warm human 
interest, and picturesque description." — Church Times. 



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